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Prenatal Development. Conception Definition: the moment when the male and female reproductive cells unite; also called fertilization... 3 stages of Conception:

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Presentation on theme: "Prenatal Development. Conception Definition: the moment when the male and female reproductive cells unite; also called fertilization... 3 stages of Conception:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Prenatal Development

2 Conception Definition: the moment when the male and female reproductive cells unite; also called fertilization... 3 stages of Conception: 1) Period of the Ovum/Zygote 2) Period of the Embryo 3) Period of the Fetus

3 Period of the Ovum/Zygote: The fertilized egg is about the size of a pinhead Passes through the Fallopian tube (0-4 days apprx) Point at which conception takes place The fertilized egg then attaches itself to the lining of the uterus.

4 Period of the Embryo: A sac of amniotic fluid forms; placenta has formed & begins to grow. Bones and organs begin to form The face and limbs begin to take shape Nourishment begins to pass from the placenta through the umbilical cord.

5 Period of the Fetus The period in which the majority of people believe a baby actually exists The baby begins to add fat beneath the skin Fetus assumes the fetal position The baby begins to move: “quickening” occurs The heartbeat can be heard through a stethoscope The baby is upside-down, head nestled in the mother’s pelvis The unborn baby begins to suck its thumb, cough, sneeze, hiccup and yawn.

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7 Early Signs of Pregnancy: Morning Sickness Missed period; very light spotting Fatigue Enlarged and tender breasts Nausea, bloating and sometimes food cravings Increased need to urinate

8 1 st Trimester: Months 1, 2, & 3 (1 – 13 weeks) Medical Care: Pregnancy test to confirm First exam with obstetrician or mid-wife Discussions about menstrual history, other pregnancies/miscarriages, diseases or genetic problems in either family. Urine specimen, blood pressure, possibly a blood test for anemia (low iron), and pelvic exam to determine size & position of uterus. Discussion of due date

9 How you feeling? Excited Anxious Morning sickness Fatigue Minimal weight gain (maybe 5-10lbs) Frequent urination, pressure on bladder Changes in hormones, mood swings Tenderness of breasts, increased size

10 Fetal Development By 3 rd month: Nostrils, mouth, lips, teeth buds and eyelids form Fingers and toes are almost complete Gender is evident Heartbeat can be heard with stethoscope All organs are present though immature.

11 2 nd Trimester: Months 4, 5 & 6 (14-27 weeks) Medical Care: Regular monthly visits to doctor/mid-wife First Ultrasound (usually weeks) Amniocentesis (if required, usually 15-18wks) for mothers over age of 35yrs at a higher risk of chromosomal disorders like Down Syndrome; done at a medical center; carries slight risk of miscarriage. Multiple Marker Screening(s) – blood work that tests for genetic defects and gestational diabetes Chronic Villus Sampling (during 10-11week) – first test that can be performed during pregnancy for Cystic Fibrosis and Down Syndrome; procedure done at a medical center; carries slightly higher risk of miscarriage than ammnio.

12 How are you feeling? Accelerated weight gain (10-20lbs) Morning sickness is gone Maternity clothes become necessary Quickening occurring – feeling the baby move inside you is the highlight of second trimester (usually somewhere around 4-5 th month or 20 weeks) Sensitivity to smells is possible Clumsiness, forgetfulness – center of gravity is changing, ligaments are stretching & loosening Discomforts: backaches, constipation, heartburn, leg cramps, bleeding gums, hair loss, dizziness Good things: shiny hair, nail growth, “glowing” look about you

13 Fetal Development Fourth Month: Skin is less transparent than before Fine hair covers the body called lanugo The fetus can suck its thumb, swallow, hiccup & move around Facial features become clearer.

14 Fetal development Fifth Month: Hair, eyelashes & brows appear, Teeth continue to develop, Organs are maturing, Hands are able to grip, The fetus becomes more active. Sixth Month: Eyes open & close Muscles in the arms & legs strengthen, Fat deposits begin to appear beneath wrinkly skin, Breathing movements begin.

15 3 rd Trimester: Months 7, 8 & 9 (28 – 40 weeks) Medical Care: Regular monthly visits up to 9 th month at which they become weekly Blood pressure checks, weight gain checks (1 oz/day), fetal movement checks Hospital visit & tour Discussion about delivery options, etc.

16 How are you feeling? By 9 th month, increased fatigue, discomfort, & difficulty with mobility Frequent urination, constipation, hemmorhoids, difficulty sleeping, varicose veins, swollen ankles & feet, shortness of breath (weight gain + uterus is pushing on diaphragm) Lightening –when the fetus drops lower into the abdomen and settles in, preparing for delivery. Anxiousness

17 Fetal Development 7 th Month A thick white protective coating called vernix covers the fetus, Nervous, circulatory & other systems mature, Periods of fetal activity are followed by periods of rest & quiet.

18 Fetal Development 8 th Month: Fetus hears sounds & may be startled by sudden noises; Fetus usually moves into head-down position. 9 th Month: Increased fat under skin (plumping) Decreases fetal movement Fetus gaining disease- fighting antibodies Descends into pelvis, preparing for birth.

19 Average weight gain? The recommended weight gain for the average woman is lbs Baby kg (7.5 lbs) Placenta kg (1.5 lbs) Amniotic Fluid kg (2 lbs) Uterine Enlargement kg (2 lbs) Breast Growth kg (2 lbs) Fluids & Blood kg (8 lbs) Fat & Nutrient Stores kg (7 lbs) Average Gain kg (30 lbs) “Nine months on, nine months off”

20 Q: What is most important factor in good prenatal development? Adequate Activity, Rest & a Balanced Diet Exercise Water Normal weight gain (all four food groups) Calcium, iron & Folic acid* Reducing stress

21 Benefits of Exercise?

22 Benefits of exercise? Less weight gain = easier to take off after baby is born Increases stamina during labour & delivery process Sleep better Good breathing patterns Helps ease physical discomforts, like backache, constipation, heartburn Need to be aware of limitations however – can’t push it!

23 Q: What should be avoided during pregnancy? Teratogens (tuh-RAT-uh-juhns): drugs, alcohol, smoking, infections (flu, colds, chicken pox), and harmful fumes like household cleaners, hair-care products, paint products and lead. Caffeine – can increase risk of miscarriage Medications (including antihistamines, decongestants) can cause deformities X-rays & radiation All women should be aware that a fetus is like a sponge – every substance gets transmitted to the developing fetus and irreversible damage could occur

24 The Toxic Baby ml

25 Q: What else can I do? Childbirth Classes – run throughout the pregnancy, help decrease the anxiety of the “unknown” Selecting a birth location (hospital or home?) Child birth coach? (Doula) Delivery options (whirlpool tub, shower, epidural) Finding a Pediatrician Educate yourself: breast vs bottle feeding; disposable vs cloth; Parental leave options; Prepare siblings & animals


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