# Information Visualization: Application to Musical Alphabets By Jonathan Wesel.

## Presentation on theme: "Information Visualization: Application to Musical Alphabets By Jonathan Wesel."— Presentation transcript:

Information Visualization: Application to Musical Alphabets By Jonathan Wesel

Information Visualization “Unnatural” graphical representations of abstract data –Musical staff example –vs non-visual alternative?

Musical Representation Standard modern musical notation is credited to Pythagoras (Hall, 1928) Representation by human processing (Deutsch/Feroe, 1981)

Enhanced Visualization Gestalt Laws of Visual Perception –Similarity –Proiximity –Continuation Color –Color coding –Color and sound Visual cues –Music and motion.

Gestalt Laws Similarity : group similar elements

Gestalt Laws Similarity : group similar elements

Gestalt Laws Similarity : group similar elements problem…

Gestalt Laws Similarity : group similar elements problem… …solution

Gestalt Laws Proximity: group close elements

Gestalt Laws Proximity: group close elements Two groups…

Gestalt Laws Proximity and Similarity –comparison to similarity solution: Same result Proximity was used to solve similarity problem

Gestalt Laws Continuity: group elements to form smooth curves or lines –Meaningful color: Pitch ascent = rising colors Pitch descent = falling colors

Gestalt Laws Similarity, Proximity, & Continuity –Use/Effect requires experimentation

Color Pythagoras: –“Through vibration comes motion; through motion comes color; through color comes tone. Newton: –Split spectrum of light into 5 colors, then added 2 to “complete the octave”

Color The color of music (Schloss, 2008) –Participants chose colors that were most and least consistent with classical music they were presented with –A strong agreement was found between the colors chosen to be most consistent with the same musical selections.

Color Color in Music-Reading (Rogers, 1996) –Elementary students were taught rhythm by using notations in both color and black and white. –Hand clapping was used to demonstrate the students interpretation. –Students who used the colored notation scored higher in accuracy as well as noting greater enjoyment from the lessons.

Music and Motion Study, Barnes-Burroughs, 2004 –Students of music would follow the contour of a melody with their head and neck producing a negative result in the sound. –Can this be fixed by an alternative representation?

Music and Motion Suggestion –Mapped notes to colors –New representation

Music and Motion This visualization seems to solve the problem, but creates many more problems. (octaves ect…) This visualization is unlikely to be effective because it is too far from what is well known.

Conclusion Further research and experimentation must be done to determine effectiveness of… –Using Gestalt Laws –Using Color –Removing Contour

Sources Allchin, Douglas. "Newton's Colors." SHiPS Resource Center. 10 Oct. 2008. Barnes-Burroughs, Kathryn, Christopher Watts, Oren L. Brown, and Jeannette LoVetri. "The Visual/Kinesthetic Effects of Melodic Contour in Musical Notation as it Affects Vocal Timbre in Singers of Classical and Music Theater Repertoire." Journal of Voice 19 (2004): 441-19. "Color Music--Found Images and the Second Perfect Number." Weblog post. Ptak Science Books. 18 May 2008. 10 Nov. 2008. Deutch, Diana, John Feroe, "The Internal Representation of Pitch Sequences in Tonal Music. ” Psychological Review 88 (1981): 504-522. Doleisch, Helmut. Visual Interactive Analysis Research Group. n.d. 21 Sept. 2008 http://www.vrvis.at/via/. http://www.vrvis.at/via/ Ellis, Willis D. A Source Book of Gestalt Psychology. New York: Harcourt, Brace & Co, 1938. Hall, Manly P. "The Pythagorean Theory of Music and Color." The Secret Teachings of All Ages. 1928. 81-84.

Sources Havre, Susan L, Anuj Shah, Christian Posse, et al. Diverse Information Integration and Visualization. n.d. 21 Sept. 2008 http://infoviz.pnl.gov/pdf/SPIE_proceedings_6060_22.pdf.http://infoviz.pnl.gov/pdf/SPIE_proceedings_6060_22.pdf Keller, Tanja, Peter Gerjets, Katharina Scheiter, and Barbel Garsoffky, “ Information visualizations for knowledge acquisition: The impact of dimensionality and color coding. ” Computers in Human Behavior 22 (2006): 43-65 Lengler, Ralph and Martin J. Eppler. A Periodic Table of Visualization Methods. n.d. 21 Sept. 2008 http://www.visual-literacy.org/periodic_table/periodic_table.html. http://www.visual-literacy.org/periodic_table/periodic_table.html Li, Xuelong Li, Dacheng Tao, Stephen J. Maybank, and Yuan Yuan, “ Visual music and musical vision ” Neurocomputing 71 (2008): 2023-2028 Rogers, George L. "Effect of Colored Rhythmic Notation on Music-Reading Skills of Elementary Students." Journal of Research in Music Education 44 (1996): 15-25 Sahling, Gerald Nikolaus. Interactive 3D Scatterplots - From High Dimensional Data to Insight. n.d. 21 Sept. 2008 Schloss, Karen B., Partrick Lawler, and Stephen E. Palmer. "The color of music." Journal of Vision 8 (2008): 580.