Presentation on theme: "Developing Through the Life Span Chapter 4 Part 1"— Presentation transcript:
1Developing Through the Life Span Chapter 4 Part 1
2Bell RingerIf you could reach into a hat and pull out a new life, would you? Why or why not?Remember – you have no say in this new life – you don’t select your parents, home, siblings, location, etc… you just become a different year old and it is as if you never existedWrite for 3-4 minutes – you may write on a ¼ to ½ sheet of paper – turning in
3Developing Through the Life Span Prenatal Development and the NewbornConceptionPrenatal DevelopmentThe Competent NewbornInfancy and ChildhoodPhysical DevelopmentCognitive Development
4Developing Through the Life Span AdolescencePhysical DevelopmentCognitive DevelopmentSocial DevelopmentEmerging AdulthoodAdulthood
5Developing Through the Life Span Adulthood (continued)Cognitive DevelopmentSocial DevelopmentReflections on Two Major Developmental IssuesContinuity and StagesStability and Change
6Developmental Psychology IssueDetailsNature/NurtureHow do genetic inheritance (our nature) and experience (the nurture we receive) influence our behavior?Continuity/StagesIs developmental a gradual, continuous process or a sequence of separate stages?Stability/ChangeDo our early personality traits persist through life, or do we become different persons as we age.OBJECTIVE 1| State the three areas of change that developmental psychologists study, and identify the three major issues in developmental psychology.
7Think about the following questions and come up with an answer Bell RingerThink about the following questions and come up with an answerIf you could stay the same age that you have already been, and remain in good health, what age would that be?If you could stay the same age that you haven’t experienced, and remain in good health, what age would that be?
8Bell Ringer – Take 10 Minutes to complete the following What are three describing words you would use for the following ages?0-910-1920-2930-39
9Prenatal Development and the Newborn How, over time, did we come to be who we are? From zygote to birth, development progresses in an orderly, though fragile, sequence.
10ConceptionA single sperm cell (male) penetrates the outer coating of the egg (female) and fuses to form one fertilized cell.OBJECTIVE 2| Describe the union of sperm and egg at conception.Lennart Nilsson/ Albert Bonniers Publishing CompanyLennart Nilsson/ Albert Bonniers Publishing Company
11Prenatal DevelopmentA zygote is a fertilized cell with 100 cells that become increasingly diverse. At about 14 days the zygote turns into an embryo(a and b).OBJECTIVE 3| Define zygote, embryo and fetus, and explain how teratogens can affect development.Lennart Nilsson/ Albert Bonniers Publishing CompanyBiophoto Associates/ Photo Researchers, Inc.
12Prenatal DevelopmentAt 9 weeks, an embryo turns into a fetus (c and d). Teratogens are chemicals or viruses that can enter the placenta and harm the developing fetus.Lennart Nilsson/ Albert Bonniers Publishing CompanyLennart Nilsson/ Albert Bonniers Publishing Company
13Conception to Zygote to Embryo to Fetus to Birth Path of a babyConception to Zygote to Embryo to Fetus to Birth
14Infancy and ChildhoodInfancy and childhood span from birth to the teenage years. During these years, the individual grows physically, cognitively, and socially.StageSpanInfancyNewborn to toddlerChildhoodToddler to teenager
15The Competent NewbornInfants are born with reflexes that aid in survival, including rooting reflex which helps them locate food.OBJECTIVE 4| Describe some of the abilities of the newborn, and explain how researchers use habituation to assess infant sensory and cognitive abilities.
16The Competent NewbornOffspring cries are important signals for parents to provide nourishment. In animals and humans such cries are quickly attended to and relieved.Carl and Ann Purcell/ CorbisLightscapes, Inc. Corbis
17Cognitive Development in the Newborn Investigators study infants becoming habituated to objects over a period of time. Infants pay more attention to new objects than habituated ones, which shows they are learning.
18Physical DevelopmentInfants’ psychological development depends on their biological development. To understand the emergence of motor skills and memory, we must understand the developing brain.
19Brain Development of Embryo/Fetus 1. Nerve growth begins when a sheet of cells on the back of the embryo folds in the middle to form the future spinal cord. At one end, the tube enlarges to form the brain’s major sections. 2. First responses are reflexes, some of which occur even before the sense of touch is developed. The fetus will flex its head away from stimulation around the mouth as early as 7 1/2 weeks. By month’s end the ear begins to take shape.
203. Touch receptors around the mouth are developed by the twelfth week and elsewhere by the fifteenth. Touching the palms makes the fingers close, touching the soles of the feet makes the toes curl down, touching the eyelids makes the eye muscles clench. Nerve cells have multiplied, synapses are being formed.
214. At 15 weeks the fetus can grasp, frown, squint, and grimace 4. At 15 weeks the fetus can grasp, frown, squint, and grimace. It may suck its thumb and swallow. These movements correspond to the development of synapses in the brain. 5. At 20 weeks nerve-cell production slows as the existing cells grow larger and make more complex connections. The senses of taste and smell are now formed. The nerve cells serving each of the senses are developing into specialized areas of the brain.
226. The fetus can feel movement and may respond to sound as early as 24 weeks. 7. At 25 weeks some babies born prematurely can survive. Nerve supply to the ear is complete. Brain scans show response to touch at 26 weeks and to light at 27 weeks. A light shone on the mother’s abdomen will make the fetus turn its head, indicating some functioning of the optic nerve.
238. The eyes open in the womb and the fetus may see its hand and environment. Some researchers put the start of awareness at the 32nd week, at which time neural circuits are as advanced as a newborn’s. Brain scans show periods of deep sleep. 9. The fetus begins to develop daily activity cycles. At 35 weeks hearing is mature. At birth the baby can see shapes and colors within 13 inches of its face, can distinguish loudness, pitch, and tone, and may show a preference for sweets and for the scent of its mother’s skin.
24Developing BrainThe developing brain overproduces neurons. Peaking around 28 billion at 7 months, these neurons are pruned to 23 billion at birth. The greatest neuronal spurt is in the frontal lobe enabling the individual to think rationally.OBJECTIVE 5| Describe some developmental changes in the child’s brain, and explain why maturation accounts for many of our similarities.
25WHAT IS THE BEST AGE? Bell ringer Think about the following questions. Discuss with your neighbor your answer and the reasons you believe it.WHAT IS THE BEST AGE?
26MaturationThe development of the brain unfolds based on genetic instructions, causing various bodily and mental functions to occur in sequence— standing before walking, babbling before talking—this is called maturation.Maturation sets the basic course of development, while experience adjusts it.
27Motor DevelopmentFirst, infants begin to roll over. Next, they sit unsupported, crawl, and finally walk. Experience has little effect on this sequence.OBJECTIVE 6| Outline four events in the motor development sequence from birth to toddlerhood, and evaluate the effects of maturation and experience on that sequence.Renee Altier for Worth PublishersPhototake Inc./ Alamy ImagesProfimedia.CZ s.r.o./ AlamyJim Craigmyle/ Corbis
28Maturation and Infant Memory The earliest age of conscious memory is around 3½ years (Bauer, 2002). A 5-year-old has a sense of self and an increased long-term memory, thus organization of memory is different from 3-4 years.OBJECTIVE 7| Explain why we have few memories of experiences during our first three years of life.Courtesy of Carolyn Rovee-CollierAmy Pedersen
29Cognitive Development Piaget believed that the driving force behind intellectual development is our biological development amidst experiences with the environment. Our cognitive development is shaped by the errors we make.OBJECTIVE 8| State Piaget’s understanding of how the mind develops, and discuss the importance of assimilation and accommodation in this process.Both photos: Courtesy of Judy DeLoache
30SchemasSchemas are mental molds into which we pour our experiences.
31Assimilation and Accommodation The process of assimilation involves incorporating new experiences into our current understanding (schema). The process of adjusting a schema and modifying it is called accommodation.Bill Anderson/ Photo Researchers, Inc.Jean Piaget with a subject
32Jean Piaget French speaking, Swiss developmental psychologist Placed a great importance on the education of childrenInvestigated the hidden sides of children’s mindsAsked them questions and depending on their answer, determined the next questionCreated Stages of Cognitive DevelopmentJean Piaget
33Piaget’s Theory and Current Thinking OBJECTIVE 9| Outline Piaget’s four main stages of cognitive development, and comment on how children’s thinking changes during these four stages.
34Sensorimotor StageIn the sensorimotor stage, babies take in the world by looking, hearing, touching, mouthing, and grasping. Children younger than 6 months of age do not grasp object permanence, i.e., objects that are out of sight are also out of mind.Doug Goodman
36Sensorimotor Stage: Criticisms Piaget believed children in the sensorimotor stage could not think —they do not have any abstract concepts or ideas.However, recent research shows that children in the sensorimotor stage can think and count.Children understand the basic laws of physics. They are amazed at how a ball can stop in midair or disappear.
37Sensorimotor Stage: Criticisms 2. Children can also count. Wynn (1992, 2000) showed that children stared longer at the wrong number of objects than the right ones.
38Sensorimotor Stage Review What age does it occur?How does a child gather information during this stage?What are the two major issues that occur during this stage?What evidence do researchers use to support the sensorimotor stage?There is one major issue where modern psychologist disagree with Piaget’s thinking – what is it and why?
39Preoperational StagePiaget suggested that from 2 years old to about 6-7 years old, children are in the preoperational stage—too young to perform mental operations.Ontario Science Center
40Theory of Conservation The principal that the amount remains the same even though the shape changes
41Preoperational Stage: Criticism DeLoache (1987) showed that children as young as 3 years of age are able to use metal operations. When shown a model of a dog’s hiding place behind the couch, a 2½-year-old could not locate the stuffed dog in an actual room, but the 3-year-old did.14:30
42EgocentrismPiaget concluded that preschool children are egocentric. They cannot perceive things from another’s point of view.When asked to show her picture to mommy, 2-year-old Gabriella holds the picture facing her own eyes, believing that her mother can see it through her eyes.
43Theory of MindPreschoolers, although still egocentric, develop the ability to understand another’s mental state when they begin forming a theory of mind.The problem on the right probes such ability in children.
44Most children in early Preoperational Stage (age 3-4) say Sally will look in the blue cupboard – why?They saw the ball go into the blue cupboard – therefore, Sally saw it too.Theory of mind develops as children age:3-4 year olds can hold false beliefs5-8 year olds learn that spontaneous self-produced thoughts can also produce feelings
45Preoperational Stage review When does it occur?What is Theory of Conservation? Give an exampleProfessor DeLoache conducted an experiment that showed how just a small amount of time in terms of age means a lot in cognitive development. What was her experiment?The following scenario describes what concept: When a 3 year old stands in front of the TV as if no one else is there.How does Theory of Mind develop throughout the Preoperational Stage
46Concrete Operational Stage In concrete operational stage, given concrete materials, 6- to 7-year-olds grasp conservation problems and mentally pour liquids back and forth into glasses of different shapes conserving their quantities.Children in this stage are also able to transform mathematical functions. So, if = 12, then a transformation, 12 – 4 = 8, is also easily doable.
47Concrete Operational Stage review What are the ages of this stage?What is the major difference between Concrete Operational stage and Preoperational stage?What might a child in Concrete Operational Stage say to Mr. Jones when he asked the pizza chef to cut the pizza into 4 slices instead of 8 because he wasn’t that hungry?
48Formal Operational Stage Around age 12, our reasoning ability expands from concrete thinking to abstract thinking. We can now use symbols and imagined realities to systematically reason. Piaget called this formal operational thinking.
49Formal Operational Stage Rudiments of such thinking begin earlier (age 7) than what Piaget suggested, since 7-year-olds can solve the problem below (Suppes, 1982).If John is in school, Mary is in school. John is in school. What can you say about Mary?
50Formal Operational Stage Review What age does Formal Operational Stage begin?What is the major change in a child’s thinking during this stage?
51Reflecting on Piaget’s Theory Piaget’s stage theory has been influential globally, validating a number of ideas regarding growth and development in many cultures and societies. However, today’s researchers believe the following:Development is a continuous process.Children express their mental abilities and operations at an earlier age.Formal logic is a smaller part of cognition.OBJECTIVE 10| Discuss psychologists’ current views on Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
52Attachment – What does it mean to have attachment Attachment – What does it mean to have attachment? Is there a different meaning for an infant then there is for an older child?Harry Harlow - American psychologist best known for his maternal-separation and social isolation experiments on rhesus monkeys, which demonstrated the importance of care-giving and companionship in social and cognitive development – ATTACHMENTHe conducted most of his research at the University of Wisconsin - Madison
53Why do we form attachment? Many early psychologist believed attachment, which is the powerful survival impulse that keeps infants close to their caregivers (usually parents), was because of nourishment.Harlow’s experiments proved otherwise
54Origins of AttachmentHarlow (1971) showed that infants bond with surrogate mothers because of bodily contact and not because of nourishment.OBJECTIVE 12| Discuss the effects of nourishment, body contact, and familiarity on infant social attachment.Harlow Primate Laboratory, University of Wisconsin
55Origins of AttachmentLike bodily contact, familiarity is another factor that causes attachment. In some animals (goslings), imprinting is the cause of attachment.Alastair Miller
56Attachment Differences Placed in a strange situation, 60% of children express secure attachment, i.e., they explore their environment happily in the presence of their mothers. When their mother leave, they show distress.The other 30% show insecure attachment. These children cling to their mothers or caregivers and are less likely to explore the environment.OBJECTIVE 13| Contrast secure and insecure attachment, and discuss the roles of parents and infants in the development of attachment and an infant’s feelings of basic trust.
57Secure AttachmentRelaxed and attentive caregiving becomes the backbone of secure attachment.Berry Hewlett
58Insecure AttachmentHarlow’s studies showed that monkeys experience great anxiety if their terry-cloth mother is removed.Harlow Primate Laboratory, University of Wisconsin
59Attachment Differences: Why? Why do these attachment differences exist?FactorExplanationMotherBoth rat pups and human infants develop secure attachments if the mother is relaxed and attentive.FatherIn many cultures where fathers share the responsibility of raising children, similar secure attachments develop.
60Separation AnxietySeparation anxiety peaks at 13 months of age, regardless of whether the children are home or sent to day care.
61Deprivation of Attachment What happens when circumstances prevent a child from forming attachments?In such circumstances children become:OBJECTIVE 14| Assess the impact of parental neglect, family disruption, and day care on attachment patterns and development.WithdrawnFrightenedUnable to develop speech
62Prolonged Deprivation If parental or caregiving support is deprived for an extended period of time, children are at risk for physical, psychological, and social problems, including alterations in brain serotonin levels.
63Day Care and Attachment Quality day care that consists of responsive adults interacting with children does not harm children’s thinking and language skills.However, some studies suggest that extensive time in day care can increase aggressiveness and defiance in children.
64Self-ConceptSelf-concept, a sense of one’s identity and personal worth, emerges gradually around 6 months. Around months, children can recognize themselves in the mirror. By 8-10 years, their self-image is stable.OBJECTIVE 15| Assess the impact of parental neglect, family disruption, and day care on attachment patterns and development.Laura Dwight