2List a developmental milestone in human growth & development
3What is the relevance? Medical professionals need to understand stages of growth of development.Growth ~ refers to the measurable physical changes that occur throughout a person’s life.Development ~ refers to the changes in intellectual, mental emotional, social and functional skills that occur over time
4What is the relevance?Different periods of life present unique challenges, changes, and problems.How one handles those challenges influences their health and the next stage in their lives.
5Growth and Development Each phase of growth and development contains four major parametersPhysical developmentIntellectual-cognitive developmentPsycho-emotional developmentSocial development
6Physical Development Bodily changes Often times measurable Height / weightMuscle developmentChanges in body organs
7Intellectual-Cognitive Development Thinking skillsLearning how to solve problemsMake judgmentsDeal with situations
8Psycho-Emotional Development Changes in feelingsLoveHateJoyFearExcitement
9Social Development Interactions and relationships with other people FamilyFriendsBusiness associates
10Growth and Development Each of these parameters contain numerous developmental milestones.Developmental Milestones ~ significant points in the growth process
11Developmental Milestones Progress from the simple to the more complexPerson learns to sit, then crawl, then stand , then walk, and then runChildren learn “gross” motor skills such as walking first then learn “fine” motor skills such as using a crayon
12Principles of Growth and Development Each stage establishes the foundation for the next stage.Stages proceed in an orderly pattern****However, the rate of progress varies among individuals.*****Health care providers must understand that each life stage creates certain needs in individuals.
13Principles of Growth & Development - Development is influenced by geneticsGenes ~ units of hereditary material contained in human cellsEach person’s set of genes is uniqueEnvironment also influences an individualDo you believe we are more a product of our environment, our heredity, or both? Why?Discuss your stance with your neighbor
15At what point do you believe that a fertilized egg becomes a “person”?
16Conception through Teenage Years Pregnancy lasts 10 lunar months (40 weeks/ 9 calendar months/ days)Consists of 3 trimesters of 3 months each(1st, 2nd, 3rd)(Below: Fetus at 16 weeks)(Conception)
17Growth and Development During Each Trimester Length of TimeGrowth and DevelopmentFirst TrimesterConception through third monthDevelopment of major organ systemsSecond TrimesterFourth through sixth monthRefinement of organ systemsThird TrimesterSeventh through ninth monthWeight gain and maturation
19Key Terms (First Trimester) Ovum ~ human egg of the femaleAbout the size of a pencil dot on paperSperm ~ male reproductive cellToo small to see with the human eyeConception = FertilizationUnion of the nuclei of the egg and the spermFallopian tube ~ tube that extends from the uterus to the ovary
21What Happens the First Trimester? Conception occurs when one sperm, traveling with millions of other sperm, penetrates the ovum.Conception occurs in the first third of the fallopian tube
22Timing is EverythingIn the female ovulation occurs at midcycle , around day 14.The egg lives for about 24 hours after ovulation.Sperm usually live between 12 and 48 hours.(some survive up to 72 hours)Female sperm live longer*
23Timing is EverythingFor fertilization to occur, sexual intercourse must take place around the time of ovulation, generally no earlier than 72 hours before ovulation and no later than 24 hours after ovulation.Reflex ovulators ~ women who ovulate in response to having intercourseRabbits are reflex ovulators
24How Fertilization Occurs During intercourse, about million sperm are released.Only about 100,000 survive the acidic environment of the vagina.Sperm swim through the uterus and into the fallopian tube towards the egg.Within 1-2 hours they are gathered around the egg.
25How Fertilization Occurs One (and only one) sperm penetrates the egg and unites with the nuclei of the egg.Zygote ~ fertilized egg*
26How Fertilization Occurs The single-cell zygote has 46 chromosomes, 23 from the egg and 23 from the sperm.The zygote begins to divide, forming clusters of cells that slowly makes its way through the fallopian tube toward the uterus. (3-5 days)The cells (morula) look like a cluster of grapes with a root like structure on the back which will become the placenta.
27How Fertilization Occurs When this cluster of cells reaches the uterus, it implants itself into the plush lining, where it grows and develops into a human being with billions of cells.Implantation ~ embryo adheres to uterus lining.Implantation occurs when the cluster attaches itself into the upper rear wall of the uterus
29How Fertilization Occurs Amniotic sac develops over this group of cellsA membrane that surrounds the fetusThe outer group of cells starts to develop into a shape that is the head and a tailEmbryo ~ human being growing in the uterus from the time of conception to about the eighth week.
34The First Trimester21-25 days, a heart begins to beat and nervous system starts to develop!4 weeks: embryo is ¼“ longArm buds bulgeConsists of head, body, and tailEyes and ears can be detected5 weeks: a nose is visible6 weeks: almost ½”, floating in amniotic sacLeg buds appear7 weeks: ¾” and can move handsFingers are defined, organs are visible, skull bones are growing.Embryo at 3 wksEmbryo at 7 wks
35The End of the 1st Trimester 8 weeks: almost 1”, liver is large, bones are forming, testes and ovaries are distinguishableAt 8 weeks, developing infant is called a fetus10 weeks: 1 ½”– 2”, kidneys produce urine, lower trunk muscles developAbout to end the 1st trimesterbaby peeing in wombFetus at 10 weeks
36The 2nd Trimester12 weeks: begins the 2nd trimester; head is 1/3 of the entire length, ribs can be seen, hair begins to grow16 weeks: 4 ½” long, weighs 3-4 oz; human looking face, testicles of males position for descent. (can tell sex of fetus)Mother feels fetal movements, known as “quickening”Fetus blinks and begins suckingHeartbeat can be heard with fetal instruments (fetal doppler)Hearing fetus heartbeatFetus at 14 weeksFetal doppler
372nd Trimester (cont.)20-24 weeks: 12” long, major systems continue to develop, bones continue to form.Fetus may suck its thumbEyes remain sealed closedSurvival at this point of pregnancy is unlikelyFetus ~ end of 8th week till birth
393rd Trimester 28 Weeks: 14” and 2.5 lbs Viable with an increased threat from infection & immaturityMajor developments in 3rd tri: weight gain, growth in length, & maturation of organsAlthough viable, best place for growth & development is the uterus!38-40 weeks = FULL TERMFetal influences: whatever the mother consumes (alcohol, drugs, and tobacco can harm infant even in small amounts)fetus growth
40The Placenta Disc shaped structure about 7” in diameter and 1” thick. Highly vascularSite where nutrients and waste are exchanged between mother and baby.Oxygen, food and other nutrients diffuse from the mother’s blood to the embryo’sCarbon dioxide and other waste diffuse from the embryo’s blood into the mother’s blood to be excreted.placenta images