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Prenatal, Birth, and Postnatal Periods.  moment of conception fixes your genetic make-up  BUT, from that moment, a single cell begins to adapt to its.

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Presentation on theme: "Prenatal, Birth, and Postnatal Periods.  moment of conception fixes your genetic make-up  BUT, from that moment, a single cell begins to adapt to its."— Presentation transcript:

1 Prenatal, Birth, and Postnatal Periods

2  moment of conception fixes your genetic make-up  BUT, from that moment, a single cell begins to adapt to its environment. Within 9 mos. increases in size two hundred billion times!

3  Transaction between special organism ◦ Zygote - a single-cell fertilized ovum ◦ Unique genetic code  Specialized Environment ◦ Species Typical  Fertilization in fallopian tube (oviduct)  Implantation in uterus  At birth- billions of specialized cells capable of surviving in complex environment

4  Ovum-Germinal Period ◦ ~ 2 - 14 days (travel)  Embryonic Period ◦ ~2 -8 weeks (implantation)  Fetal Period ◦ 8 -38 weeks (major development)

5  Starts as Zygote in fallopian tube  Mitosis produces duplication of cells  32 cell ball called morula  Blastula (Blastocyst) differentiates into: ◦ Embryoblast (Inner cell mass) – develops into the embryo ◦ Trophoblast (Outer protective layer)  Becomes amnion, chorio, placenta, allantois (umbilical cord) ◦ Ends at implantation in the uterus wall

6  Duplication of undifferentiated cells  As cellular reproduction continues, differentiation begins  By the time it enters uterus, two distinct masses have formed

7  Embryoblast ◦ Inner cell mass ◦ becomes the embryo  Trophoblast ◦ Outer layer of cells ◦ becomes  fetal membranes  amnion  chorion  allantois  Blastula (or blastocyst)- the embryoblast & trophoblast

8  Hormones prepare uterine environment Blastula sends out tendrils  Marks end of Germinal Period  Marks the beginning of Embryonic Period

9  Endoderm ◦ Innermost ◦ Becomes digestive, respiratory, internal organs (pancreas & liver)  Mesoderm ◦ Center Layer ◦ Muscles, bones, circ. system  Ectoderm ◦ Outermost ◦ Hair, Skin, CNS

10  Starts when all basic structures are complete  Period of refinement for survival in outside world

11  Cephalo-caudal ◦ Head - tail (foot)  Proximo-distal ◦ Near-far  Gross - fine ◦ basic - refined

12  Substances or agents present prenatally that cause physical or psychological abnormalities  Laws of developmental direction mean that timing is important  Generally speaking, those having effects during embryonic development will have greater harmful outcomes

13  Maternal Diseases  Drugs  Environmental Hazards  Maternal Characteristics

14 ◦ Toxoplasmosis  potentially serious disease caused by parasite in undercooked meat and cat feces Passed to fetus through the placenta Possible Fetal Complications:  Visual defects & Blindness  Hearing Loss  Mental Retardation  Seizures  Cerebral Defects  Low Birth Weight

15 ◦ Cytomegalovirus (CMV)  Caused by type of herpes virus Passed to fetus as it passes through birth canal of infected mother or through the breast feeding Possible fetal complications (which may appear for the next few years):  Mental Retardation  Hearing Loss  Microcephaly

16 ◦ Rubella  Caused by a flu-like virus  so damaging to the fetus during the first 16 weeks of pregnancy that universal immunization is crucial Passed to the fetus through the placenta Possible fetal complications: (during first 16 weeks after conception):  Visual Defects / Blindness  Hearing Loss / Deafness  Cardiovascular Defects  Neurological Defects (including AUTISTIC SYMPTOMS!)  growth retardation

17 ◦ Genital Herpes  viral infection caused by the herpes simplex virus  remains in nerve cells causing periodic recurrences Passed to the fetus in 3 ways:  1) through the uterus  2) passing through the birth canal  3) immediately after birth Possible fetal complications:  Visual Defects / Blindness  Cerebral Defects

18  Cigarette Smoking Increases chances of:  ectopic pregnancy or miscarriage  Low birth weight babies (< 5.5 lbs) results from pre- term delivery and/or poor intrauterine growth Increased risk of chronic disabilities (e.g., cerebral palsy, mental retardation, learning problems)

19  Alcohol Intake Even moderate amounts place fetus at risk of:  Lower IQ  Attention Deficits  Learning Deficits  Reduced Social Competence First Trimester exposure: skull and facial abnormalities Later in pregnancy: postnatal growth affected

20  Radiation  fetal brain most vulnerable to radiation exposure 8 th – 15 th week of pregnancy  Decrease in IQ scores  Impaired school performance  Susceptibility to seizures  Changes in the occurrence of major features of physical development

21  Maternal Age  Malnutrition ◦ Effect in Last Trimester ◦ Nutritional demands of late fetus is greatest

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23  Apgar  developed by Dr. Virginia Apgar in 1953. It is administered at 1 minute after birth and again at 5 minutes after birth. A perfect score is 10 see table on page 126 A = Appearance color should be completely pink P = Pulse heart rate should be adequate (over 100 beats per minute) G = Grimace - reflex irritability vigorous cries or withdrawal A = Activity muscle tone should be strong, an active motion R = Respiration a good, strong cry

24  Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS-R)  developed by Dr. Berry Brazelton in 1973 and revised in 2000 A detailed look at the child’s physical and behavioral functioning shortly after birth Used to assess behavioral capabilities of newborns up to 20 days of age Looks at 28 behaviors and 18 reflexes in these 7 areas:  HabituationSocial InteractionMotor State Organization  ReflexesState Regulation Autonomic System

25  Sensory Capability - Receptors ◦ vision ◦ hearing ◦ smelling ◦ tasting ◦ feeling  Sensation - firing of receptors by stimulus  Perception - interpretation of sensory input

26  Nativism - innate - nature  Empiricism - experience - nurture  Behavioral Systems Approach – ◦ Perception is due to both

27  Common to all methods - Change in Behavior correlated with change in Stimulus

28  Visual Preference (Fantz)  Visual Cliff (E. Gibson & Walk)  Habituation-Dishabituation  Operant Conditioning Procedures

29  Looking Chamber  Reflection of stimulus on cornea  The “Basic Problem” ◦ Change in behavior - time gazing ◦ Change in stimulus - different visual stimuli  Limitations –  There may be perception even though there is no preference

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31  Depth Perception  “Deep” vs. “Shallow” end  Mother entices the child to crawl  Limitations ◦ Child or kid must be ambulatory ◦ Overcome by monitoring heart rate of babies suspended over each end (Campos)

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33  Babies can’t suck & listen (watch) at same time.  Establish sucking response  Disrupt it with repeated stimulus (e.g., “Pa”)  With repetition of Pa, child habituates ◦ sucking returns  A new stimulus (e.g., “Ba”) is introduced  If child perceives difference between Ba & Pa, sucking stops - Dishabituation

34  Behaviors which are reinforced become more frequent  Researcher reinforces response to one stimulus and not to another  If child perceives difference between stimuli than will respond more to reinforced stimulus

35  Perception ◦ Responses: e.g., head turning, sucking, kicking ◦ Reinforcers: e.g., mother’s voice, milk, visual stimuli, heartbeat.  Memory & Cognition ◦ Kicking mobile in presence of an X produces conjugate reinforcement ◦ In later testing immediate kicking when X is present shows recall of contingency (remembering)

36  Early Perception ◦ Dr. Seuss passages read by mothers in last trimester. ◦ Infants suck to produce mother-read passages.  Early Socialization ◦ Infant social referencing.

37  Some abilities are hard wired  Examples ◦ Detect light from dark ◦ Detect horizontal from vertical ◦ Detect sound (phoneme) boundaries

38  Hard - Wired  Present at birth  Do not need much experience ◦ Unlearned thus “Unconditioned”  Reflex is not a behavior but stimulus- behavior relationship

39  Consummatory  Defensive  Social

40  1. Reflexes May Stay the Same  2. Reflexes May Disappear  3. Reflexes May Be Elicited by New Stimuli - Respondent Conditioning  4. Reflexes May be Elaborated into New Behaviors - Operant Conditioning

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