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1 Cellular Respiration copyright cmassengale. 2 Cellular Respiration catabolic, exergonic, oxygen (O 2 ) energy macromolecules (glucose)energy (ATP)water.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Cellular Respiration copyright cmassengale. 2 Cellular Respiration catabolic, exergonic, oxygen (O 2 ) energy macromolecules (glucose)energy (ATP)water."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Cellular Respiration copyright cmassengale

2 2 Cellular Respiration catabolic, exergonic, oxygen (O 2 ) energy macromolecules (glucose)energy (ATP)water (H 2 O). A catabolic, exergonic, oxygen (O 2 ) requiring process that uses energy extracted from macromolecules (glucose) to produce energy (ATP) and water (H 2 O). C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2  6CO2 + 6H 2 O + energy glucoseATP copyright cmassengale

3 3 Question: In what kinds organisms does cellular respiration take place? In what kinds organisms does cellular respiration take place? copyright cmassengale

4 4 Plants and Animals Plants - Autotrophs Plants - Autotrophs: self-producers. Animals - Heterotrophs: consumers. copyright cmassengale

5 5 Mitochondria Organellecellular respiration Organelle where cellular respiration takes place. Inner membrane Outer membrane Inner membrane space Matrix Cristae copyright cmassengale

6 6 Redox Reaction Transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another. Two types: Two types: 1.Oxidation 2.Reduction copyright cmassengale

7 7 Oxidation Reaction loss The loss of electrons from a substance. gainoxygen Or the gain of oxygen. C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2  6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + energy glucoseATP Oxidation copyright cmassengale

8 8 Reduction Reaction gain The gain of electrons to a substance. lossoxygen Or the loss of oxygen. glucose ATP C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2  6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + energy Reduction copyright cmassengale

9 9 Breakdown of Cellular Respiration Four main parts (reactions). Four main parts (reactions). 1. Glycolysis (splitting of sugar) a. cytosol, just outside of mitochondria. 2. Grooming Phase a. migration from cytosol to matrix. copyright cmassengale

10 10 Breakdown of Cellular Respiration 3. Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) a. mitochondrial matrix 4. Electron Transport Chain (ETC) and Oxidative Phosphorylation Oxidative Phosphorylation a. Also called Chemiosmosis b. inner mitochondrial membrane. copyright cmassengale

11 11 1. Glycolysis Occurs in the cytosol just outside of mitochondria. Two phases (10 steps): Two phases (10 steps): A. Energy investment phase a. Preparatory phase (first 5 steps). B. Energy yielding phase a. Energy payoff phase (second 5 steps). copyright cmassengale

12 12 1. Glycolysis A. Energy Investment Phase: Glucose (6C) Glyceraldehyde phosphate (2 - 3C) (G3P or GAP) 2 ATP - used 0 ATP - produced 0 NADH - produced 2ATP 2ADP +P C-C-C-C-C-C C-C-C copyright cmassengale

13 13 1. Glycolysis B. Energy Yielding Phase Glyceraldehyde phosphate (2 - 3C) (G3P or GAP) Pyruvate (2 - 3C) (PYR) 0 ATP - used 4 ATP - produced 2 NADH - produced 4ATP 4ADP +P C-C-C GAP (PYR) copyright cmassengale

14 14 1. Glycolysis Total Net Yield Total Net Yield 2 - 3C-Pyruvate (PYR) 2 - ATP (Substrate-level Phosphorylation) 2 - NADH copyright cmassengale

15 15 Substrate-Level Phosphorylation phosphate group ATP is formed when an enzyme transfers a phosphate group from a substrate to ADP. Enzyme Substrate O - C=O C-O- CH 2 P PP Adenosine ADP (PEP) Example: PEP to PYR PPP ATP O - C=O CH 2 Product (Pyruvate) Adenosine copyright cmassengale

16 16 Fermentation “NO Oxygen” (called anaerobic). Occurs in cytosol when “NO Oxygen” is present (called anaerobic). glycolysis fermentation Remember: glycolysis is part of fermentation. Two Types: Two Types: 1.Alcohol Fermentation 2. Lactic Acid Fermentation copyright cmassengale

17 17 Alcohol Fermentation Plants and Fungi  beer and wine Plants and Fungi  beer and wine glucose Glycolysis CCCCCCCCCCCCC CCCCCC 2 Pyruvic acid 2ATP 2ADP + 2 2NADH P 2 NAD + CCCC 2 Ethanol 2CO 2 released 2NADH 2 NAD + copyright cmassengale

18 18 Alcohol Fermentation End Products: Alcohol fermentation End Products: Alcohol fermentation 2 - ATP (substrate-level phosphorylation) 2 - CO Ethanol’s copyright cmassengale

19 19 Lactic Acid Fermentation Animals (pain in muscle after a workout). Animals (pain in muscle after a workout). 2 Lactic acid acid 2NADH 2 NAD + CCCCCC Glucose Glycolysis CCCCCC 2 Pyruvic acid 2ATP 2ADP + 2 2NADH P 2 NAD + CCCCCCCCCCCCC copyright cmassengale

20 20 Lactic Acid Fermentation End Products: Lactic acid fermentation End Products: Lactic acid fermentation 2 - ATP (substrate-level phosphorylation) 2 - Lactic Acids copyright cmassengale

21 21 2. Grooming Phase Oxygen is present (aerobic). Occurs when Oxygen is present (aerobic). 2 Pyruvate (3C) molecules are transported through the mitochondria membrane to the matrix and is converted to 2 Acetyl CoA (2C) molecules. Cytosol CCCCCC 2 Pyruvate 2 CO 2 2 Acetyl CoA C-C 2NADH 2 NAD + Matrix copyright cmassengale

22 22 2. Grooming Phase End Products: grooming phase End Products: grooming phase 2 - NADH 2 - CO 2 2- Acetyl CoA (2C) copyright cmassengale

23 23 3. Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) Location: Location: mitochondrial matrix. Acetyl CoA (2C) bonds to Oxalacetic acid (4C - OAA) to make Citrate (6C). It takes 2 turns of the krebs cycle to oxidize 1 glucose molecule. Mitochondrial Matrix copyright cmassengale

24 24 3. Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) Krebs Cycle 1 Acetyl CoA (2C) 3 NAD + 3 NADH FAD FADH 2 ATP ADP +P (one turn) OAA (4C) Citrate (6C) 2 CO 2 copyright cmassengale

25 25 3. Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) Krebs Cycle 2 Acetyl CoA (2C) 6 NAD + 6 NADH 2 FAD 2 FADH 2 2 ATP 2 ADP +P (two turns) OAA (4C) Citrate (6C) 4 CO 2 copyright cmassengale

26 26 3. Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) 2 turns Total net yield (2 turns of krebs cycle) ATP (substrate-level phosphorylation) NADH FADH CO 2 copyright cmassengale

27 27 4. Electron Transport Chain (ETC) and Oxidative Phosphorylation ( Chemiosmosis ) Location: Location: inner mitochondrial membrane. ETC (cytochrome proteins) Uses ETC (cytochrome proteins) and ATP Synthase (enzyme) to make ATP. ETC pumps H + (protons) across innermembrane (lowers pH in innermembrane space). Inner Mitochondrial Membrane copyright cmassengale

28 28 4. Electron Transport Chain (ETC) and Oxidative Phosphorylation ( Chemiosmosis ) diffusion The H+ then move via diffusion (Proton Motive Force) through ATP Synthase to make ATP. cellular respiration All NADH and FADH 2 converted to ATP during this stage of cellular respiration. Each NADH converts to 3 ATP. Each FADH 2 converts to 2 ATP (enters the ETC at a lower level than NADH). copyright cmassengale

29 29 4. Electron Transport Chain (ETC) and Oxidative Phosphorylation ( Chemiosmosis ) Inner membrane Outer membrane Inner membrane space Matrix Cristae copyright cmassengale

30 30 4. ETC and Oxidative Phosphorylation ( Chemiosmosis for NADH ) copyright cmassengale

31 31 4. ETC and Oxidative Phosphorylation (Chemiosmosis for 4. ETC and Oxidative Phosphorylation (Chemiosmosis for FADH 2 ) copyright cmassengale

32 32 TOTAL ATP YIELD ATP - substrate-level phosphorylation ATP - ETC & oxidative phosphorylation 38 ATP - TOTAL YIELD ATP copyright cmassengale

33 33 Eukaryotes (Have Membranes) Total ATP Yield 02 ATP - glycolysis (substrate-level phosphorylation) 04 ATP - converted from 2 NADH - glycolysis 06 ATP - converted from 2 NADH - grooming phase 02 ATP - Krebs cycle (substrate-level phosphorylation) 18 ATP - converted from 6 NADH - Krebs cycle 04 ATP - converted from 2 FADH 2 - Krebs cycle 36 ATP - TOTAL copyright cmassengale

34 34 Maximum ATP Yield for Cellular Respiration (Eukaryotes) 36 ATP (maximum per glucose) Glucose Glycolysis 2ATP 4ATP 6ATP 18ATP 4ATP 2ATP 2 ATP (substrate-level phosphorylation) 2NADH 6NADH Krebs Cycle 2FADH 2 2 ATP (substrate-level phosphorylation) 2 Pyruvate 2 Acetyl CoA ETC and Oxidative Phosphorylation Cytosol Mitochondria copyright cmassengale

35 35 Prokaryotes (Lack Membranes) Total ATP Yield 02 ATP - glycolysis (substrate-level phosphorylation) 06 ATP - converted from 2 NADH - glycolysis 06 ATP - converted from 2 NADH - grooming phase 02 ATP - Krebs cycle (substrate-level phosphorylation) 18 ATP - converted from 6 NADH - Krebs cycle 04 ATP - converted from 2 FADH 2 - Krebs cycle 38 ATP - TOTAL copyright cmassengale

36 36 Question: In addition to glucose, what other various food molecules are use in Cellular Respiration? In addition to glucose, what other various food molecules are use in Cellular Respiration? copyright cmassengale

37 37 Catabolism of Various Food Molecules Other organic molecules used for fuel. 1. Carbohydrates: polysaccharides 2. Fats: glycerol’s and fatty acids 3. Proteins: amino acids copyright cmassengale

38 38copyright cmassengale


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