5 Local Water And Beer Beer Styles came from local brewing water Burton Ale came from hard, high carbonate waterVienna Lager came from hard, medium carbonate waterGuinness Stout came from medium hard, high carbonate waterOktoberfest came from medium hard, medium carbonate water.Pilsner came from very soft, low carbonate water
6 Hard vs. Soft Water“Hard water” refers to the scale that forms on pipes, and being “hard” for soap to lather.“Hardness” is a function of Calcium, Magnesium, Iron, Mangenese, etc.“Soft” just means that there is low Calcium and Magnesium.Hard and Soft are only half the story, the other half is the Alkalinity.
7 Reading a Water Analysis Table 1 - Water Report for Las Vegas Valley WD (2003)(All values, except pH, in parts per million (ppm) (1 ppm = 1 mg/l)17 ppm = 1 grain of hardness/gallon (gpg)Moderate BicarbonateModerate HardnessHigh SulfateModerate SodiumModerate Chloride
8 These Numbers are Annual AVERAGES! Famous Brewing WatersThese Numbers are Annual AVERAGES!The averages are probably not representative of real ratios.
9 Mash pH IonsCalcium (Ca): ppm Important for most brewing biochemical reactions.Magnesium (Mg) ppm An essential nutrient, but usually not deficient. Acts similar to calcium.Bicarbonate/Carbonate ppm for pale beers for amber beers for dark beers Balances the natural acidity of the malt.Add Range of Hardness as CaCO3?
10 Flavor IonsSodium (Na) ppm Accentuates the sweetness of the malt. Excess can cause harsh bitterness w/sulfate.Chloride (Cl) ppm Rounds out the maltiness.Sulfate (SO4) ppm Accentuates the hop bitterness, makes it crispier. Excess causes harsh bitterness.
11 Water Adjustment for Extract Brewing Pre-treatmentOdors/tastes: Chlorine, Iron, Sulfur, metallic, etc.Carbon Filters, Campden Tablets, Water Softeners, Green SandFlavor TweakingSulfate for hop bitternessSodium/Chloride for Malt accentuationFermentation Issues (Rare)Zn, Ca, Mn, Mg = Yeast Nutrition, Beer Haze30 Years ago, malt extract was for bakingNow, mineral levels for mash chemistry fermentability have been done for you.
12 Water Adjustment for Steeping (Na, Cl, SO4) Same as for Extract(Ca, Mg, HCO3) Steeping pHIf your water is very high in bicarbonate, you may need calcium.Use a steeping ratio similar to mash 2-4 qts/lb.Ratio can be more dilute with darker maltsAstringency is usually due to being too hot.
13 Water Adjustment for All-Grain (Ca, Mg, HCO3) Mash pHCalcium, Magnesium, and Bicarbonate control the Residual Alkalinity.Residual Alkalinity combines with the grain bill to determine the mash pHMash pH determines fermentability, clarity, flavor, etc.(Na, Cl, SO4) Same as for Extract Brewing
14 Residual AlkalinityMash pH is the net effect of the hardness, alkalinity, and the grainbill.Residual Alkalinity = alkalinity - (Ca/3.5 + Mg/7)High RA means you should brew dark beersLow RA means you should brew light beers
15 Residual Alkalinity Nomograph Determine your Base Malt Mash pH
18 Neutralizing Alkalinity Neutralize 225 ppm Alkalinity as CaCO3
19 Neutralizing Alkalinity con’t Alkalinity can also be neutralized by adding acid to the mash.Lactic Acid (88% soln.) = mEq/mlSulfuric Acid (96% soln.) = 35 mEq/mlPhosphoric (86% soln.) = 30 mEq/mlDivide “Alkalinity As” by 50 to get mEq/L225 mg/L ÷ 50 = 4.5 mEq/LIf mash water volume is 4 Gal (15 L), then 15 x 4.5 = 67.5 mEq of acid are needed.Using Lactic acid: 67.5/11.8 = (6) ml of Lactic AcidRead New Brewing Lager Beer pp for more info
20 Acidifying the Sparge Usually Unnecessary! Malts have a lot of buffering power, which lasts until runnings fall below 1.008Acidifying the the mash water or sparge to 5.5 or 6 pH can cause the mash pH to be less than 4.5, which inhibits beta amylase and will affect the taste.Batch Sparge and No-sparge techniques can ensure that runnings never fall below 1.016
21 Summary You can adjust your brewing water chemistry if: You know where you areYou know where you are goingYou know how to get thereFor more info, seeHow To Brew (Palmer) – Chapter 15New Brewing Lager Beer (Noonan) – Chapter 3