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HOW CELLS HARVEST CHEMICAL ENERGY. TWO FORMS OF RESPIRATION – RESPIRATION = BREATHING BREATHING IS ?? – CELLULAR RESPIRATION DEFINITION??

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Presentation on theme: "HOW CELLS HARVEST CHEMICAL ENERGY. TWO FORMS OF RESPIRATION – RESPIRATION = BREATHING BREATHING IS ?? – CELLULAR RESPIRATION DEFINITION??"— Presentation transcript:

1 HOW CELLS HARVEST CHEMICAL ENERGY

2 TWO FORMS OF RESPIRATION – RESPIRATION = BREATHING BREATHING IS ?? – CELLULAR RESPIRATION DEFINITION??

3 HOW CELLS HARVEST CHEMICAL ENERGY CELLULAR RESPIRATION – FORMULA?? – VERY EFFICIENT ENERGY CONVESION – PRODUCES ?? – WHAT IS THE MAJORITY OF ENERGY USED FOR?

4 HOW CELLS HARVEST CHEMICAL ENERGY CELLULAR RESPIRATION DISMANTLES GLUCOSE IN A SERIES OF ENERGY RELEASING STEPS, STORING THIS RELEASED ENERGY AS ATP WHERE DOES THE ENERGY IN GLUCOSE COME FROM? – ELECTRONS TRANSFERS!! REACTIONS INVOLVING THE TRANSFER OF ELECTRONS ARE CALLED REDOX REACTIONS

5 HOW CELLS HARVEST CHEMICAL ENERGY REDOX REACTIONS – THE MOVEMENT OF ELECTRONS FROM ONE MOLECULE TO ANOTHER

6 HOW CELLS HARVEST CHEMICAL ENERGY REDOX REACTIONS – OXIDATION VS REDUCTION OIL RIG (OXIDATION IS LOSS; REDUCTION IS GAIN) LEO GOES GER (LOSE ELECTRONS OXIDATION; GAIN ELECTRONS REDUCTION) IN CELLULAR RESPIRATION NAD IS AN ELECTRON CARRIER (TAXI)

7 HOW CELLS HARVEST CHEMICAL ENERGY REDOX REACTIONS RELEASE ENERGY WHEN ELECTRONS “FALL” FROM ELECTRON CARRIER TO OXYGEN – ELECTRON CARRIERS?? – ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAINS?? WHY ARE THESE NECESSARY?

8 HOW CELLS HARVEST CHEMICAL ENERGY

9 TWO MECHANISMS GENERATE ATP – CHEMIOSMOSIS + ATP SYNTHASE – SUBSTRATE LEVEL PHOSPHORYLATION

10 HOW CELLS HARVEST CHEMICAL ENERGY

11 HOW DOES THE CELL UTILIZE THESE ENERGY CONVERSION MECHANISMS? CELLULAR RESPIRATION!!

12 HOW CELLS HARVEST CHEMICAL ENERGY

13 THREE MAIN STAGES – GLYCOLYSIS – KREBS CYCLE – ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN (E.T.C)

14 HOW CELLS HARVEST CHEMICAL ENERGY GLYCOLYSIS – HARVESTS CHEMICAL ENERGY BY OXIDIZING GLUCOSE TO PYRUVIC ACID

15 HOW CELLS HARVEST CHEMICAL ENERGY GLYCOLYSIS – “SPLITTING OF SUGAR” – GLUCOSE IS CHANGED TO PYRUVIC ACID IN A SERIES OF 9 STEPS – WHO WANTS TO MEMORIZE ALL 9 STEPS??

16 HOW CELLS HARVEST CHEMICAL ENERGY LET’S LOOK AT THE CLIFF’S NOTES VERSION

17 HOW CELLS HARVEST CHEMICAL ENERGY MAJOR POINTS ABOUT GLYCOLYSIS – OCCURS IN THE CYTOPLASM – REQUIRES INITIAL INPUT OF ENERGY (2 ATP) TO BEGIN REACTION (IT TAKES MONEY TO MAKE MONEY) – GLUCOSE  PYRUVIC ACID – 1 6-CARBON COMPOUND  2 3-CARBON COMPOUNDS – OVERALL GLYCOLYSIS REACTION?? – PRODUCES A SMALL AMOUNT OF ENERGY, WHICH IS SUFFICIENT FOR BACTERIA, OR YEAST, TO SURVIVE, BUT NOT FOR LARGER ORGANISMS

18 HOW CELLS HARVEST CHEMICAL ENERGY WHAT HAPPENS NEXT?? *GROOMING PHASE* – PYRUVIC ACID DIFFUSES INTO THE MITOCHONDRIA AND IS ‘GROOMED’

19 HOW CELLS HARVEST CHEMICAL ENERGY WHY DOES THE GROOMING PHASE OCCUR? WHAT ARE THE REACTANTS? WHAT ARE THE PRODUCTS? WHAT DOES IT LOOK LIKE OVERALL?

20 HOW CELLS HARVEST CHEMICAL ENERGY KREBS CYCLE

21 HOW CELLS HARVEST CHEMICAL ENERGY KREBS CYCLE – DISASSEMBLES ACETYL-COA AND FORMS ENERGY STORING MOLECULES AND CO 2 – WORKS ON EACH PYRUVATE; SINCE 2 PYRUVATES WERE MADE THE CYCLE OCCURS 2X!!

22 HOW CELLS HARVEST CHEMICAL ENERGY KREB CYCLE – ALSO CALLED CITRIC ACID CYCLE – WHO WANTS TO MEMORIZE THIS 

23 HOW CELLS HARVEST CHEMICAL ENERGY LET’S CREATE A SIMPLER DIAGRAM…SHALL WE?? WHAT ARE THE MAIN POINTS?? – OCCURS IN THE MITOCHONDRIAL MATRIX – EACH TURN PRODUCES 1 ATP, 3 NADH, AND 1 FADH 2 – OCCURS 2X (1X FOR EACH PYRUVATE MOLECULE) – RESPONSIBLE FOR PRODUCTION OF CO 2 THAT WE EXHALE (WHERE DID THIS CO 2 COME FROM?) – PRODUCES A LOT OF HIGH ENERGY CARRIERS, BUT NOT MUCH USEABLE ENERGY (ATP)

24 HOW CELLS HARVEST CHEMICAL ENERGY LET’S SUM UP WHAT WE HAVE SO FAR:

25 HOW CELLS HARVEST CHEMICAL ENERGY THE ENERGY IN NADH AND FADH 2 MUST BE RELEASED ENTER THE ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN!! – CHEMIOSMOSIS + ATP SYNTHASE!! CHEMIOSMOSIS + ATP SYNTHASE!!

26 HOW CELLS HARVEST CHEMICAL ENERGY ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN – USES THE ENERGY OF THE ELECTRONS TO CREATE A PROTON (H+) GRADIENT ACROSS THE INNER MEMBRANE OF THE MITOCHONDRIA CHEMIOSMOSIS – THE DIFFUSION OF THE H+ ION ACROSS THE INNER MEMBRANE – POWERS ATP PRODUCTION ATP SYNTHASE – ENZYME EMBEDDED IN INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE THAT ACTUALLY MAKES THE ATP

27 HOW CELLS HARVEST CHEMICAL ENERGY

28 WHY ARE CYANIDE AND CARBON MONOXIDE POISONOUS?? – BLOCK ELECTRON FLOW, SO THEY PREVENT ??

29 HOW CELLS HARVEST CHEMICAL ENERGY OXYGEN ACTS AS THE FINAL ELECTRON ACCEPTOR!! – COMBINES WITH ELECTRONS AND H+ IONS TO FORM WATER!! ATP SYNTHASE CAN PRODUCE ANYWHERE FROM ATP’S PER GLUCOSE OXIDIZED!!

30 HOW CELLS HARVEST CHEMICAL ENERGY

31 LET’S SUM UP OUR REACTIONS!!

32 HOW CELLS HARVEST CHEMICAL ENERGY WHAT HAPPENS IF THERE IS NO OXYGEN?? – ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN CAN’T OCCUR – KREBS CYCLE CAN’T OCCUR GLYCOLYSIS IS THE ONLY ANAEROBIC PROCESS – BUT THERE ARE A FINITE NUMBER OF NAD+ AVAILABLE, SO WHAT DOES THAT MEAN?

33 HOW CELLS HARVEST CHEMICAL ENERGY

34 WHAT IS FERMENTATION?? – DEFINITION? – TWO TYPES ALCOHOLIC VS LACTIC ACID

35 HOW CELLS HARVEST CHEMICAL ENERGY AEROBES VS ANAEROBES? STRICT ANAEROBES? FACULTATIVE ANAEROBES?

36 HOW CELLS HARVEST CHEMICAL ENERGY WHERE DOES ALL THE ENERGY IN GLUCOSE COME FROM TO BEGIN WITH?? TUNE IN NEXT TIME TO FIND OUT MORE!!!!


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