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Prenatal Development. Conception Definition: the moment when the male and female reproductive cells unite; also called fertilization... 3 stages of Conception:

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Presentation on theme: "Prenatal Development. Conception Definition: the moment when the male and female reproductive cells unite; also called fertilization... 3 stages of Conception:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Prenatal Development

2 Conception Definition: the moment when the male and female reproductive cells unite; also called fertilization... 3 stages of Conception: 1) Period of the Ovum/Zygote 2) Period of the Embryo 3) Period of the Fetus

3 Period of the Ovum/Zygote: The fertilized egg is about the size of a pinhead Passes through the Fallopian tube (0-4 days apprx) Point at which conception takes place The fertilized egg then attaches itself to the lining of the uterus.

4 Period of the Embryo: A sac of amniotic fluid forms; placenta has formed & begins to grow. Bones and organs begin to form The face and limbs begin to take shape Nourishment begins to pass from the placenta through the umbilical cord.

5 Period of the Fetus The period in which the majority of people believe a baby actually exists The baby begins to add fat beneath the skin Fetus assumes the fetal position The baby begins to move: “quickening” occurs The heartbeat can be heard through a stethoscope The baby is upside-down, head nestled in the mother’s pelvis The unborn baby begins to suck its thumb, cough, sneeze, hiccup and yawn.


7 Early Signs of Pregnancy: Morning Sickness Missed period; very light spotting Fatigue Enlarged and tender breasts Nausea, bloating and sometimes food cravings Increased need to urinate

8 1 st Trimester: Months 1, 2, & 3 (1 – 13 weeks) Medical Care: Pregnancy test to confirm First exam with obstetrician or mid-wife Discussions about menstrual history, other pregnancies/miscarriages, diseases or genetic problems in either family. Urine specimen, blood pressure, possibly a blood test for anemia (low iron), and pelvic exam to determine size & position of uterus. Discussion of due date

9 How you feeling? Excited Anxious Morning sickness Fatigue Minimal weight gain (maybe 5-10lbs) Frequent urination, pressure on bladder Changes in hormones, mood swings Tenderness of breasts, increased size

10 Fetal Development By 3 rd month: Nostrils, mouth, lips, teeth buds and eyelids form Fingers and toes are almost complete Gender is evident Heartbeat can be heard with stethoscope All organs are present though immature.

11 2 nd Trimester: Months 4, 5 & 6 (14-27 weeks) Medical Care: Regular monthly visits to doctor/mid-wife First Ultrasound (usually 18-22 weeks) Amniocentesis (if required, usually 15-18wks) for mothers over age of 35yrs at a higher risk of chromosomal disorders like Down Syndrome; done at a medical center; carries slight risk of miscarriage. Multiple Marker Screening(s) – blood work that tests for genetic defects and gestational diabetes Chronic Villus Sampling (during 10-11week) – first test that can be performed during pregnancy for Cystic Fibrosis and Down Syndrome; procedure done at a medical center; carries slightly higher risk of miscarriage than ammnio.

12 How are you feeling? Accelerated weight gain (10-20lbs) Morning sickness is gone Maternity clothes become necessary Quickening occurring – feeling the baby move inside you is the highlight of second trimester (usually somewhere around 4-5 th month or 20 weeks) Sensitivity to smells is possible Clumsiness, forgetfulness – center of gravity is changing, ligaments are stretching & loosening Discomforts: backaches, constipation, heartburn, leg cramps, bleeding gums, hair loss, dizziness Good things: shiny hair, nail growth, “glowing” look about you

13 Fetal Development Fourth Month: Skin is less transparent than before Fine hair covers the body called lanugo The fetus can suck its thumb, swallow, hiccup & move around Facial features become clearer.

14 Fetal development Fifth Month: Hair, eyelashes & brows appear, Teeth continue to develop, Organs are maturing, Hands are able to grip, The fetus becomes more active. Sixth Month: Eyes open & close Muscles in the arms & legs strengthen, Fat deposits begin to appear beneath wrinkly skin, Breathing movements begin.

15 3 rd Trimester: Months 7, 8 & 9 (28 – 40 weeks) Medical Care: Regular monthly visits up to 9 th month at which they become weekly Blood pressure checks, weight gain checks (1 oz/day), fetal movement checks Hospital visit & tour Discussion about delivery options, etc.

16 How are you feeling? By 9 th month, increased fatigue, discomfort, & difficulty with mobility Frequent urination, constipation, hemmorhoids, difficulty sleeping, varicose veins, swollen ankles & feet, shortness of breath (weight gain + uterus is pushing on diaphragm) Lightening –when the fetus drops lower into the abdomen and settles in, preparing for delivery. Anxiousness

17 Fetal Development 7 th Month A thick white protective coating called vernix covers the fetus, Nervous, circulatory & other systems mature, Periods of fetal activity are followed by periods of rest & quiet.

18 Fetal Development 8 th Month: Fetus hears sounds & may be startled by sudden noises; Fetus usually moves into head-down position. 9 th Month: Increased fat under skin (plumping) Decreases fetal movement Fetus gaining disease- fighting antibodies Descends into pelvis, preparing for birth.

19 Average weight gain? The recommended weight gain for the average woman is 25-30 lbs Baby............................................... 3.5kg (7.5 lbs) Placenta........................................ 0.5kg (1.5 lbs) Amniotic Fluid............................... 1 kg (2 lbs) Uterine Enlargement..................... 1 kg (2 lbs) Breast Growth............................... 1 kg (2 lbs) Fluids & Blood............................... 4 kg (8 lbs) Fat & Nutrient Stores.................... 3 kg (7 lbs) Average Gain............................. 15 kg (30 lbs) “Nine months on, nine months off”

20 Q: What is most important factor in good prenatal development? Adequate Activity, Rest & a Balanced Diet Exercise Water Normal weight gain (all four food groups) Calcium, iron & Folic acid* Reducing stress

21 Benefits of Exercise?

22 Benefits of exercise? Less weight gain = easier to take off after baby is born Increases stamina during labour & delivery process Sleep better Good breathing patterns Helps ease physical discomforts, like backache, constipation, heartburn Need to be aware of limitations however – can’t push it!

23 Q: What should be avoided during pregnancy? Teratogens (tuh-RAT-uh-juhns): drugs, alcohol, smoking, infections (flu, colds, chicken pox), and harmful fumes like household cleaners, hair-care products, paint products and lead. Caffeine – can increase risk of miscarriage Medications (including antihistamines, decongestants) can cause deformities X-rays & radiation All women should be aware that a fetus is like a sponge – every substance gets transmitted to the developing fetus and irreversible damage could occur

24 The Toxic Baby ml

25 Q: What else can I do? Childbirth Classes – run throughout the pregnancy, help decrease the anxiety of the “unknown” Selecting a birth location (hospital or home?) Child birth coach? (Doula) Delivery options (whirlpool tub, shower, epidural) Finding a Pediatrician Educate yourself: breast vs bottle feeding; disposable vs cloth; Parental leave options; Prepare siblings & animals

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