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Cellular Respiration Chapter 6. Types of Energy?????

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Presentation on theme: "Cellular Respiration Chapter 6. Types of Energy?????"— Presentation transcript:

1 Cellular Respiration Chapter 6

2 Types of Energy?????

3 Energy - *forms: light, heat, mechanical, chemical, electrical, sound *potential energy = stored kinetic energy = being used *can be transformed from one type to another – -battery - chemical to electrical -roll downhill - potential to kinetic -flip light switch –mechanical to electrical to light & heat *it is the ability to do work!

4

5 Cellular Respiration cellularenergy glucose (or other organic molecules)energy (ATP). A cellular process that releases energy from glucose (or other organic molecules) to produce energy (ATP). C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2  6CO 2 + 6H 2 O (energy) glucoseATP

6 What respires?

7 Plants and Animals/all living organisms

8 Mitochondria Organellecellular respiration Organelle where cellular respiration takes place. Inner membrane Outer membrane Matrix Cristae

9 ATP & ADP

10

11 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Transfer of one or more electrons and/or energy from one compound to another. Two parts: Two parts: 1.Oxidation 2.Reduction

12 Oxidation Reaction loss The loss of electrons or energy from a compound.

13 Reduction Reaction gain The gain of electrons or energy to a compound.

14 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Reactions where 1 substance loses electrons &/or energy &/or hydrogen and another substance gains electrons &/or energy &/or hydrogen O I L R I G Oxidation reaction: loss of electrons &/or energy &/or hydrogen Reduction reaction: gain of electrons &/or energy &/or hydrogen

15 Aerobic Respiration Pathway -lots of chemical reactions –controlled by enzymes Important patterns: *energy released –> captured by ADP to make ATP *energized H released ->captured by NAD to make NADH & H + or captured by FAD to make FADH 2 NAD is like catcher’s mitt– catches fastball/high energy H FAD is like fielder’s mitt – catches slower ball/lower energy H *when C atom is lost, it is released as CO 2

16 Aerobic Respiration Respiration in the presence of free oxygen, resulting in the complete oxidation of glucose to carbon dioxide and water as well as the release of a net of 36 ATP’s.

17 Potato chip = fuel!!! contains energy (potential) in chemical bonds Burn chip – releases energy in form of light/heat can use that energy to do work For our bodies to do work (life processes), can’t use energy in form of heat/light … living things need energy in form of ATP ADP = adenosine diphosphate ATP = adenosine triphosphate Gain Energized phosphate lose Energized phosphate ATP is the ultimate form of energy for living things!

18 Aerobic Respiratory Pathway Four main parts (reactions). Four main parts (reactions). 1. Glycolysis (splitting of glucose) a. cytoplasm, just outside of mitochondria. 2. Pyruvic Acid breakdown a. migration from cytoplasm to mitochondria.

19 Aerobic Respiratory Pathway 3. Krebs Cycle a. mitochondria 4. Electron Transport Chain (ETC) a. mitochondria

20 1. Glycolysis Occurs in the cytoplasm just outside of mitochondria. Two phases: Two phases: A. Energy investment phase a. 2 ATP activation energy B. Energy yielding phase a. 4 ATP produced

21 1. Glycolysis A. Energy Investment Phase: Glucose (6C) (2 - 3C) 2 ATP - used 0 ATP - produced 0 NADH & H + - produced 2ATP 2ADP+P C-C-C-C-C-C C-C-C 2

22 1. Glycolysis B. Energy Yielding Phase (2 - 3C) Pyruvate (2 - 3C) or Pyruvic Acid (PYR) 0 ATP - used 4 ATP - produced 2 NADH & 2H + - produced 4ATP 4ADP+4P C-C-C PGAL (PYR)

23 1. Glycolysis Total Net Yield Total Net Yield 2 - 3C-Pyruvic acid (Pyruvate) 2 – ATP (Stored Chemical Energy) (4 ATP produced-2 used as Activation Energy) 2 – NADH & H +

24 G lycolysis

25 2. Pyruvic Acid Breakdown Oxygen is present (aerobic). Occurs when Oxygen is present (aerobic). 2 Pyruvic Acid (3C) molecules are transported through the mitochondria membrane and is converted to 2 Acetyl CoA (2C) molecules. Cytoplasm CCCCCC 2 Pyruvic 2 CO 2 2 Acetyl CoA C-C 2NADH& 2H + 2NADH & 2H + 2 NAD + Matrix

26 2. Pyruvic Acid Breakdown End Products: End Products: 2 – NADH 2 – H+ 2 - CO 2 (Released as waste) 2 - Acetyl CoA (2C) *Enters Kreb Cycle

27 P yruvic A cid B reakdown

28 3. Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) Location: Location: mitochondria Acetyl CoA (2C) bonds to Oxalacetic acid (4C - OAA) to make Citric acid (6C). It takes 2 turns of the krebs cycle to oxidize 1 glucose molecule. Mitochondrial Matrix

29 3. Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) Krebs Cycle 1 Acetyl CoA (2C) 3 NAD + 3 NADH& 3H + 3 NADH & 3H + FAD FADH 2 ATP ADP +P (one turn) OAA (4C) Citric acid (6C) 2 CO 2

30 3. Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) Krebs Cycle 2 Acetyl CoA (2C) 6 NAD + 6 NADH& 6H + 6 NADH & 6H + 2 FAD 2 FADH 2 2 ATP 2 ADP+2P (two turns) OAA (4C) Citrate (6C) 4 CO 2

31 K rebs C ycle

32 3. Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) 2 turns Total net yield (2 turns of krebs cycle) ATP 2.6 – NADH & H FADH CO 2

33 4. Electron Transport Chain (ETC) Location: Location: mitochondrial. ETC Uses ETC and ATP Synthase (enzyme) to make ATP. ETC pumps H + (protons) across innermembrane. Inner Mitochondrial Membrane

34 4. Electron Transport Chain (ETC) Inner membrane Outer membrane Inner membrane space Matrix Cristae

35 4. Electron Transport Chain (ETC) cellular respiration All NADH and FADH 2 converted to ATP during this stage of cellular respiration. Each NADH converts to 3 ATP. Each FADH 2 converts to 2 ATP (enters the ETC at a lower level than NADH).

36 4. ETC and Chemiosmosis for NADH

37 4. ETC and Chemiosmosis for 4. ETC and Chemiosmosis for FADH 2

38 E lectron T ransport C hain 2 e - e - s + 2 H+ NAD+ (recycled)

39 TOTAL ATP YIELD ATP - Phosphorylation ATP - ETC & oxidative phosphorylation 38 ATP - TOTAL YIELD ATP

40 Eukaryotes (Have Membranes) Total ATP Yield 02 ATP - glycolysis (substrate-level phosphorylation) 04 ATP - converted from 2 NADH – glycolysis 06 ATP - converted from 2 NADH – pyruvic acid breakdown phase 02 ATP - Krebs cycle (substrate-level phosphorylation) 18 ATP - converted from 6 NADH - Krebs cycle 04 ATP - converted from 2 FADH 2 - Krebs cycle 36 ATP - TOTAL

41 Maximum ATP Yield for Cellular Respiration (Eukaryotes) 36 ATP (maximum per glucose) Glucose Glycolysis 2ATP 4ATP 6ATP 18ATP 4ATP 2ATP 2 ATP (substrate-level phosphorylation) 2NADH 6NADH Krebs Cycle 2FADH 2 2 ATP (substrate-level phosphorylation) 2 Pyruvate 2 Acetyl CoA ETC and Oxidative Phosphorylation Cytosol Mitochondria

42 Prokaryotes (Lack Membranes) Total ATP Yield 02 ATP - glycolysis (substrate-level phosphorylation) 06 ATP - converted from 2 NADH - glycolysis 06 ATP - converted from 2 NADH – pyruvic acid breakdown phase 02 ATP - Krebs cycle (substrate-level phosphorylation) 18 ATP - converted from 6 NADH - Krebs cycle 04 ATP - converted from 2 FADH 2 - Krebs cycle 38 ATP - TOTAL

43 Question: In addition to glucose, what other In addition to glucose, what other food molecules are used in Cellular Respiration? food molecules are used in Cellular Respiration?

44 Catabolism of Various Food Molecules Other organic molecules used for fuel. 1. Carbohydrates: polysaccharides 2. Fats: glycerol’s and fatty acids 3. Proteins: amino acids

45 Fermentation/Anaerobic Respiration “NO Oxygen” (called anaerobic). Occurs in cytoplasm when “NO Oxygen” is present (called anaerobic). glycolysis fermentation Remember: glycolysis is part of fermentation. Two Types: Two Types: 1.Alcohol Fermentation 2. Lactic Acid Fermentation

46 Alcohol Fermentation Plants and Fungi  beer and wine Plants and Fungi  beer and wine glucose Glycolysis CCCCCCCCCCCCC CCCCCC 2 Pyruvic acid 2ATP 2ADP + 2 2NADH & 2H+ P 2 NAD + CCCC 2 Ethanol 2CO 2 released 2NADH 2 NAD +

47 Alcohol Fermentation End Products: Alcohol fermentation End Products: Alcohol fermentation 2 - ATP (substrate-level phosphorylation) 2 - CO Ethanol’s

48 Lactic Acid Fermentation Animals (pain in muscle after a workout). Animals (pain in muscle after a workout). 2 Lactic acid acid 2NADH 2 NAD + CCCCCC Glucose Glycolysis CCCCCC 2 Pyruvic acid 2ATP 2ADP + 2 2NADH & H + P 2 NAD + CCCCCCCCCCCCC

49 Lactic Acid Fermentation End Products: Lactic acid fermentation End Products: Lactic acid fermentation 2 - ATP (substrate-level phosphorylation) 2 - Lactic Acids

50 THE END!!


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