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Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration. Energy Production Part of Chapter 9 deals with the catabolic pathways that break down organic molecules for the production.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration. Energy Production Part of Chapter 9 deals with the catabolic pathways that break down organic molecules for the production."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration

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3 Energy Production Part of Chapter 9 deals with the catabolic pathways that break down organic molecules for the production of ATP. Whether you are talking about gasoline or sugar, the general equation is: Organic compound + O 2 --> CO 2 + H 2 O + Organic compound + O 2 --> CO 2 + H 2 O + Energy Part of Chapter 9 deals with the catabolic pathways that break down organic molecules for the production of ATP. Whether you are talking about gasoline or sugar, the general equation is: Organic compound + O 2 --> CO 2 + H 2 O + Organic compound + O 2 --> CO 2 + H 2 O + Energy

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5 Energy Transfer The process takes place as the electrons (and hydrogens) in the reactants are transferred to oxygen. It does so in very discrete (small) steps causing the phosphorylation to ADP creating ATP. The process takes place as the electrons (and hydrogens) in the reactants are transferred to oxygen. It does so in very discrete (small) steps causing the phosphorylation to ADP creating ATP.

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7 Redox Reactions The redox reactions, as they are called, involves an oxidation step that occurs when something loses an electron and a reduction step where a substance gains an electron. *Remember, LEO-GER or OIL-RIG

8 Redox Reactions Oxygen is a very powerful oxidizing agent because of its electronegativity. Thus, in redox reactions where electrons are moved closer to oxygen, a lot of chemical energy is given off and is available to do work. Oxygen is a very powerful oxidizing agent because of its electronegativity. Thus, in redox reactions where electrons are moved closer to oxygen, a lot of chemical energy is given off and is available to do work.

9 Redox Reactions Similarities: Burning gas in a car liberates energy in the hydrocarbons and powers the car. Burning glucose in cells within our cells enables us to do work. Cells are much more efficient than other machinery. 40% vs. 15% Similarities: Burning gas in a car liberates energy in the hydrocarbons and powers the car. Burning glucose in cells within our cells enables us to do work. Cells are much more efficient than other machinery. 40% vs. 15%

10 Redox Reactions Within the Cell C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 --> 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + Energy (ATP) *The O 2 from respiration oxidizes glucose. C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 --> 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + Energy (ATP) *The O 2 from respiration oxidizes glucose.

11 Glucose Metabolism The most efficient way to harness the energy in chemical bonds of a fuel is to do so in small discrete steps. Glucose and other organic fuels used by the body are broken down in a series of steps that are each catalyzed by a specific enzyme. The most efficient way to harness the energy in chemical bonds of a fuel is to do so in small discrete steps. Glucose and other organic fuels used by the body are broken down in a series of steps that are each catalyzed by a specific enzyme.

12 Glucose Metabolism At key points in the process, H atoms are stripped from the intermediates and transferred to the coenzyme, NAD +, creating NADH. In a series of steps, NADH transfers electrons to O 2 and this makes up the electron transport chain. At key points in the process, H atoms are stripped from the intermediates and transferred to the coenzyme, NAD +, creating NADH. In a series of steps, NADH transfers electrons to O 2 and this makes up the electron transport chain.

13 Electron Transport Chain The electron transport chain consists mostly of proteins found in the inner membrane of the mitochondria. The numerous steps of the ETC harness the energy released from the glucose metabolism. The electron transport chain consists mostly of proteins found in the inner membrane of the mitochondria. The numerous steps of the ETC harness the energy released from the glucose metabolism.

14 Electron Transport Chain During the electron transfers, small amounts of energy are transferred and energy is released and used to produce ATP. Ultimately the electrons reach O 2 and water is produced. During the electron transfers, small amounts of energy are transferred and energy is released and used to produce ATP. Ultimately the electrons reach O 2 and water is produced.

15 Electron Transport Chain Summary In general, the reactions of the ETC can be summed up as: Food-->NADH-->ETC & ATP generation --> O 2 In general, the reactions of the ETC can be summed up as: Food-->NADH-->ETC & ATP generation --> O 2

16 Cellular Respiration The stages of cellular respiration can be summed up as follows: 1. Glycolysis 2. The Citric Acid Cycle (aka. The Krebs Cycle) 3. Oxidative Phosphorylation The stages of cellular respiration can be summed up as follows: 1. Glycolysis 2. The Citric Acid Cycle (aka. The Krebs Cycle) 3. Oxidative Phosphorylation

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18 Cell Respiration Overview Cell Respiration Overview Cell Respiration Overview

19 Glycolysis Glycolysis occurs in the cytosol and breaks down glucose producing pyruvate.

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22 Glycolysis Movie Glycolysis

23 The Link Between Glycolysis and the Citric Acid Cycle The pyruvate is then converted into acetyl CoA and enters the citric acid cycle where the breakdown of glucose is completed. In this process, CO 2 is given off and a small amount of ATP is made, and NADH and FADH 2 are generated. The pyruvate is then converted into acetyl CoA and enters the citric acid cycle where the breakdown of glucose is completed. In this process, CO 2 is given off and a small amount of ATP is made, and NADH and FADH 2 are generated.

24 NADH and FADH 2 are Reducing Power NADH and FADH 2 are a source of electrons which are used as reducing power within the mitochondrial matrix. Their hydrogens are used to help make ATP. Recall the different ways of reduction. NADH and FADH 2 are a source of electrons which are used as reducing power within the mitochondrial matrix. Their hydrogens are used to help make ATP. Recall the different ways of reduction.

25 A Link Between Glycolysis and the Citric Acid Cycle The three carbon sugar, pyruvate, is now converted into the two carbon intermediate, Acetyl CoA, and is ready to enter the citric acid cycle.

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27 Citric Acid Cycle Remember, each molecule of glucose produces two molecules of pyruvate, so the cycle actually spins twice for each molecule of glucose that undergoes glycolysis.

28 Citric Acid Cycle The Citric Acid Cycle

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30 Electron Transport Chain The NADH and FADH 2 produced by the citric acid cycle are used by the electron transport chain which couples electron transport to ATP production.

31 ATP Synthase and Chemiosmosis The inner part of the mitochondrial membrane contains many copies of a protein complex called ATP synthase. This is the enzyme that actually phosphorylates ADP making ATP. Chemiosmosis makes use of a proton gradient which exists between the mitochondrial matrix and the intermembrane space. The inner part of the mitochondrial membrane contains many copies of a protein complex called ATP synthase. This is the enzyme that actually phosphorylates ADP making ATP. Chemiosmosis makes use of a proton gradient which exists between the mitochondrial matrix and the intermembrane space.

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34 Chemiosmosis The mitochondrial membrane generates and maintains a H + gradient by using the energy releasing flow of electrons to pump H + across the membrane from the matrix to the intermembrane space.

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36 Electron Transport Chain The Electron Transport Chain The Electron Transport Chain

37 ATP Production About 36 to 38 ATPs are produced by the complete oxidation of glucose.

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39 Fermentation Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm of a cell with or without oxygen producing 2 ATPs. As long as there is a way to regenerate NAD + when O 2 is not available, the cell can keep functioning via glycolysis. (NAD + is the oxidizing agent). Fermentation is the way the cell continues glycolysis. Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm of a cell with or without oxygen producing 2 ATPs. As long as there is a way to regenerate NAD + when O 2 is not available, the cell can keep functioning via glycolysis. (NAD + is the oxidizing agent). Fermentation is the way the cell continues glycolysis.

40 Alcohol Fermentation: 1. CO 2 is released from pyruvate creating acetaldehyde. 2. NADH reduces acetaldehyde to ethanol regenerating NAD + Glycolysis is allowed to continue. Alcohol Fermentation: 1. CO 2 is released from pyruvate creating acetaldehyde. 2. NADH reduces acetaldehyde to ethanol regenerating NAD + Glycolysis is allowed to continue. Alcohol Fermentation

41 Lactic Acid Fermentation: 1. Pyruvate is reduced by NADH forming lactate as an end product. 2. Lactate is the ionized form of lactic acid Glycolysis is allowed to continue. Lactic Acid Fermentation: 1. Pyruvate is reduced by NADH forming lactate as an end product. 2. Lactate is the ionized form of lactic acid Glycolysis is allowed to continue. Lactic Acid Fermentation

42 Fermentation Overview Fermentation


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