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1 Hazardous Materials Section Five: Scene Safety, PPE and Scene Control Analyze Plan Implement Evaluate.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Hazardous Materials Section Five: Scene Safety, PPE and Scene Control Analyze Plan Implement Evaluate."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Hazardous Materials Section Five: Scene Safety, PPE and Scene Control Analyze Plan Implement Evaluate

2 2 Scene Safety Scene control, site management, and personnel accountability are critical The course of a hazardous material incident is often determined in the first five to fifteen minutes ?

3 3 Exposure Limits Threshold Limit Value/Short-Term Exposure Limit (TLV-STEL) Threshold Limit Value/Time Weighted Average (TLV-TWA) Threshold Limit Value/Ceiling (TLV-C) Threshold Limit Value/Skin (TLV-S) Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH)

4 4 TLV-STEL Maximum concentration a person can be exposed to in 15-minute intervals, up to four times a day without damage Minimum one hour rest between exposures Lower the TLV-STEL, the more toxic the substance

5 5 TLV/TWA Maximum concentration a person could be exposed to 8 hours a day, 40 hours a week with no ill effects The lower the TLV-TWA, the more toxic the substance

6 6 TLV-C (Ceiling) Maximum concentration a worker should not be exposed to, even for an instant The lower the TLV-C, the more toxic the substance

7 7 TLV-Skin Possible and significant exposure by direct or airborne contact Appropriate measures need to be taken so TLV/TWA is not exceeded

8 8 PEL/REL Maximum, time-weighted concentration to which 95% of healthy adults can be exposed over a 40-hour workweek without damage PEL set by OSHA (enforceable by Law) REL set by NIOSH (does not have the force of Law)

9 9 IDLH An atmospheric concentration of any toxic, corrosive, or asphyxiant that poses an immediate threat to life or could cause irreversible or delayed adverse health effects The lower the number the higher the toxicity

10 10 IDLH Three types of IDLH atmospheres: Toxic Flammable Oxygen-deficient (<19.5%) IDLH atmospheres require the use of SCBA or equivalent protection

11 11 Determining Atmospheric Safety Atmospheric monitoring requires specific training and equipment Three types of atmospheres at a hazardous materials incident: Safe Unsafe Dangerous

12 12 Hazard Levels Safe atmosphere No harmful hazardous materials effects Unsafe atmosphere Exposure will probably cause injury Dangerous atmosphere Serious, irreversible injury or death may occur

13 13 Personal Protective Equipment PPE is the clothing and protection that provides shielding or insulation from chemical, physical, and thermal hazards Firefighters PPE should meet NPFA and OSHA Standards Must be properly maintained and used

14 14 PPE Selection PPE is selected based on the specific properties of the products involved The IC should approve the level of PPE to be used on an incident Firefighters should not use PPE they have not been trained to use

15 15 Types of PPE Street clothing and work uniforms Structural firefighting protective clothing High-temperature protective clothing Chemical protective clothing and equipment

16 16 Specific PPE Street clothing and work uniforms Offers least amount of protection from hazardous materials Structural firefighting protective clothing Offers no chemical protection Has some abrasion resistance

17 17 High-temperature protective equipment: Offers protection from high temperatures only (short exposure) No chemical protection Proximity/entry Specific PPE Fire Entry Suit Proximity suit

18 18 Specific PPE Chemical Protective Clothing Designed to prevent chemicals from coming in contact with the body May have varying degrees of resistance Chemical-resistant materials: Designed to inhibit or resist the passage of chemicals into and through the material by penetration, permeation, degradation

19 19 Chemical Protective Clothing No single material provides protection from all chemicals Operations level trained personnel should not be operating in encapsulated suits

20 20 Penetration Movement of the chemical through closures Liquids/vapors most likely to penetrate Some solids (i.e. asbestos) may penetrate also

21 21 Permeation Process by which the chemical moves through the material on a molecular level.

22 22 Degradation Physical destruction/decomposition of material Visible signs such as: charring/shrinking/ swelling/color change/ dissolution are evidence of degradation

23 23 Garment Construction Single-piece Multi-piece Material used in construction Butyl rubber, Tyvek®, Saranex, PVC, Viton

24 24 Liquid Splash-Protective Clothing Protects skin and eyes Does not protect against gases or vapors Should not be used for incidents involving liquids that emit vapors

25 25 Vapor-Protective Clothing Must be used when hazardous vapors are present Traps heat and perspiration Must be used in conjunction with respiratory protection

26 26 Respiratory Protection Devices Self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) Supplied air respirator (SAR) Air-purifying respirator (APR)

27 27 SCBA Prevents exposure through inhalation or ingestion Should be mandatory for fire service personnel Firefighters must know the limitations of SCBA

28 28 Supplied Air Respirator (SAR) User connected to external air source Useful during extended operations Hoseline may restrict movement

29 29 Air Purifying Respirators (APRs) Filter particulates and contaminants from the air Should only be used when: Type and amount of contaminants are known Atmosphere is not oxygen-deficient

30 30 APRs Limitations: Filtering cartridges are contaminant-specific Atmosphere must be continuously monitored

31 31 Chemical Protective Clothing Level A Fully encapsulating suit Highest level of protection Effective against vapors, gases, mists, dusts Requires SCBA or SAR

32 32 Chemical Protective Clothing Level B Consists of chemical- protective clothing, boots, gloves, and SCBA Used when high respiratory protection but less skin protection required

33 33 Chemical Protective Clothing Level C Standard work clothing plus chemical-protective clothing Appropriate when: Type of airborne substance is known Concentration is measured Criteria for using an APR is met Skin or eye exposure is unlikely

34 34 Chemical Protective Clothing Level D Lowest level of protection Used when: Atmosphere contains no known hazard Work functions preclude splashes, immersion, or potential for inhalation

35 35 Skin Contact Hazards Toxicity, flammability, and reactivity Inadequately protected body Assume the worst and leave the largest possible safety margin

36 36 Skin Contact Hazards Skin can absorb harmful toxins without any sensation to the skin itself Some substances are lethal if only a few drops contact the skin

37 37 Skin Contact Hazards Skin absorption is enhanced by cuts, abrasions, heat, and moisture Absorption rate depends on body part

38 38 Skin Contact Hazards Corrosives do not have to be absorbed to do damage-contact is sufficient Acids Have affinity for moisture Can burn respiratory tract Alkalis Cause deep, destructive burns Turns tissue to soapy liquid

39 39 Safety Precautions Standard safety precautions for firefighting apply to hazardous materials incidents Proper PPE & respiratory protection In addition, special attention must be paid to temperature and stress

40 40 Excessive Heat Disorders Dehydration Heat stress Heat exhaustion Heat stroke

41 41 Dehydration Pre-hydrate with 8 to 16 oz. of water before donning PPE Rehydrate with 16 oz. of water for each SCBA tank used Leads to heat cramps & heat stress if not treated

42 42 Heat Exhaustion Signs & symptoms: Rapid shallow breathing Weak pulse Clammy skin Emergency action: Remove victim from the source of heat Rehydrate Provide cooling

43 43 Heat Stroke Signs and symptoms include: Reduction or cessation of sweating Body temperature at or above 105ºF Rapid pulse

44 44 Heat Stroke This is a true medical emergency requiring immediate transport to a medical facility

45 45 Cooling Technologies Passive systems Air, ice, or water cooled vests Forced air cooling systems Limit mobility Fluid chilled systems Phase change cooling technology Pre-cooled vest wicks perspiration away from body

46 46 Cold-Temperature Exposures Materials related Liquefied gases and cryogenic materials expose firefighters to the same low-temperature hazards as those created by cold-weather environments Weather related Temperature and wind speed Still air is a poor conductor

47 47 Cold-Temperature Exposures Despite temperature, firefighters will sweat May lead to hypothermia Prevention: Wear appropriate, layered clothing Keep layers next to skin dry Warm shelters should be available

48 48 Response Safety Procedures Isolate and deny entry Try to identify products Follow the DOT-ERG Follow SOPs Eliminate possible ignition sources

49 49 Control Zones

50 50 Hot Zone Area immediately around the incident site Contains personnel and equipment needed to control the release Is contaminated zone Access is limited Entries and exits are logged Entered by technicians/specialists

51 51 Warm Zone Staging area for entering and leaving the hot zone Contains an access corridor and a decontamination corridor Personnel must be in appropriate PPE

52 52 Cold Zone Safe area where special protective clothing is not needed Restricted area Operations include: Personnel staging Command post Medical support area

53 53 Isolation Techniques Approach from uphill Resist the urge to rush in Establish a perimeter Ensure perimeter control devices do not impede rapid evacuation

54 54 Buddy System and Backup Personnel* Ensure safety of emergency crews Decontamination team in place before anyone enters the hot zone No one should enter the hot zone alone Always remain within sight, sound, or touch of each other *Only for those trained above the Operations Level; i.e., Haz-Mat Teams

55 55 Summary PPE is product-specific No such thing as generic chemical-protective suit PPE has limitations; firefighters must know them Four recognized levels of protective clothing Level A provides the most protection Level D provides almost no protection

56 56 Summary Resist the urge to rush in Only firefighters trained to the technician or specialist levels enter the hot zone Use of respiratory protection is essential

57 57


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