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 Type/quality of data  May be outdated  Special considerations: individual differences, nonstandard work schedule, mixtures, moonlighting, etc.  Effect.

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Presentation on theme: " Type/quality of data  May be outdated  Special considerations: individual differences, nonstandard work schedule, mixtures, moonlighting, etc.  Effect."— Presentation transcript:

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2  Type/quality of data  May be outdated  Special considerations: individual differences, nonstandard work schedule, mixtures, moonlighting, etc.  Effect depends on real-world conditions: ◦ Health status ◦ Work rate ◦ Working conditions  May be based on politics, economics, etc.-- not just health!

3  Biological monitoring accounts for actual absorption  Can reveal absorption by routes other than inhalation  Can assess effectiveness of PPE  Can show effects of moonlighting/hobbies  Reveals idiosyncratic susceptibility

4  Very few compounds have adequate pharmacokinetic data  Invasive or inconvenient  Not appropriate for chemicals with immediate effect, such as irritants  Could lead to discrimination  Samples could be analyzed for other agents

5  ACGIH: ◦ TLV, STEL, Ceiling limit ◦ BEI  NIOSH: REL, Criteria Documents  OSHA: ◦ PEL (permanent, interim, ETS) ◦ Action Level  Washington State L & I  ANSI

6  OSHA ◦ ◦ Go to “Safety and Health Topics” ◦ “Medical Screening and Surveillance”-- “Medical Surveillance” ◦ Pick a topic! ◦ OSHA standards fall under 29 CFR Part 1910.

7  WISHA ◦ Go to WA Dept. of Labor and Industries: ◦ “Safety” ◦ “A-Z Safety and Health Topics” ◦ “Medical Surveillance” ◦ Choose one! ◦ WISHA Standards fall under Title 296 WAC.

8  NIOSH ◦ ◦ “Surveillance” ◦ “Medical Test Database” ◦ Or, click on the specific exposure of interest.  e.g., Lead-- ABLES  Methyl Parathion

9  Straif, K. & Silverstein, M. (1997). “Comparison of U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Standards and German Berufsgenossenschaften guidelines for preventive occupational health examinations.” American Journal of Industrial Medicine 31:

10  OSHA/WISHA standards for requirements  NIOSH and others for recommendations ◦ Remember standards have limitations!  Consider: ◦ Quality control ◦ Standardization ◦ Centralization/cost-effectiveness ◦ Targeted surveillance ◦ Ethical issues

11  Morgan, M.S. & Hostman, S.W. (2008). Section 5: occupational exposure guidelines and standards. In Introduction to Occupational Hygiene.  Morgan, M.S. & Hostman, S.W. (2008). Section 10: biological monitoring. In Introduction to Occupational Hygiene.  Straif, K. & Silverstein, M. (1997). “Comparison of U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Standards and German Berufsgenossenschaften guidelines for preventive occupational health examinations.” American Journal of Industrial Medicine 31:

12  40 yo undocumented immigrant cotton worker presents with mildly excessive lacrimation, salivation, acute diarrhea. About 5 hours ago he was in the field when an unidentified liquid was spilled on his hands while loading it into a spreader. He was wearing no PPE at the time. No prior medical history available. Patient speaks very broken English. He initially presented, reluctantly, to his supervisor due concerns about mild dyspnea and blurred vision.

13 a) Order a serum organophosphate assay to ascertain dangerous levels in blood. b) Order erythrocyte count and ESR c) Check for depressed levels of erythrocyte cholinesterase activity d) No testing indicated, this is primarily a clinical diagnosis.

14 a) Order a serum organophosphate assay to ascertain dangerous levels in blood. b) Order erythrocyte count and ESR c) Check for depressed levels of erythrocyte cholinesterase activity d) No testing indicated, this is primarily a clinical diagnosis.

15 a) Administer a baseline erythrocyte cholinesterase assay to the entire field worker force. b) Recommend thorough physical exam of all field workers in contact with the substance, especially loaders and mixers. c) Routinely screen with blood test all workers on a biweekly basis. d) Permanently remove any worker from workplace due to recent symptomatic acute exposure

16 a) Administer a baseline erythrocyte cholinesterase assay to the entire field worker force. b) Recommend thorough physical exam of all field workers in contact with the substance, especially loaders and mixers. c) Routinely screen with blood test all workers on a biweekly basis. d) Permanently remove any worker from workplace due to recent symptomatic acute exposure

17 Medical screening and surveillance

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19 Directed physical exam and assay testing for Sx’s Monthly or Biweekly erythro cholinesterase assay Thorough Physical Exam (all workers) & baseline assay x2

20 Undocumented Worker Expense of testing Employer compliance

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22  Extrapolated from tetraethyl dithionopyrophosphate TEDP (Sulfotep), another organophospate  Preplacement medical evaluation  pre-exposure red blood cell cholinesterase and plasma cholinesterase  Where no standard exists and the hazard is minimal, evaluations should be conducted every 3 to 5 years or as frequently as recommended by an experienced occupational health physician.

23 2008 Threshold Limit Values & Biolgical Exposure Indices. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygenists

24  Based on direct correlation between environmental levels (Threshold Limit Values) and protection against non-systemic effects  BEI: level below which most workers should not experience adverse health effects.  Total p-nitrophenol in urine at end of shift, end of workweek: 0.5mg/g creatinine (Ns)  Cholinesterase activity in red cells, discretionary: 70% of individuals baseline (B, NS, Sq) B – Background: present, in part, due to non-occupational exposure Ns – Nonspecific: Determinant present after exposure to other chemicals Sq – Semi-quantitative: interpretation ambiguous

25  Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Occupational Exposure to Methyl Parathion. NIOSH Criteria Documents. September DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No Updated Viewed 25 OCT  OSHA Health Guidelines: TEDP (Sulfotep) n.html viewed 25 OCT n.html  2008 Threshold Limit Values & Biological Exposure Indices. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Cincinnati, OH

26  Characteristics of US Workers Whose Blood Lead Levels Trigger the Medical Removal Protection Provision, and Conformity With Biological Monitoring Requirements, 2003– 2005  SangWoo Tak, ScD,1 Robert J. Roscoe, MS,1 Walter Alarcon, MD,1 Jun Ju, MS,2  John P. Sestito, JD,1 Aaron L. Sussell, PhD,1 and Geoffrey M. Calvert, MD  Background: Workers with blood lead levels (BLL) 60 mg/dl (50 mg/dl for construction workers) or with three or more consecutive BLLs over at least 6 months that average 50 mg/dl or greater are required to be removed from work involving lead exposure that exceeds the OSHA action level. This study estimates the proportion of workers with BLLs that trigger the medical removal provision by industry sector, and examines whether workers received appropriate follow-up blood lead testing.

27  OSHA's lead standard (29CFR )  Permissible Exposure Limit  50 micrograms per cubic meter of air (µg/m3)  Averaged over an 8-hour workday  Representative number of employees believed to have the highest exposure levels Workplace Exposure to Lead

28  Action Limit  30 µg/m 3 over an 8-hour workday  Medical surveillance if action level exceeded>30 days/yr  Medical Surveillance  Blood lead standard of 40 µg per 100 mL of blood  Measure every six months

29  BLL≥ 60 µg/dl General Industry (CFR )  BLL≥ 50 µg/dl Construction  Average BLL of all tests over a 6-month period (or if there are less than 3 tests over a 6-month period, the average of three consecutive tests) is ≥50 µg/dl Medical Removal Protection

30  The employer shall provide the required medical surveillance including multiple physician review without cost to employees and at a reasonable time and place.  Follow-up blood sampling tests. OSHA requires retesting within 2 weeks and monthly follow- up during the medical removal period. biological and medical requirements of the lead standard, at S (j)

31  neither the lead standard, nor any other OSHA standard, makes participation in the medical surveillance program mandatory for the employee.  The employer's obligation is to provide medical tests and examinations as required, whether or not an employee cooperates.  Substitution of other tests not acceptable i.e. urinary lead, hair lead  Recommendation: medical consultation prior to conducting any medical procedures  document any employee refusal to undergo it an employee refuses to submit to blood lead testing

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34  Medical Surveillance for Lead  each/ConstructionCD/www.osha.gov/pls/osh aweb/standards htm each/ConstructionCD/www.osha.gov/pls/osh aweb/standards htm


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