AP BIOLOGY Chapter 6 Cell Structure & Function WHAT’S NEW you didn’t learn in BIO I? Slide shows combined and modified from: http://gbs.glenbrook.k12.il.us/Academics/gbssci/bio/apbio/Lecture/lecture.htm;
Presentation on theme: "AP BIOLOGY Chapter 6 Cell Structure & Function WHAT’S NEW you didn’t learn in BIO I? Slide shows combined and modified from: http://gbs.glenbrook.k12.il.us/Academics/gbssci/bio/apbio/Lecture/lecture.htm;"— Presentation transcript:
1 AP BIOLOGY Chapter 6 Cell Structure & Function WHAT’S NEW you didn’t learn in BIO I? Slide shows combined and modified from:
3 DOUBLE MEMBRANE is fused in spots forming NUCLEAR PORES NUCLEAR ENVELOPEDOUBLE MEMBRANE is fused in spots forming NUCLEAR PORESNUCLEAR LAMINA- netlike array of protein filaments on nuclear side of envelope that maintains the shape of the nucleus(Play a role in reforming nuclear membrane after cell division, if you inject antibodies to lamina proteins, nucleus can’t reform after mitosis)
18 LYSOSOMES: Uncontrolled release of lysosome contents into the cytoplasm can also cause cell death (necrosis)APOPTOSIS (self-destruct mechanism) “cell suicide”Embryonic developmentRemoves damaged cellsImmune responseCancer cells and AIDS virus override self-destruct signals
19 WHITE BLOOD CELLS USE LYSOSOMES TO DIGEST ENGULFED BACTERIA (Phagocytosis)
29 Chloroplasts – site for photosynthesis in plants DOUBLE MEMBRANEHas own DNAThylakoids – membrane sacs containing light-capturing pigmentsGrana – closed compartments of stacked thylakoid membranesStroma – fluid surrounding thylakoids
30 PLASTIDS CHLOROPLASTS- contain pigment chlorophyll for photosynthesis CHROMOPLASTS- contain pigments that give fruits and flowers colorsAMYLOPLASTS- store starch (amylose) in roots and tubers (colorless)
31 Who else has a circular chromosome not found within a nucleus?
32 Originally proposed in early 1900’s Endosymbiotic TheoryOriginally proposed in early 1900’sIdea reintroduced in 1963 by Lynn MargulisSuggests that engulfed prokaryotes shared symbiotic relationship with host cellAdvantages for both: ~ one supplies energy ~ other raw materials & protection
33 ENDOSYMBIOTIC THEORY See a movie about ENDOSYMBIOTIC THEORY
34 Evidence for Endosymbiotic theory 1. Mitochondria and chloroplasts have circular DNA like bacteria.2. Mitochondria and chloroplasts have ribosomes whose size and structure resemble bacterial ribosomes.3. Mitochondria and chloroplasts replicate independently of cell division using binary fission like bacteria.4. Inner membranes of mitochondria and chloroplasts have a composition similar to bacterial membranes.
35 PEROXISOMES Other digestive enzyme sacs in both plants and animals NOT part of endomembrane system (proteins come from cytosol)In fat storing seeds (called GLYOXYSOMES) Break down fatty acids → sugars transport to mitochondria for energyIn LIVER CELLS Help detoxify alcohol & other poisonsPRODUCE HYDROGEN PEROXIDE (also a TOXIN) but have enzyme (CATALASE) to break this downH2O2 → H2O + O2