Energy - *forms: light, heat, mechanical, chemical, electrical, sound *potential energy = stored kinetic energy = being used *can be transformed from one type to another – -battery - chemical to electrical -roll downhill - potential to kinetic -flip light switch –mechanical to electrical to light & heat *it is the ability to do work!
Cellular Respiration cellularenergy glucose (or other organic molecules)energy (ATP). A cellular process that releases energy from glucose (or other organic molecules) to produce energy (ATP). C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O (energy) glucoseATP
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Transfer of one or more electrons and/or energy from one compound to another. Two parts: Two parts: 1.Oxidation 2.Reduction
Oxidation Reaction loss The loss of electrons or energy from a compound.
Reduction Reaction gain The gain of electrons or energy to a compound.
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Reactions where 1 substance loses electrons &/or energy &/or hydrogen and another substance gains electrons &/or energy &/or hydrogen O I L R I G Oxidation reaction: loss of electrons &/or energy &/or hydrogen Reduction reaction: gain of electrons &/or energy &/or hydrogen
Aerobic Respiration Pathway -lots of chemical reactions –controlled by enzymes Important patterns: *energy released –> captured by ADP to make ATP *energized H released ->captured by NAD to make NADH & H + or captured by FAD to make FADH 2 NAD is like catcher’s mitt– catches fastball/high energy H FAD is like fielder’s mitt – catches slower ball/lower energy H *when C atom is lost, it is released as CO 2
Aerobic Respiration Respiration in the presence of free oxygen, resulting in the complete oxidation of glucose to carbon dioxide and water as well as the release of a net of 36 ATP’s.
Potato chip = fuel!!! contains energy (potential) in chemical bonds Burn chip – releases energy in form of light/heat can use that energy to do work For our bodies to do work (life processes), can’t use energy in form of heat/light … living things need energy in form of ATP ADP = adenosine diphosphate ATP = adenosine triphosphate Gain Energized phosphate lose Energized phosphate ATP is the ultimate form of energy for living things!
Aerobic Respiratory Pathway Four main parts (reactions). Four main parts (reactions). 1. Glycolysis (splitting of glucose) a. cytoplasm, just outside of mitochondria. 2. Pyruvic Acid breakdown a. migration from cytoplasm to mitochondria.
Aerobic Respiratory Pathway 3. Krebs Cycle a. mitochondria 4. Electron Transport Chain (ETC) a. mitochondria
1. Glycolysis Occurs in the cytoplasm just outside of mitochondria. Two phases: Two phases: A. Energy investment phase a. 2 ATP activation energy B. Energy yielding phase a. 4 ATP produced
1. Glycolysis A. Energy Investment Phase: Glucose (6C) (2 - 3C) 2 ATP - used 0 ATP - produced 0 NADH & H + - produced 2ATP 2ADP+P C-C-C-C-C-C C-C-C 2
1. Glycolysis B. Energy Yielding Phase (2 - 3C) Pyruvate (2 - 3C) or Pyruvic Acid (PYR) 0 ATP - used 4 ATP - produced 2 NADH & 2H + - produced 4ATP 4ADP+4P C-C-C PGAL (PYR)
1. Glycolysis Total Net Yield Total Net Yield 2 - 3C-Pyruvic acid (Pyruvate) 2 – ATP (Stored Chemical Energy) (4 ATP produced-2 used as Activation Energy) 2 – NADH & H +
2. Pyruvic Acid Breakdown Oxygen is present (aerobic). Occurs when Oxygen is present (aerobic). 2 Pyruvic Acid (3C) molecules are transported through the mitochondria membrane and is converted to 2 Acetyl CoA (2C) molecules. Cytoplasm CCCCCC 2 Pyruvic 2 CO 2 2 Acetyl CoA C-C 2NADH& 2H + 2NADH & 2H + 2 NAD + Matrix
2. Pyruvic Acid Breakdown End Products: End Products: 2 – NADH 2 – H+ 2 - CO 2 (Released as waste) 2 - Acetyl CoA (2C) *Enters Kreb Cycle
3. Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) Location: Location: mitochondria Acetyl CoA (2C) bonds to Oxalacetic acid (4C - OAA) to make Citric acid (6C). It takes 2 turns of the krebs cycle to oxidize 1 glucose molecule. Mitochondrial Matrix
3. Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) 2 turns Total net yield (2 turns of krebs cycle) 1. 2 - ATP 2.6 – NADH & H + 3.2 - FADH 2 4.4 - CO 2
4. Electron Transport Chain (ETC) Location: Location: mitochondrial. ETC Uses ETC and ATP Synthase (enzyme) to make ATP. ETC pumps H + (protons) across innermembrane. Inner Mitochondrial Membrane
4. Electron Transport Chain (ETC) Inner membrane Outer membrane Inner membrane space Matrix Cristae
4. Electron Transport Chain (ETC) cellular respiration All NADH and FADH 2 converted to ATP during this stage of cellular respiration. Each NADH converts to 3 ATP. Each FADH 2 converts to 2 ATP (enters the ETC at a lower level than NADH).
4. ETC and Chemiosmosis for 4. ETC and Chemiosmosis for FADH 2
E lectron T ransport C hain 2 e - e - s + 2 H+ NAD+ (recycled)
TOTAL ATP YIELD 1. 04 ATP - Phosphorylation 2. 34 ATP - ETC & oxidative phosphorylation 38 ATP - TOTAL YIELD ATP
Eukaryotes (Have Membranes) Total ATP Yield 02 ATP - glycolysis (substrate-level phosphorylation) 04 ATP - converted from 2 NADH – glycolysis 06 ATP - converted from 2 NADH – pyruvic acid breakdown phase 02 ATP - Krebs cycle (substrate-level phosphorylation) 18 ATP - converted from 6 NADH - Krebs cycle 04 ATP - converted from 2 FADH 2 - Krebs cycle 36 ATP - TOTAL
Maximum ATP Yield for Cellular Respiration (Eukaryotes) 36 ATP (maximum per glucose) Glucose Glycolysis 2ATP 4ATP 6ATP 18ATP 4ATP 2ATP 2 ATP (substrate-level phosphorylation) 2NADH 6NADH Krebs Cycle 2FADH 2 2 ATP (substrate-level phosphorylation) 2 Pyruvate 2 Acetyl CoA ETC and Oxidative Phosphorylation Cytosol Mitochondria
Prokaryotes (Lack Membranes) Total ATP Yield 02 ATP - glycolysis (substrate-level phosphorylation) 06 ATP - converted from 2 NADH - glycolysis 06 ATP - converted from 2 NADH – pyruvic acid breakdown phase 02 ATP - Krebs cycle (substrate-level phosphorylation) 18 ATP - converted from 6 NADH - Krebs cycle 04 ATP - converted from 2 FADH 2 - Krebs cycle 38 ATP - TOTAL
Question: In addition to glucose, what other In addition to glucose, what other food molecules are used in Cellular Respiration? food molecules are used in Cellular Respiration?
Catabolism of Various Food Molecules Other organic molecules used for fuel. 1. Carbohydrates: polysaccharides 2. Fats: glycerol’s and fatty acids 3. Proteins: amino acids
Fermentation/Anaerobic Respiration “NO Oxygen” (called anaerobic). Occurs in cytoplasm when “NO Oxygen” is present (called anaerobic). glycolysis fermentation Remember: glycolysis is part of fermentation. Two Types: Two Types: 1.Alcohol Fermentation 2. Lactic Acid Fermentation
Alcohol Fermentation Plants and Fungi beer and wine Plants and Fungi beer and wine glucose Glycolysis CCCCCCCCCCCCC CCCCCC 2 Pyruvic acid 2ATP 2ADP + 2 2NADH & 2H+ P 2 NAD + CCCC 2 Ethanol 2CO 2 released 2NADH 2 NAD +
Alcohol Fermentation End Products: Alcohol fermentation End Products: Alcohol fermentation 2 - ATP (substrate-level phosphorylation) 2 - CO 2 2 - Ethanol’s
Lactic Acid Fermentation Animals (pain in muscle after a workout). Animals (pain in muscle after a workout). 2 Lactic acid acid 2NADH 2 NAD + CCCCCC Glucose Glycolysis CCCCCC 2 Pyruvic acid 2ATP 2ADP + 2 2NADH & H + P 2 NAD + CCCCCCCCCCCCC
Lactic Acid Fermentation End Products: Lactic acid fermentation End Products: Lactic acid fermentation 2 - ATP (substrate-level phosphorylation) 2 - Lactic Acids