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P ROKARYOTIC AND E UKARYOTIC C ELLS ( AND VIRUSES ) Cell Biology Standard 1c Students know how prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells (including those from.

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Presentation on theme: "P ROKARYOTIC AND E UKARYOTIC C ELLS ( AND VIRUSES ) Cell Biology Standard 1c Students know how prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells (including those from."— Presentation transcript:

1 P ROKARYOTIC AND E UKARYOTIC C ELLS ( AND VIRUSES ) Cell Biology Standard 1c Students know how prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells (including those from plants and animals), and viruses differ in complexity and general structure.

2 P ROKARYOTIC C ELLS (B ACTERIA ) Bacteria Simplest cells No membrane- bound organelles No nucleus DNA is found in “nucleoid region” pro = before karyo = nucleus

3 E UKARYOTIC C ELLS Membrane-bound organelles Many chemical reactions can take place at the same time Nucleus (Contains DNA) Eu = true karyo = nucleus Unicellular or multicellular organisms 2 Types: Plant & Animal Cells

4 V IRUSES Not alive DNA or RNA surrounded by protein

5 T RUE OR F ALSE ??? 1. Viruses are living and bacteria are non-living. 2. Both types of cells as well as viruses have genetic material. 3. The two types of Eukaryotic cells are plant cells and animal cells. 4. A prokaryotic cell does not have membrane bound organelles like mitochondria or endoplasmic reticulum. Eukaryotic cells are found in bacteria.

6 Eukaryotic cells are differentiated from prokaryotic cells because eukaryotic cells A are much smaller. B have permeable membranes. C have a higher rate of reproduction. D have a nucleus.

7 O RGANELLES OF E UKARYOTIC C ELLS Cell Biology Standard 1d, 1e

8 N UCLEUS 1 D The “brain” of the cell Contains DNA that codes for ALL the proteins in your body Surrounded by the nuclear membrane Membrane has nuclear pores to let mRNA out

9 When DNA is uncoiled it’s called chromatin When DNA is coiled up it’s called chromosomes

10 T RANSCRIPTION 1 D DNA is transcribed (copied) into messenger RNA (mRNA) mRNA leaves through nuclear pore into cytoplasm

11 T RANSLATION 1 D mRNA is translated into a protein by a ribosome That’s how your genes (DNA) predict your appearance (proteins)!

12 The central dogma of molecular biology outlines the flow of information as the following: A. DNA ->mRNA-> protein -> ribosome B. mRNA ->DNA -> ribosome -> protein C. DNA -> mRNA -> ribosome -> protein D. Protein -> ribosome -> mRNA -> DNA Translation is the process of: A. DNA replication B. ribosomes reading mRNA code to build a protein C. DNA copied into mRNA D. mRNA copied into DNA

13 O RGANELLES 1 E Ribosomes: read the mRNA and make proteins. Rough ER : covered in ribosomes where proteins are made. Golgi apparatus: packages proteins in vesicles which are moved to the membrane. Smooth ER: modifies and detoxifies lipids. (fats, steroids)

14 Which cellular organelle is responsible for packaging the proteins that the cell secretes? A cytoskeleton B cell membrane C lysosome D Golgi apparatus


16 T HE C ELL M EMBRANE Cell Biology standard 1a Students know cells are enclosed within semipermeable membranes that regulate their interaction with their surroundings.

17 Surrounds ALL cells! Controls what enters/leaves the cell SEMIPERMEABLE – allows some things through but not others C ELL M EMBRANE

18 Phospholipid bilayer Polar heads “love” water (hydrophilic) Nonpolar tails “fear” water (hydrophobic) S TRUCTURE

19 “Fluid mosaic model” Proteins float around like icebergs in the ocean F LUID M OSAIC M ODEL

20 Molecules can enter/leave the cell 3 ways Diffusion Carrier-Facilitated (“helped”) diffusion Active transport C ELL T RANSPORT

21 No energy required Molecules move from area of high concentration to low concentration Diffusion of water is called “osmosis” 1. D IFFUSION

22 No energy required Molecules “helped” across by proteins from high to low concentration 2. C ARRIER -F ACILITATED D IFFUSION

23 Energy required! ATP – the “battery” of the cell Breaking a bond in ATP releases energy Can “pump” molecules from low to high concentration building them up in the cell 3. A CTIVE T RANSPORT

24 The cell membrane of the red blood cell will allow water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and glucose to pass through. Because other substances are blocked from entering, this membrane is called A. perforated. B. semi-permeable. C. non-conductive. D. permeable.

25 T RUE OR F ALSE ??? 1. In both diffusion and carrier-facilitated diffusion molecules move from high to low concentration. 2. The cell membrane is called the fluid mosaic model because ribosomes float around like icebergs in an ocean. 3. The type of energy needed for active transport to move molecules against the concentration gradient from low to high is ATP. The cell membrane is a phospholipid bilayer with polar heads on the inside and non polar tails on the outside.

26 C ELLULAR E NERGETICS Photosynthesis and Respiration Standards 1f and 1g

27 P HOTOSYNTHESIS 1 F Process where sunlight is converted into chemical energy stored in carbohydrates (sugar) Occurs in the Chloroplast CO 2 + H 2 O + light  C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 Carbon Dioxide + water + light  Glucose + Oxygen

28 28 Has stacks of membranes called thylakoids surrounded by space called the stroma

29 R EACTIONS OF P HOTOSYNTHESIS Light-dependent reactions Need light Energy from sunlight is stored in chemical bonds of ATP and NADPH O 2 is released from water H 2 O + light  ATP + NADPH +O 2 (full batteries) Light-independent Reactions (Calvin Cycle) Use ATP and NADPH to make glucose from CO 2 CO 2 + ATP + NADPH  C 6 H 12 O 6 (sugar)


31 Which of these best completes this concept map? A an animal cell B a prokaryotic cell C a virus D a plant cell

32 Which molecule in plant cells first captures the radiant energy from sunlight? A glucose B carbon dioxide C chlorophyll D adenosine triphosphate

33 The first stage of photosynthesis in a chloroplast is A. light-dependent. B. temperature-dependent. C. glucose-driven. D. ATP-driven.

34 C ELLULAR R ESPIRATION 1 G Series of reactions where carbohydrates are broken down to produce CO 2 and energy (ATP) Occurs in the Cytoplasm & Mitochondria C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2  CO 2 + H 2 O + ATP energy Glucose + Oxygen  Carbon Dioxide + Water + ATP energy

35 Matrix is center of the mitochondria Cristae are folded portions of inner membrane

36 3 sets of reactions Glycolysis – glucose split into two pyruvate (Cytoplasm) = 2 ATP Krebs Cycle – pyruvate broken into CO 2 (matrix of the mitochondria) = 2 ATP Electron TransportChain – most ATP produced (cristae of the mitochondria) = 32-34 ATP


38 W HICH STEP OF C ELLULAR R ESPIRATION PRODUCES THE MOST ATP? A. Glycolysis B. Krebs Cycle C. Electron Transport Chain D. All steps produce the same amount of ATP

39 In aerobic respiration, the Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle) takes place in A. chloroplasts. B. nuclei. C. lysosomes. D. mitochondria.

40 A cell from heart muscle would probably have an unusually high proportion of A. lysosomes. B. mitochondria. C. mRNA. D. Golgi bodies.

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