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Tribal Hatchery Science Principles "Knowledge is a tool, and like all tools, its impact is in the hands of the user(s)“ - Dan Brown, The Lost Symbol.

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Presentation on theme: "Tribal Hatchery Science Principles "Knowledge is a tool, and like all tools, its impact is in the hands of the user(s)“ - Dan Brown, The Lost Symbol."— Presentation transcript:

1 Tribal Hatchery Science Principles "Knowledge is a tool, and like all tools, its impact is in the hands of the user(s)“ - Dan Brown, The Lost Symbol

2  Quantify both the benefits and risks of hatchery actions. Robust monitoring linked with adaptive management Applied research (limited academic)  Minimize marking and handling of fish.  Utilize traditional ecological knowledge in addition to contemporary science.  Collaborative with co-managers.  Integrated with other management action evaluations.

3 Holistic Management Requires Holistic Evaluations Regional Collaboration Habitat Protection and Restoration Harvest Regulation Conservation Enforcement Mainstem and Tributary Passage Artificial Propagation

4 Hatchery Program Types Harvest Augmentation (Fishery) Programs: Fish on the table. Reintroduction Programs: Fish in habitat and fish on the table. Supplementation (Conservation) Programs: Rebuild natural production and fish on the table.

5 88 million salmon and steelhead All hatchery programs are NOT the same

6 Accountability Adaptive Management

7 1) Define desired resource condition 2) Determine resource status 3) Identify limiting factor(s) 4) Develop management options 5) Apply selected management action(s) 6) Monitor and evaluate results 7) Modify/adjust management action or goals 8) Monitor and evaluate results

8 Local  NPTH M&E Action Plan (Hesse and Cramer 2000)  NEOH M&E Plan (Harbeck et al. 2006)  JCAPE M&E Plan (Vogel et al. 2004)  YKFP spring Chin. M&E Plan (Busack et al. 1997)  Nat. prod. Domestication Mon. plan (Busack et al. 2006) Regional  Collaborative System-wide Monitoring and Evaluation Project (CSMEP) Hatchery Subgroup  Hatchery Scientific Review Group (HSRG)  Ad Hoc Supplementation Work Group (AHSWG)  Standardized Performance Measures

9 1. Implementation & Compliance Monitoring 2. Hatchery Effectiveness Monitoring a) Long-term Trend (BACI, T/C) b) Relative Reproductive Success (RSS) 3. Uncertainties Research Monitoring Three Tiered Monitoring Framework

10  Hatchery - wild broodstock composition  Rearing density  Size at release  Number of fish released  Post-release survival  Release location  Harvest  Adult escapement and composition Implementation and Compliance (All Hatcheries)

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12 Draft Management Escapement Goal (39,110) NOAA’s Viability Abundance Threshold 3,000 Natural-Origin Spawners Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon First adult returns from supplementation

13 Effectiveness Monitoring (subset of supplementation programs) Natural production Life history characteristics Genetic diversity Effects on non-target populations Restoring / maintaining fisheries Optimize effectiveness Status & trends of natural populations Communicate M&E findings

14 Upp. Yak.Naches Pre-Supp Post- Supp. 1, %157% Effectiveness Monitoring Example Long-term Trend (T/C)

15 Upper Yakima vs Naches Natural-Origin Returns, Upp. Yak.Naches Pre-Supp.3,1031,394 Post- Supp. 3,3071,282 Post/Pre

16 Effectiveness Monitoring Example Relative Reproductive Success “ Supportive breeding boosts natural population abundance with minimal negative impacts on fitness of wild Chinook salmon in Johnson Creek” Maureen Hess, C. Rabe, J. Vogel, J. Stephenson, D. Nelson, and S. Narum Molecular Ecology, 2012

17 WA OR ID Johnson Creek, adult weir  Nez Perce Tribe initiated supplementation program in 1998 Study system Wild Hat Wild Hat  Only wild-origin returns used for broodstock First study to evaluate lifetime reproductive success of Chinook salmon in the wild at the initiation of supportive breeding

18 i.) Is a demographic boost provided by the hatchery? Wild Hatchery environment Wild environment Johnson Creek Relative Reproductive Success Results

19 Females Males Jacks Hat 2002, 4yr from BY , 5yr from BY1998 3yr jacks BY , 4yr from BY2000 Overall RRS Wild  RRS estimates very similar and not statistically significant between any group of hatchery and wild fish ii.) Is there a difference in reproductive success between SUCCESSFUL hatchery-reared and wild-origin fish spawning naturally? Johnson Creek Relative Reproductive Success Results

20 W W H W H H XXX Mating type (spawn in natural environment)  No evidence of reduction in fitness of wild fish when they mate with hatchery fish iii.) Do hatchery-reared fish have a negative genetic impact on wild fish when they mate with them? W W H W H H XXX  No significant difference in RS of mating types Johnson Creek Relative Reproductive Success Results

21 Uncertainties Research Example Artificial Stream At Cle Elum Dd127 long x 7.9 m wideMeabn Dnnepnth 0.4 mDd127 long x 7.9 m wideMeabn Dnnepnth 0.4 m

22 Confounding Factors Can Be Controlled Physical Environment (Gravel, Water Velocity & Depth) Fish ( No., Type, Maturation, Condition, Entrance Timing) DNA (All Adults & Subsample Of Fry) Behavior (Correlate Individual Behavior with Fish Origin & Breeding Success)

23 Behavior and Breeding Success of Wild and First-Generation Hatchery Male Spring Chinook Salmon Spawning in an Artificial Stream S.L. Schroder, C.M. Knudsen, T.N. Pearsons, T.W. Kassler, S.F. Young, E.P. Beall and D.E. Fast Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 139: “Pedigree analyses based on DNA showed that hatchery and wild males had comparable breeding success values.”

24 Breeding Success of Wild and First-Generation Hatchery Female Spring Chinook Salmon Spawning in an Artificial Stream S.L. Schroder, C.M. Knudsen, T.N. Pearsons, T.W. Kassler, S.F. Young, C.A. Busack, and D.E. Fast Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 137: “No differences were detected in the egg deposition rates of wild and hatchery females. Pedigree assignments based on microsatellite DNA, however, showed that the eggs deposited by wild females survived to the fry stage at a 5.6% higher rate than those spawned by hatchery females.”

25 When Time and Breeding Location Were Controlled No Significant Genetic Differences Were Detected Between 1 st & 2 nd Generation Hatchery Spring Chinook Currently Comparing Similar Traits Between 1 st & 3 rd Generation Hatchery Spring Chinook

26 Questions? " Knowledge is a tool, and like all tools, its impact is in the hands of the user(s)“ - Dan Brown, The Lost Symbol


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