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Rachel C. Johnson Cramer Fish Sciences & University of California Davis The road to extinction is paved with good intentions: Can hatchery and natural.

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Presentation on theme: "Rachel C. Johnson Cramer Fish Sciences & University of California Davis The road to extinction is paved with good intentions: Can hatchery and natural."— Presentation transcript:

1 Rachel C. Johnson Cramer Fish Sciences & University of California Davis The road to extinction is paved with good intentions: Can hatchery and natural salmon co-exist?

2 Salmon of the past Sabertooth salmon, Oncorhynchus rastrosus Twelve million years ago 400 pounds; 8-10 feet in length Chinook salmon runs Extinct At Risk Special concern Low or No Risk Not Evaluated

3 California salmon in the present Evolutionarily Significant Units JASONDJFMAMJ Fall run Adult Spawn Time Late Fall run Winter run Spring run Steelhead Data sources: Vogel and Marine, 1991; Hallock, 1983; CDFG, 1993 Candidate Endangered Threatened

4 California Chinook salmon trend Year Estimated spawner escapement 2,000,000 1,000, , , , , ,000 Dams Habitat Harvest Hatcheries Courtesy of Joe Merz, Cramer Fish Sciences

5 Reliance on hatcheries for harvest 90% ± 6% wild contribution 2002 Barnett-Johnson et al., Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences

6 Reliance on hatcheries for harvest Wild (Hatchery) 90% ± 6% wild contribution 2002 Barnett-Johnson et al., Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences % 55% Palmer-Zwahlen and Kormos Fisheries Branch Administrative Report Kormos et al., Fisheries Branch Administrative Report

7 ‘Optimal’ hatchery releases for harvest recoveries per 100,000 released Coleman National Fish Hatchery 2011 Ocean Recoveries Brood years Bay releases In-river releases Data source: Palmer-Zwahlen & Kormos. 2013

8 ‘Non-Optimal’ consequence to natural salmon Stray Coleman National Fish Hatchery 2011 Recovery rates recoveries per 100,000 released Brood years Homing Bay releases In-river releases Data source: Palmer-Zwahlen & Kormos 2013

9 Araki et al Science Fitness Effects and Domestication selection 40% reduction in fitness per captive generation Christie et al PNAS Hatchery fish spawning in the wild… Hatchery fish spawning in hatcheries... Double lifetime reproductive success compared to wild spawned in captivity

10 Where do the un-harvested hatchery fish return? Wild (Hatchery) Battle Creek Mill Creek Deer Creek Feather American Mokelumne Stanislaus Tuolumne Merced BAT (CNH) MIL/DEE AME (NIH) MOK (MOH) STA TUO MER (MEH) FRH (FRH) Wild (Hatchery) 90% ± 6% 52% 55% ~870,000 Data sources: Barnett-Johnson et al. 2007, Kormos et al. 2012, Palmer-Zwahlen and Kormos. 2013, Grandtab 2013 ~160,000~230,000 Escapement

11 Hatchery-origin fish return to hatcheries 2010 Fall run Chinook salmon escapement to hatcheries Data source: Kormos et al. 2013, Palmer-Zwahlen & Kormos Coleman Feather Nimbus Mokelumne Merced Hatchery origin Natural origin

12 Hatchery-origin fish return to hatcheries 2010 Fall run Chinook salmon escapement to hatcheries Data source: Kormos et al. 2013, Palmer-Zwahlen & Kormos Coleman Feather Nimbus Mokelumne Merced Hatchery origin Natural origin Nimbus Feather Coleman Mokelumne

13 Many hatchery fish spawn in rivers 2010 Hatchery origin Natural origin Clear Creek Upper Sacramento Butte Creek Feather River Yuba River American River Mokelumne River Stanislaus River Merced River Tuolumne River Hatchery origin Natural origin Clear Creek Upper Sacramento Butte Creek Feather River Yuba River American River Mokelumne River Stanislaus River Merced River Tuolumne River Cottonwood Creek 60% 70%

14 GoalHatchery Scientific Review Group Criteria Minimize hatchery-origin spawners in the wild (pHOS) pHOS < 30% Maximize natural-origin broodstock in hatchery (pNOB) pNOB > 10% Maximize proportionate natural influence (PNI). pNOB/(pHOS+pNOB) > 50% Integrated Hatchery Guidelines

15 Hatchery and River PNOB >.10 PHOS <.30 PNI >.50 PNOB >.10 PHOS <.30 PNI >.50 CNFH/Upper Sacramento Feather River Hatchery/Feather River Nimbus Hatchery/American River Mokelumne hatchery/Mokelumne River Merced Hatchery/Merced River Clear Creek Cottonwood Creek 0.58 Butte Creek Yuba River Stanislaus River Tuolumne River Assessment of California’s hatcheries & rivers

16 Hatchery and River PNOB >.10 PHOS <.30 PNI >.50 PNOB >.10 PHOS <.30 PNI >.50 CNFH/Upper Sacramento Feather River Hatchery/Feather River Nimbus Hatchery/American River Mokelumne hatchery/Mokelumne River Merced Hatchery/Merced River Clear Creek Cottonwood Creek 0.58 Butte Creek Yuba River Stanislaus River Tuolumne River Assessment of California’s hatcheries & rivers

17 Extinction risk due to hatchery influence High risk Moderate risk Low risk In Lindley et al Generations Strays from within basin % Hatchery spawners Interior Columbia Basin Tech. Recovery Team 2005 Generation

18 Majority of salmon spawn in natural areas In-river spawners Grandtab 2013 Hatchery spawners Years Number of fall-run

19 Majority of salmon spawn in natural areas In-river spawners Grandtab 2013 Hatchery spawners Years Number of fall-run

20 Cohort replacement rates of natural populations Cohort replacement

21 Conclusions Off-site releases- harvest vs. straying Management scenarios HSRG criteria currently unmet for hatcheries Identification of hatchery fish Hatchery strays contribute to ‘high’ risk of extinction

22 Thanks! Special thanks to: Brett Kormos & Melodie Palmer-Zwahlen California Department of Fish and Wildlife Ocean Salmon Project

23 Hatchery Scientific Review Group’s Issues/Recommendations (14) Issue: Off-site releases promote unacceptable levels of straying among populations Recommendation: In-river release of juvenile hatchery production Issue: Marking/tagging programs are needed for real-time identification of all hatchery Chinook salmon Recommendation: Tag 100% of hatchery production with coded- wire-tags and 25% should be adipose fin-clipped California Hatchery Review Project, June 2012 Issue: Harvest management of fall-run Chinook salmon should account for productivity of naturally spawning adults Recommendation: Revise harvest rate to explicitly account for the status and productivity of fall Chinook salmon spawning in natural areas

24 Genetically distinct ‘ecotypes’ in Lake Washington Deep-bodied beach typeSlender river type Science 2000

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26 Hatchery-origin fish do return to hatcheries Fall run Chinook salmon escapement to hatcheries Data source: Kormos et al. 2013, Palmer-Zwahlen & Kormos Coleman Feather Nimbus Mokelumne Merced Hatchery origin Natural origin Coleman Feather Nimbus Mokelumne Merced

27 Many hatchery fish spawn in rivers 2010 Hatchery origin Natural origin Clear Creek Upper Sacramento Butte Creek Feather River Yuba River American River Mokelumne River Stanislaus River Merced River Tuolumne River

28 California Chinook salmon trend Year Estimated spawner escapement 2,000,000 1,000, , , , , ,000 Dams Habitat Harvest Hatcheries Courtesy of Joe Merz, Cramer Fish Sciences


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