3Cognitive Development Physical DevelopmentBrain DevelopmentMotor DevelopmentMaturation and Infant MemoryCognitive DevelopmentPiaget’s Theory and Current ThinkingCLOSE-UP: Autism and “Mind-blindness”Reflecting on Piaget’s Theory
4Social Development Origins of Attachment Attachment Differences Parenting Styles
5Infancy and ChildhoodInfancy and childhood span from birth to the teenage years. During these years, the individual grows physically, cognitively, and socially.StageSpanInfancyNewborn to toddlerChildhoodToddler to teenager
6Physical Development Brain Development At birth, most brain cells are present. After, the neural networks multiply resulting in increased physical and mental abilities.
7Brain DevelopmentThe development of the brain unfolds based on genetic instructions, causing various bodily and mental functions to occur in sequence— standing before walking, babbling before talking—this is called maturation.Maturation sets the basic course of development, while experience adjusts it.
8Motor DevelopmentFirst, infants begin to roll over. Next, they sit unsupported, crawl, and finally walk. Experience has little effect on this sequence.
9Maturation and Infant Memory The earliest age of conscious memory is around 3½ years (Bauer, 2002). A 5-year-old has a sense of self and an increased long-term memory, thus organization of memory is different from 3-4 years.
10Maturation and Infant Memory Although they may not consciously remember, babies are capable of learning. 3-month-old infants can learn to move a mobile by kicking. (Rovee - Collier, 1989, 1997.)
11Cognitive Development Cognition refers to all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.Developmental psychologist Jean Piaget believed that children reason differently than adults and that a child’s mind develops in a series of stages.Preview Question 2: From the perspective of Piaget and of today’s researchers, how does a child’s mind develop?Jean Piaget (1896–1980)
12SchemasPiaget felt that the driving force behind our intellectual progression is an unceasing struggle to make sense of our experiences and that to do this maturing brains build schemas.Schemas are a concepts or frameworks thatorganize and interpret information.To use our schemas Piaget proposed that we assimilate new experiences, or interpret them according to our schemas and then adjust or accommodate our schemas accordingly.
15Sensorimotor StageIn the sensorimotor stage, babies take in the world by looking, hearing, touching, mouthing, and grasping. Children younger than 6 months of age do not grasp object permanence, i.e., objects that are out of sight are also out of mind.CD1, #15Doug Goodman
16Sensorimotor Stage: Criticisms Piaget believed children in the sensorimotor stage could not think —they do not have any abstract concepts or ideas.However, recent research shows that children in the sensorimotor stage can think and count.
17Preoperational StagePiaget suggested that from 2 years old to about 6-7 years old, children are in the preoperational stage—too young to perform mental operations. For example, in this stage do not understand the concept of conservation, the principle that quantity remains the same despite changes in shape.This preoperational child does not yet understand the principle of conservation of substance.
18Preoperational Stage: Criticism DeLoache (1987) showed that children as young as 3 years of age are able to use metal operations. When shown a model of a dog’s hiding place behind the couch, a 2½-year-old could not locate the stuffed dog in an actual room, but the 3-year-old did.
19EgocentrismPiaget concluded that preschool children are egocentric. They cannot perceive things from another’s point of view.When asked to show her picture to mommy, 2-year-old Gabriella holds the picture facing her own eyes, believing that her mother can see it through her eyes.
20Infancy and Childhood: Cognitive Development Animism (confusion between physical and psychological events)Confusion of external, physical objects with internal thoughts; thinking that objects think and feel.Example: A child is afraid of the “monsters” in a dark closet and that clouds move “because they’re having fun.”
21Theory of MindPreschoolers, although still egocentric, develop the ability to understand another’s mental state when they begin forming a theory of mind.As theory of mind develops, they seek to understand and interpret the actions and feelings of other people.
22Concrete Operational Stage In the concrete operational stage, given concrete materials, 6- to 7-year-olds grasp conservation problems and mentally pour liquids back and forth into glasses of different shapes conserving their quantities.Children in this stage are also able to transform mathematical functions. So, if = 12, then a transformation, 12 – 4 = 8, is also easily doable.
23Formal Operational Stage Around age 12, our reasoning ability expands from concrete thinking to abstract thinking. We can now use symbols and imagined realities to systematically reason. Piaget called this formal operational thinking.Rudiments of such thinking begin earlier (age 7) than what Piaget suggested, since 7-year-olds can solve the problem below (Suppes, 1982).If John is in school, Mary is in school. John is in school. What can you say about Mary?
24Autism and “Mind-Blindness” Diagnoses of autism, a disorder marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others’ states of mind, are increasing.People with autism are said to have an impaired theory of mind, having difficulty reading inferring others’ thoughts and feelings.
25Reflecting on Piaget’s Theory Piaget’s stage theory has been influential globally, validating a number of ideas regarding growth and development in many cultures and societies. However, today’s researchers believe the following:Development is a continuous process.Children express their mental abilities and operations at an earlier age.Formal logic is a smaller part of cognition.
26Social DevelopmentStranger anxiety is the fear of strangers that develops at around 8 months. This is the age at which infants form schemas for familiar faces and cannot assimilate a new face.Preview Question 3: How do the parent-infant attachment bonds form?
27Harlow Primate Laboratory, University of Wisconsin Origins of AttachmentNo social behavior is more striking than the intense and mutual infant – parent bond called attachment.Harlow (1971) showed that infants bond with surrogate mothers because of bodily contact and not because of nourishment.CD1, 12a, 12b, 12cHarlow Primate Laboratory, University of Wisconsin
28Origins of AttachmentLike bodily contact, familiarity is another factor that causes attachment. In many animals, attachments based on familiarity likewise form during a critical period—an optimal period when certain events must take place to facilitate proper development. In some animals (goslings), imprinting is the cause of attachment.Alastair Miller
29Attachment Differences Placed in a strange situation, 60% of children express secure attachment, i.e., they explore their environment happily in the presence of their mothers. When their mother leave, they show distress.Preview Question 4: How have psychologists studied children’s differing attachments, and what have they learned?The other 30% show insecure attachment. These children cling to their mothers or caregivers and are less likely to explore the environment.
30Attachment Differences Relaxed and attentive caregiving becomes the backbone of secure attachment.Berry Hewlett
31Harlow Primate Laboratory, University of Wisconsin Insecure AttachmentHarlow’s studies showed that monkeys experience great anxiety if their terry-cloth mother is removed.Harlow Primate Laboratory, University of Wisconsin
32Separation AnxietySeparation anxiety peaks at 13 months of age, regardless of whether the children are home or sent to day care.
33Attachment and Adult Relationships Erik Erikson said that securely attached children approach life with a sense of basic trust—a sense that the world is predictable and reliable.Although debate continues, many researchers now believe that our early attachments form the foundation for our adult relationships and our comfort with affection and intimacy.
34Parenting Styles Practice Description Authoritarian Parents impose rules and expect obedience.PermissiveParents submit to children’s demands.AuthoritativeParents are demanding but responsive to their children.Preview Question 5: What are the three primary parenting styles, and what outcomes are associated with them?
35Parenting StylesResearch indicates that children with the highest self - esteem, self - reliance, and social competence usually have warm, concerned, authoritative parents, while children with authoritarian parents tend to have less socialskill and self - esteem, and those with permissive parents tend to be more aggressiveand immature.