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Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. DEVELOPING BALANCED ASSESSMENT SYSTEMS February 28, 2011 Lexington, KY.

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1 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. DEVELOPING BALANCED ASSESSMENT SYSTEMS February 28, 2011 Lexington, KY

2 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Welcome Workshop Goals Analyze the conditions needed for designing balanced, high-quality assessment systems Examine seven assessment actions you must take to make this vision a reality Begin a self-study for your school, district, or organization to see if you have taken those seven assessment actions Consider points for implementation

3 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Agenda Welcome and Introductions Evolution of Schools in Society A Vision of Excellence in Assessment The Journey to Excellence: Seven Assessment Actions Action Planning for Excellence

4 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. World Is Changing at an Incredible Speed Digital speed and innovative technology are affecting every aspect of our lives –Communication –Economies –Information –Occupations/Professions –Family life –Learning

5 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Today’s Elementary Students Will Retire Around the Year 2067 What will their world look like? What will prepare them for a world that we cannot even imagine?

6 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. What Students Will Need to Know and Do for the 21 st Century Think critically Communicate effectively Identify and solve problems that have had no prior solutions Based on the work of T. Wagner, K. Robinson, E. Galinsky & D. Tapscott. Wagner, T. (2008).The global achievement gap-Why even our best schools don't teach the new survival skills our children need and what we can do about it. New York, NY : Basic Books. Robinson, K. (2009). The element. New York, NY: Viking (Penguin Group) Galinsky, E. (2010). Mind in the making - The seven essential life skills every child needs. New York, NY : HarperCollins. Tapscott, D. (2009). Grown up digital - how the net generation is changing your world. New York, NY : McGraw Hill.

7 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. What Students Will Need to Know and Do for the 21 st Century Access information through multiple venues Be able to analyze that information for substance, use, and authenticity Based on the work of T. Wagner, K. Robinson, W. Bennis, T. Friedman, and others

8 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. What Students Will Need to Know and Do for the 21 st Century Work collaboratively Lead through influence Be creative and innovative Be adaptive to change Based on the work of T. Wagner, K. Robinson, W. Bennis, T. Friedman, and others

9 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Whether students choose to go to post-secondary training/school or not, they must leave with the skills and knowledge required to do well in those institutions. Our prosperity depends on it...

10 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Schools for the Future? Can our schools continue to be what they have always been and still prepare our students for an ever- changing world?

11 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. “Indeed, the single most common source of leadership failure we’ve been able to identify—in politics, community life, business, or the non-profit sector—is that people, especially those in positions of authority, treat adaptive challenges like technical problems.” Source: Heifetz and Linsky (2002). Leadership on the line. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, p. 14.

12 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. BIG Change in the Social Mission of Schools: Old vision Problem New vision Weed out the unwilling or unable; rank the rest Society needs ALL students to be lifelong learners All become readers, writers, math problem solvers; then rank them too

13 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Change in the Process of Mission Fulfillment: Old vision Problem New vision Create artificial scarcity of success—promote competition Society needs academic success for all learners All students must meet rigorous standards; all ready for college & workplace

14 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Change in Student Motivators: Old vision Problem New vision Guarantee some losers; build anxiety as the sorting variable Losers give up and don’t become lifelong learners Rely on continuous academic success to build confidence

15 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Change in Faculty Motivators: Old vision Problem New vision Rely on the intimidation of accountability Faculties (teachers) can give up in hopelessness Promise success for faculties who strive for it in productive ways

16 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. So, We Need to Rethink: Gap is between those who meet and don’t meet standards Social priority: All students must meet standards Assessment, as previously conceived and conducted, has sustained the gap Nevertheless, assessment can become the most powerful narrower

17 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. A New Vision of Excellence in Assessment Balanced assessment systems Quality assessments Productive assessment dynamics

18 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Mapping the Journey to Excellence in Assessment

19 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Seven Essential Assessment Actions for School Leaders

20 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Essential Actions 1.Balance assessment systems 2.Refine achievement standards 3.Ensure assessment quality 4.Help learners become assessors 5.Build communication systems 6.Motivate with learning success 7.Ensure assessment literacy

21 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. For Each Action: Enduring belief to abandon Replacement belief Rationale for the change Achievement gap implications Locus of productive action

22 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Assessment Balance and Quality: An Action Guide for School Leaders Part 1: Laying the Foundation, p. 1 Part 2: Building the Vision, p. 11 Part 3: The Path—7 Actions Self-study, p. 41 Part 4: Required Skills for Assessment Balance and Quality, p. 95 Part 5: Planning for Action, p. 199 CD-ROM/DVD, p. 227 (All of the guide’s activities, action planning templates, DBAS presentation

23 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Action 1 Balance Assessment Mistaken belief New perspective Rationale Achievement gap Productive action Annual standardized tests = good schools Annual, interim, and classroom balance = good schools KEY decisions at all levels

24 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Assessment Results Inform Decisions What decisions? Who’s making them? What information will be helpful to them?

25 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Balanced Assessment Systems Meet the Info Needs of All Users: In the classroom With interim/benchmark assessments With annual testing

26 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Balanced Assessment Systems SUPPORT LEARNING Assessments FOR Learning –How can we use the assessment process & results to help students learn more? CERTIFY LEARNING Assessments OF Learning –How much have students learned as of a particular point in time?

27 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Classroom Level Support Learning Continuous For practice Inform student and teacher Progress toward each relevant standard Certify Learning Periodic For accountability Inform teacher To assign report card grades or report standards mastered

28 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Interim/Benchmark Level Support Learning Periodic ID struggling learners ID standards our students struggle to master For immediate faculty & program improvement Certify Learning Periodic Evaluate program effectiveness: decide to continue or discontinue a particular program

29 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Annual Testing Support Learning Once a year ID standards student struggle to master Improve program next year Certify Learning Once a year To hold schools accountable for learning

30 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Action 1 Balance Assessment Mistaken belief New perspective Rationale Achievement gap Productive action Annual tests = good schools Balanced assessment = good schools Key decisions at all levels Classroom helps all, with largest gains for struggling learners; formative interim helps too

31 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. If assessment isn’t working productively day to day in the classroom during the learning—if bad decisions are made based on inaccurate evidence due to inept assessment—the other levels can’t overcome the problems for the learner...

32 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 1/2 to 3/4 standard deviation with largest gains for struggling learners Black & Wiliam, 1998 Expected Achievement Gain:

33 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. High-Impact Practices Increased classroom assessment quality (accuracy) Increased descriptive feedback, reduced evaluative feedback Increased student self-assessment Increased opportunities for students to communicate about their evolving learning during the teaching

34 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Action 1 Balance Assessment Mistaken belief New perspective Rationale Achievement gap Productive action Annual tests = good schools Annual, interim, classroom uses Key decisions at all levels Classroom helps all—but struggling learners most Only local districts can create balanced assessment systems

35 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Essential Questions: How do you close the achievement gap without balanced and quality classroom assessment effectively used to support learning? Is your assessment system in balance? pp

36 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Thoughts from the trenches All are aware of differences in assessment purpose and use Students are critical users of assessment Comprehensive assessment system/plan Supportive policies Info Management System for all users Community is on board Inventory of assessments to ascertain balance

37 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. The Relationship of Leadership Competencies to the Seven Actions Action #1Leadership Competency Activities Balance Assessment Systems #1 Understands attributes of balance and the conditions required to achieve it Activities 1, 2, 3 —vision; 4, 6 & 7 – assessment audit

38 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Action 2 Refine Standards Mistaken belief New perspective Rationale Achievement gap Productive action State standards suffice Refinement is essential

39 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Clear Learning Targets Start with state and local standards Arrayed in learning progressions Each deconstructed into scaffolding (local curriculum maps)

40 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Clear Learning Targets Start with state and local standards Arrayed in learning progressions Each deconstruct into scaffolding (local curriculum maps) Transformed into student-friendly versions

41 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Action 2 Refine Standards Mistaken belief New perspective Rationale Achievement gap Productive action Federal/state standards suffice No! They require refinement Need to define differences to accommodate them Can adjust instruction to meet different student needs Local districts must refine standards, deconstruct, and transform to student-friendly versions

42 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Clear Targets Targets must be clear to the teacher and to the student. Targets mastered by teachers who must teach them. There are different kinds of targets. Our assignments and assessments must reflect the targets our students had (or will have) opportunity to learn.

43 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Converting Learning Targets to Student-Friendly Language 1.Identify important or difficult learning goal. 2.Identify word(s) needing clarification. 3.Define the word(s). 4.Rewrite the definition as an “I can” statement, in terms that your students will understand. 5.Try it out and refine as needed. 6.Have students try this process.

44 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Summarize Text Word to be defined: SUMMARIZE –To give a brief statement of the main points, main events, or important ideas Student-friendly language: –I can summarize text. –This means I can make a short statement of the main points or the big ideas of what I read.

45 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Example Kentucky’s work in deconstructing standards Milwaukee Public Schools Map of Achievement Expectations, pp. 8-9

46 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Essential Questions How do you close the achievement gap without a vision of the continuum upon which the gap exists? Are your learning targets in good order? pp

47 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Thoughts from the trenches Refine our standards, align with local/state standards, have identified our highest-priority standards.

48 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Criteria for Selecting High-Priority Learning Outcomes The standard is critical for students to learn as part of the discipline Centers on what truly is important, not what is the easiest to measure or teach

49 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Criteria for Selecting High-Priority Learning Outcomes Is steeped in the best thinking of leading experts in the field Represents the “heart of the discipline”

50 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Criteria for Selecting High-Priority Learning Outcomes The standard must be essential for the success of students in their work and schooling after graduation

51 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Criteria for Selecting High-Priority Learning Outcomes The standard is a prerequisite for other essential standards in later grades or courses

52 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Criteria for Selecting High-Priority Learning Outcomes Fits into a continuously progressing curriculum that guides instruction across grade levels

53 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Criteria for Selecting High-Priority Learning Outcomes The standard is a more all- inclusive standard under which other standards can be subsumed

54 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. What does it mean to think and act like a mathematician, an historian, a scientist? What does it mean to perform as an artist, a musician, a communicator, a writer?

55 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. “In light of the fundamental changes that have taken place in our society in the last 25 years, what does it mean to be an educated adult in the twenty- first century? What do we think all high school graduates need to know and be able to do to be well-prepared for college, careers, and citizenship? And since we can’t teach everything, what is most important?” Tony Wagner, The Global Achievement Gap

56 Standard/Benchmark: Produce writing to communicate with different audiences for a variety of purposes. Type:  Product  Skill  Reasoning  Knowledge Learning Targets What are the knowledge, reasoning, skill or product targets underpinning the standard or benchmark? Product TargetsSkill TargetsReasoning TargetsKnowledge Targets Writes a personal narrative on an event that made an impact on one’s life Uses good handwriting so others can read one’s writing Uses word processing Accesses a variety of resources for drafting revising, and editing one’s writing Determines audience and purpose for writing Selects ideas that are interesting to self and the reader Organizes words, sentences and paragraphs to make ideas clear… Etc. Describe the elements of a narrative piece of writing Identify the six traits of quality writing: ideas, organization, word choice, sentence fluency, voice, and conventions Etc. 7 th Grade

57 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Thoughts from the trenches Assessment results linked back to the content standards Student- and family-friendly versions of the targets Masters of the content expected to teach

58 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Thoughts from the trenches Understanding of the curricular documents; time to collaboratively plan lessons; model/sample lessons and assessments available and used for PD Consistency in achievement expectations across classrooms; teachers held accountable for teaching the written curriculum

59 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. The Relationship of Leadership Competencies to the Seven Actions Action #2Leadership Competency Activities Refine achievement standards #2 Understands the need for clear standards, aligned classroom targets, & the relationship to quality assessments Activities 8 – vision of a standards- based school 9- Implem. the curric; 10- deconstructing the standards

60 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Action 3 Ensure Local Assessment Quality Mistaken beliefs New perspective Rationale Achievement gap Productive action Assessments are sound Quality doesn’t matter Accuracy is essential

61 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Design Features Select a proper method Build with quality ingredients Sample appropriately Prevent bias

62 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Action 3 Ensure Local Assessment Quality Mistaken beliefs New perspective Rationale Achievement gap Productive action Assessments are sound Quality doesn’t matter Accuracy is essential They inform key decisions We can differentiate needs Only teachers can assure the quality of their own assessments—but they need leadership support!

63 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. PURPOSE TARGET ACCURACYEFFECTIVE USE STUDENT INVOLVEMENT DESIGN EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION

64 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Key 1: Clear Purpose Who’s going to use the information? How will they use it? Do our assessment practices meet students’ information needs?

65 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Key 2: Clear Targets Are our targets clear to us? Are they clear to our students? Can we identify what kinds of targets we have? Do our assignments and assessments reflect the targets students had the opportunity to learn?

66 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Key 3: Sound Design Have we selected the proper assessment method for the learning targets we are teaching? Do our assessments sample the learning appropriately? Are the items, tasks, and scoring guides of high quality? Have we controlled for bias in the results?

67 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Key 4: Effective Communication Formative assessment –Do formative assessment results function as effective feedback? –Are students engaged in communicating about their evolving learning? Summative assessment –Do our grades communicate accurately? –Can we interpret and use standardized test results accurately?

68 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Key 5: Student Involvement Where am I going? –Do students have a clear vision of the intended learning? Where am I now? –Do students receive and offer effective feedback? –Are students able to self-assess and set goals on the basis of their assessments? How can I close the gap? –Do students have opportunities to engage in further learning before the graded events? –Do they track, reflect on, and share their progress?

69 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Target X Method Match + PRODUCT ++ SKILLS ++++ REASON +?++ KNOW PCPAEWRSR

70 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Essential Questions How do you close the achievement gap without dependable data upon which to differentiate instruction for students with different needs? Do all of your local assessments yield dependable evidence? p. 17

71 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Thoughts from the trenches Applying the criteria to judge the quality of all assessments Accurate assessments needed for grades and for decisions made about students Assessment target/method match Conducted an evaluation of the quality of all of our assessments including interim and common assessments if used

72 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. The Relationship of Leadership Competencies to the Seven Actions Action #3Leadership Competency Activities Ensure assessment quality #1, 2 and 3 – Understands the standards of quality; helps teachers learn to assess accurately and ensures that these standards are met … Activities 11- Indicators of sound classroom assessment pract. 12— Analysis for Targets;

73 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Action 4 Help Learners Become Assessors Mistaken belief New perspective Rationale Achievement gap Productive action Adults assess students Students assess themselves too

74 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Essential New Belief What STUDENTS think about and do with assessment results is as important as what adults think about and do with them.

75 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Students get to make their data-based instructional decisions FIRST!

76 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Students Decide: Can I learn this or am I just too slow, dense... stupid? Is the learning worth the energy I must expend to attain it? Is trying to learn worth the risk that I might fail... again... in public?

77 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. If students make productive decisions, then AND ONLY THEN do we get to help them learn by making our data- based instructional decisions count.

78 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. How can we help our students make the right decisions that will lead to productive learning? Assessment for Learning

79 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Principles of Assessment for Learning Help students understand what good work looks like from the outset. Help them learn to compare their work to that standard of excellence and see the differences. Help them learn to close the gap between the two.

80 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Action 4 Help Learners Become Assessors Mistaken belief New perspective Rationale Impact on gap Productive action Adults assess students Students assess themselves too Profound gains result Gains for all; largest gains are for low achievers Only teachers can involve students during their learning— but they need leadership support

81 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Assessment for Learning: Formative assessment practices that include the student as crucial decision-maker

82 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. What are students’ information needs? What formative assessment practices address those needs?

83 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Student Needs Know what high-quality work looks like Be able to objectively compare their work to the standard Have a store of tactics to make work better Sadler, 1989

84 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Assessment for learning meets students’ information needs: Where am I going? Where am I now? How can I close the gap?

85 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Assessment for Learning Strategies Where am I going? 1.Provide a clear statement of the learning target 2.Use examples and models Where am I now? 3.Offer regular descriptive feedback 4.Teach students to self-assess and set goals How can I close the gap? 5.Design focused lessons 6.Teach students focused revision 7.Engage students in self-reflection; let them keep track of and share their learning

86 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Activity Directions: Assign one of the seven strategies to each person at your table. Review the explanation of your assigned strategy. Be ready to explain the key idea of your strategy and how it addresses the key question. Share your explanation with your table.

87 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Assessment for Learning Strategies Where am I going? 1.Provide a clear statement of the learning target 2.Use examples and models Where am I now? 3.Offer regular descriptive feedback 4.Teach students to self-assess and set goals How can I close the gap? 5.Design focused lessons 6.Teach students focused revision 7.Engage students in self-reflection; let them keep track of and share their learning

88 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Essential Questions How do you close the achievement gap when low achievers are consistently making counterproductive instructional decisions? Are your students being helped to make productive decisions? p. 18

89 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Thoughts from the trenches All from the boardroom to the classroom embrace the idea of AFL Assessment info drives daily decision making on instruction in the classroom Learning expectations communicated in student-friendly language Design assessments so students can self- assess and set goals

90 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. The Relationship of Leadership Competencies to the Seven Actions Action #4Leadership Competency Activities Use assessment for learning strategies #1 – 3 and 4— Knows assessment for learning practices and works with staff to integrate them into classroom instruction Activities 13— Student friendly lang., 14—AFL Self- evaluation

91 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Action 5 Build Communication Systems to Report and Support Learning Mistaken belief New perspective Rationale Achievement gap Productive action Grades and test scores work as feedback to support learning THEY DO NOT; descriptive feedback supports learning

92 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Communication That Supports Learning Focuses on students’ work, not students as learners Is descriptive, helping students see how to do better Is clearly understood by all users Is sufficiently detailed—it is informing but not overwhelming Is timely to inform and help

93 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Action 5 Build Communication Systems to Report and Support Learning Mistaken belief New perspective Rationale Achievement gap Productive action Grades and scores support Descriptive feedback does Profound gains result

94 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Hattie & Temperly, 2007 Expected Achievement Gain 0.8 st. dev. when principles of effective communication are applied consistently

95 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Action 5 Build Communication Systems to Report and Support Learning Mistaken belief New perspective Rationale Achievement gap Productive action Grades and scores work Use descriptive feedback Profound gains result Largest gains for strugglers Only teachers can balance descriptive and judgmental feedback—but they need support

96 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. “(F)eedback is not always or even usually successful. Kluger & De Nisi’s (1996) meta-analysis cautions that in one third of studies feedback worsens performance... In one third of comparisons there is no difference in outcomes with and without feedback. Only in one third of studies... did feedback consistently improve performance.” Shepard, 2008, pp

97 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Feedback With a partner, review what you know to be feedback that supports learning.

98 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Feedback that Supports Learning Focuses on attributes of the work rather than on attributes of the student Is descriptive of the work; how to do better Clearly understood by the user Is sufficiently detailed to be helpful, but does not overwhelm Arrives in time to inform the learning Chappuis, 2009

99 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Sound Grading Practices With a partner, brainstorm what you know to be sound grading practices that report learning.

100 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Reporting Student Learning Both message sender and receiver understand that the achievement target in question is the same thing Information underpinning the communication is accurate If symbols are used, schools and parents understand them to mean the same thing Communication is tailored to the info needs of the audience O’Connor, 2007

101 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Activity: Descriptive or Evaluative Feedback, p. 22

102 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Essential Questions How do you close the achievement gap without effective communication designed to support learning? Are your communication systems working effectively to support learning and to certify it? p. 19

103 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Thoughts from the trenches Know the difference in uses for descriptive and evaluative feedback Know how to offer effective and target-focused feedback to guide the student’s learning Apply the principles of sound grading practices Developed and understand how to use standards-based report cards Student communicate about their own learning

104 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. The Relationship of Leadership Competencies to the Seven Actions Action #5Leadership Competency Activities Build communica- tion systems #1-4 and 5 – Creates the conditions for approp. use and reporting of student achieve. Info & can communicate those results Activities 15 Rubric for Sound Grading Practices; 16 When grades don’t match state assess results; 17 Cover letter to parents

105 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Action 6 Motivate with Learning Success Mistaken belief New perspective Rationale Achievement gap Productive action Anxiety resulting from accountability motivates all learners NO! Success does

106 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. If all students are to meet standards… They must all believe they can, so they will tryThey must all believe they can, so they will try That is, the losing streaks and hopelessness of our sorting past will no longer contribute to mission fulfillmentThat is, the losing streaks and hopelessness of our sorting past will no longer contribute to mission fulfillment

107 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Essential New Belief We must assess accurately, and use results effectively to make sure students react productively to assessment results.

108 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. A student’s emotional reaction to results will determine what that student does in response.

109 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Productive Productive Response to Assessment Results I understand these results. I know what I need to do next. I’m okay. I choose to keep trying.

110 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. The Counterproductive, Hopeless Response I don’t understand. I have no idea what to do next. I’m no good at this stuff anyway. I give up.

111 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Essential New Belief What STUDENTS think about and do with assessment results is as important as what adults think about and do with them.

112 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Action 6 Motivate with Learning Success Mistaken belief New perspective Rationale Achievement gap Productive action Intimidation motivates all No! Success motivates all Profound gains result Re-energizes strugglers Only teachers can use assessments to build confidence in all learners— but they need support

113 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Essential Questions How do you close the achievement gap when low achievers believe that success is beyond their reach? Are all of your students being helped to believe that they can meet standards? p. 20

114 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Thoughts from the trenches All understand the power student-involved assessment has to help students attain success and be competent, confident learners Student-involved assessment practices take place during the learning

115 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. The Relationship of Leadership Competencies to the Seven Actions Action #6Leadership Competency Activities Motivate students with learning success #1-5 and 6— Understands the issues related to the unethical and inapprop use of student assessment and protects students and staff from such misuse Activities 18—Is this responsible? 19 – Guidelines for test prep and administration

116 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Summary of Essential Questions How Do We Close the Gap If… Assessment system is out of balance? Curricular roadmaps to success can’t guide learning productively? Poor quality assessments misrepresent achievements?

117 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Summary of Essential Questions How Do We Close the Gap If… Struggling learners are making decisions that damage their learning? Communication fails to support learning? Learners give up in hopelessness?

118 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. OBVIOUSLY, WE CANNOT! We desperately need assessment leadership at the local level.

119 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Action 7 Ensure Assessment Literacy Mistaken beliefs New perspective Rationale Impact on gap Productive action Teachers & leaders are assessment literate, or it doesn’t matter They absolutely must be Profound achievement gains result Largest gains for strugglers Provide opportunities to learn to assess productively

120 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. What teachers need to know and do What will happen to student learning if they do How to deliver proper tools with effective professional development The unanswered question: Will teachers be given the opportunity to learn? We know p. 21

121 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Thoughts from the trenches Leaders are committed to assessment literacy for all; PD is provided to assure balance, accuracy and student involvement Our school leaders have developed the assessment literacy they need to maintain the vision, develop the essential infrastructure and support teacher development in assessment literacy

122 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Thoughts from the trenches Professional development is a model of collaborative and individual learning and application Professional development is having an impact as our program evaluation shows— balance, high quality of assessments and increase in student achievement

123 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. The Relationship of Leadership Competencies to the Seven Actions Action #7Leadership Competency Activities Promote assessment literacy #1-6 and 7—Plan, present/secure PD; Activities 20— Supporting teacher learning teams; 21—Discuss. key assess. concepts with faculty;

124 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. The Relationship of Leadership Competencies to the Seven Actions Action #7Leadership Competency Activities Promote assessment literacy #1-7 and 8 — Knows and can evaluate teachers’ classroom assessment practices 22– Verifying teachers’ content knowl. and assess. Competence; 23—Should teachers be held accountable?

125 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. The Relationship of Leadership Competencies to the Seven Actions Action #7Leadership Competency Activities Promote assessment literacy #1-8 and 9 — Analyzes student assess. info accurately, uses the info to improve curr and instruc, and assists teachers in doing the same Resources available; questions to consider in the analysis

126 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. The Relationship of Leadership Competencies to the Seven Actions Action #7Leadership Competency Activities Promote assessment literacy #1-9 and 10 — Develops and implements sound assessment and assessment- related policies 24– Using school/district policies to support quality assessment 25 – A self- analysis for school leaders

127 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Reflection and Planning Make specific plans for what you will do upon returning home to your district or school. First action to be taken and why? First goal? How? What steps? Who will be involved? When will you do this?

128 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Thoughts from the trenches Need to assemble the right people around the table to complete a comprehensive analysis Develop a plan of action and prioritize the actions or steps to be taken Reexamine your plan frequently—when working on one part of the system other parts of the system are being affected Change is personal Create a supportive environment of learning and risk taking

129 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. The principal goal of education is to create people who are capable of doing new things, not simply repeating what other generations have done—people who are creative, inventive discovers. Jean Piaget

130 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Assessment Training Institute Portland, Oregon


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