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(B.V. Sc., M. V. Sc. Ph. D) yahoo. COM December 2005 6.

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Presentation on theme: "(B.V. Sc., M. V. Sc. Ph. D) yahoo. COM December 2005 6."— Presentation transcript:

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2 (B.V. Sc., M. V. Sc. Ph. D) yahoo. COM December

3 What is the goal of pregnancy ?

4 unfortunately Failure in reproduction will be occurred :

5 Pregnancy wastage is responsible for most gestation failures in farm animals. Pregnancy wastage can be divided into:

6 death

7 * Failure of fertilization and Early embryonic loss. * Late embryonic and early fetal death. * Fetal death. * Abortion.

8 This mean, the cow returns to estrus regularly at normal interval each insemination. Failure of fertilization

9 Causes:  Infertile bull (natural mating)  Handling of Semen  Storage of Semen  Time of insemination.  Site of insemination.  Delayed Ovulation.  Abnormal uterine environment. A.I

10  When the embryo dies before day 14 of the estrous cycle then the life span C.L is not prolonged and the cow returns to at a normal interval. Early embryonic death

11  Genetic defects → defect in the embryo itself there is clearly a lack of cytogenetic evidence  Deficient maternal environment → which mediated by inadequate luteal function within the first few days of conception.  Sudden changes in diet during the critical early embryonic phase which influence upon the uterine environment (protein trace elements). Cause :

12  Infection and endocrine imbalance create an adverse environment with in the uterus that prevents the normal development of the embryo.  Luteal deficiency may result in embryonic death  Stress ( especially heat stress) which create imbalance between oxidant and antioxidants.

13 Two possible approaches in the prevention of these early losses are: 1- GnRH injection 2-Progesterone supplementation Before day 6-7 These two approaches leads to 10.3 % improvement in pregnancy rate. How can you prevent these early losses?

14 - About 10% of late embryos die between days. A smaller % of early fetal death occurs after this stage. - The lifespan of the CL in all cases is extended (this means prolonged interval between successive heats) Late embryonic or early fetal death:

15  The same as those for early embryonic death.  Genetic abnormality (4.8-26%)  Stress  Infections causes  Ageing of ova- Ageing of cow.  Pregnancy diagnosis. Cause :

16 If large numbers of animals in a herd are involved and if natural service is used and cows have a history of a mucopurulent Vulvae discharge → then campylobacter fetus infection should be expected. N.B:-

17  Intrauterine death of the fetus is not followed by abortion but the fetus is retained instead.  It occur between day 43 of gestation and term. Fetal death

18 * Early fetal death → can be followed by resorption of fetal fluids, autolysis of fetal tissue and membranes which are sometimes not detected. The consequences are :-

19 1- Stillbirth. 2- Fetal maceration 3- Mummification 4- Emphysema 5- Abortion.

20 Stillbirth is defined as the birth of a dead calf after 272 days of gestation. Most stillbirth, occur during the act of parturition. Stillbirth

21 Fetal maceration

22 This occurs as a consequence of fetal death, usually in mid- to late gestation, followed by:- -Regression of C.L and opening of the cervix - But the fetus is not aborted and remains in the genital tract -Bacteria enter the genital tract. - Its incidence is 0.09% of pregnancies. - Maceration with a closed cervix is rare.

23 - Usually a chronic, fetid reddish- gray watery or mucopurulent discharge from vulva over a period of several week. - may be toxic merits early but systemic illness sometime occur. - Gradual might loss. - No satisfactory treatment. - Poor breeding prognosis due to endometrial damage.

24 After fetal death There is resorption of fetal fluids - Dehydration of fetal tissue and associated membranes - persistence of the C.L. Its incidence is % of pregnancies. This condition occurs in the third to eighth month of gestation but mostly the fourth and sixth months. Fetal mummification

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26 The causes of F. mummification:  Genetic factor → there is a greater incidence in the Jersey, Guernsey breeds  Torsion or compression of the umbilical cord by its passing around a fetal extremity.  May follow infectious causes of fetal death such as campylobacter fetus, molds BVD- MD virus, leptospirsis but not brucella.  Trauma

27 - Fail to calve at the expected time. - Fails to show udder development. - On rectal palpation, a hard mass will be identified in the uterus. - No caruncles or cotyledons will be palpable - There is a weak of fremitus in the middle uterine artery. From a clinical point of view, this condition will be identified when a cow

28 Types of Fetal mummification The hematic type in cattle The papyraceous type in the other species Variable amount of hemorrhage occurs Between the endometrium and fetal Membranes↓ This occur after the plasma has been absorbed leaves a reddish- brown, gummy tenacious mass of cells, clots and mucus is not characterized by placental hemorrhage and the fetus is usually a brownish color and the fetal membranes are not covered with this reddish - brown material.

29  Termination of pregnancy and delivery of the fetus may be a goal of treatment.  Manual removal of the C.L is effective when the ovaries are easy reach (With risk ovarian damage or hemorrhage).  Single dos of PGF 2α (25mg) or mg of its analogue given intramuscularly will be expelled the fetal mummy within 3-5 days. Handling of mummified fetus (Treatment )

30  Total expulsion does not take place (because of insufficient lubrication) completely  Manual removal of the fetus will be occur with lubricant followed by  Uterine irrigation with antibiotic, sometime, use irrigation with 1: 2000 acriflavine or normal saline  Intramuscular dose of 10-20mg of ergometrine to overcome uterine atony.  Systemic antibiotic according to animal healthy condition  Breeding prognosis will be good and conceive in 1-3 months.

31 - Similar to maceration - Putrefactive bacteria invade through open cervix. - Fetal death may be associated with dystocia. - From the clinical point of view, the gross fetal changes include →Putrefaction distension with crepitation and dry hair. -Fetal emphysema complicating dystocia commonly Fetal to dam. - May be poor prognosis. Fetal emphysema

32  Abortion is defined as the expulsion of a dead or non-viable fetus at any stage of pregnancy before the time of normal parturition (late 2nd and 3rd trimester).  Its frequency is normal for 1-2% of pregnant cows.  if the % rises to 5% or more it should be investigated thoroughly. Abortion

33 - Causes, clinical finding, pathogenesis, handling, control and eradication were presentation in the another presentation ?

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