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Endurance Training & Tapering EXS 558 Dr. Moran Wednesday November 9, 2005.

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Presentation on theme: "Endurance Training & Tapering EXS 558 Dr. Moran Wednesday November 9, 2005."— Presentation transcript:

1 Endurance Training & Tapering EXS 558 Dr. Moran Wednesday November 9, 2005

2 Lecture Outline Review Questions Review Questions Concurrent Training Concurrent Training Periodization Periodization Endurance Training (Chapter 9) Endurance Training (Chapter 9) “Optimizing Endurance Training” Dalleck & Kravitz (2004) “Optimizing Endurance Training” Dalleck & Kravitz (2004) Lactic Acid Metabolism Lactic Acid Metabolism TaperingTapering “Scientific Bases for Precompetition Tapering Strategies” “Scientific Bases for Precompetition Tapering Strategies” Mujika & Padilla (2003) Mujika & Padilla (2003) “Physiological responses to a 6-d taper in middle-distance runners: influence of training intensity and volume “Physiological responses to a 6-d taper in middle-distance runners: influence of training intensity and volume

3 Review Question #1 1.) For an endurance athlete why would a concurrent resistance training program appear to be non- beneficial? MacDougal et al. (1979) stated that with increased muscle mass the productivity of mitochondria is reduced. Since mitochondria are the workhorses of oxidative metabolism it would appear that a resistance training program may compromise an endurance training program.

4 Review Question #2 2.) Hickson et al. (1980) showed that a resistance training program can actually ENHANCE endurance performance. How did the authors speculate this was possible? What types of subjects were tested in this study? This studies had UNTRAINED subjects perform a concurrent training program and endurance was measured as the time to exhaustion on a cycle and treadmill protocol. The authors speculated that improved glycolytic enzymatic capacity and improved NM adaptations improved endurance in these subjects.

5 Review Question #3 3.) With regards to trained endurance athletes, the addition of a concurrent resistance program of 3x a week has what effect on endurance capabilities (performance, lactate threshold, maximal aerobic capacity)? The addition of a low-weight, high-repetition resistance training program performed 3x a week has NO effect on hampering positive endurance adaptations during a training program.

6 Review Question #4, 5 4.) What is the major reason why studies investigating the addition of an endurance training program on maximal strength gains have been inconclusive? These studies have used different APV and they have used two different types of subjects: (1) untrained VS (2) trained strength athletes. With untrained athletes a concurrent endurance program does NOT compromise strength gains while with strength athletes the maximal strength gains are impaired. 5.) Why are they impaired? CHRONIC FATIGUE

7 Review Question #6 6.) Complete the following schematic demonstrating the basic principle of periodization. Intensity Low Intensity High Volume High Volume Low Foundation Training PEAK

8 Review Question #7 7.) According to Matveyev’s training phases which of the following is NOT a phase of training? a.) preparatory b.) general c.) competitive d.) transition

9 Review Question #8 8.) According to Kraemer et al. (2003) what model of concurrent resistance training in collegiate women tennis players yielded the BEST sport- specific adaptations? And why? The nonlinear (undulating) model yielded the best specific adaptations for these women’s players. This model worked best b/c it allowed fluctuations on volume DURING the competitive season to avoid any potential overtraining and it also eliminated boredom of tennis players.

10 Endurance Training Physiological Changes Physiological Changes Positive adaptation discussed in first half of this course (review) Positive adaptation discussed in first half of this course (review) COMMON THEME: improve the body’s ability to supply and utilize ATP to power muscular exercise COMMON THEME: improve the body’s ability to supply and utilize ATP to power muscular exercise What dictates endurance performance? What dictates endurance performance? Genetic Contribution Genetic Contribution Muscle fiber typeMuscle fiber type Maximal aerobic capacity (diminishing returns principle)Maximal aerobic capacity (diminishing returns principle) Training Status Training Status Lactate thresholdLactate threshold Exercise economyExercise economy Acute Acute NutritionNutrition RestRest Hydration statusHydration status PsychePsyche } “details”

11 Endurance Training Maximal Aerobic Capacity VO 2 max VO 2 max Considered most objective measure of endurance capacity Considered most objective measure of endurance capacity Definition: highest rate of oxygen consumption during maximal exercise Definition: highest rate of oxygen consumption during maximal exercise As exercise intensity increases there is a “plateau-ing” of oxygen consumption valuesAs exercise intensity increases there is a “plateau-ing” of oxygen consumption values Improvements with training Improvements with training 15-30% ↑ over the first three months15-30% ↑ over the first three months Could rise as much as 50% over the first 2 yearsCould rise as much as 50% over the first 2 years Not the best determinant of endurance success Not the best determinant of endurance success

12 Endurance Training Maximal Aerobic Capacity

13 Endurance Training US XC Ski Team – Field Test for Maximal Aerobic Capacity Purpose Purpose Determine intensity to improve maximal oxygen uptakeDetermine intensity to improve maximal oxygen uptake Requirements Requirements 1 Km of consistent upgrade of 5-10%1 Km of consistent upgrade of 5-10% Heart Rate monitorHeart Rate monitor Test Test runs through on the 1 Km upgrade10-12 runs through on the 1 Km upgrade Increase intensity on each run by about 5-10 bpmIncrease intensity on each run by about 5-10 bpm Average HR for last minute of each runAverage HR for last minute of each run Calculate speed of each runCalculate speed of each run Plot Plot Speed of run vs. average HRSpeed of run vs. average HR Similar versions for running Similar versions for running Conconi et al. (1982) Conconi et al. (1982) Jones, A and Doust, J (1995) Lack of reliability in Conconi's heart rate deflection point. International Journal of Sports Medicine, Vol 16, pp Jones, A and Doust, J (1995) Lack of reliability in Conconi's heart rate deflection point. International Journal of Sports Medicine, Vol 16, pp Lack of reliability in Conconi's heart rate deflection pointLack of reliability in Conconi's heart rate deflection point Deflection point

14 Endurance Training Muscle Fiber Type Slow-twitch (type I) fibers Slow-twitch (type I) fibers Long-distance runners  ~70% (some > 92%) Long-distance runners  ~70% (some > 92%) Greater capillary density Greater capillary density Greater mitochondrial content Greater mitochondrial content Increased oxidative enzymes Increased oxidative enzymes Positive correlation between % of ST fibers and best 6 mile performance Positive correlation between % of ST fibers and best 6 mile performance Good Article Good Article Good Article Good Article Difficult to switch fibers from type II  type I Difficult to switch fibers from type II  type I Endurance training will transfer some % of fiber subtypes to become more oxidative (Ch. 1) Endurance training will transfer some % of fiber subtypes to become more oxidative (Ch. 1) Frank Shorter: 1972 Olympic marathon champion

15 Blood Lactate Concentration Blood Lactate Concentration Rest & steady-state exercise : a good balance between production and removal Rest & steady-state exercise : a good balance between production and removal When exercise intensity is increased to a point the removal (clearance) of lactate is not adequate When exercise intensity is increased to a point the removal (clearance) of lactate is not adequate Onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA) Onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA) Anaerobic Threshold Anaerobic Threshold Lactate Threshold Lactate Threshold This point is described at the % of VO2 max where it occursThis point is described at the % of VO2 max where it occurs Endurance Training Lactate Threshold Rate of Production Rate of Removal

16 Best predictor of endurance success Best predictor of endurance success LT is used as part of the exercise prescription LT is used as part of the exercise prescription Exercise intensity is set right above or below this point of lactate accumulation Exercise intensity is set right above or below this point of lactate accumulation Pattern of LT is similar between trained and untrained individual Pattern of LT is similar between trained and untrained individual Untrained: OBLA at 55% of max VO2 Untrained: OBLA at 55% of max VO2 Trained: OBLA at 80-90% of max VO2 Trained: OBLA at 80-90% of max VO2 Due to a blunted catelcholamine responseDue to a blunted catelcholamine response Increased ability to deliver and extract oxygenIncreased ability to deliver and extract oxygen Increased lactate utilizationIncreased lactate utilization Figure 9.3 Figure 9.3 Endurance Training Lactate Threshold (LT)

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18 Steady-State Training (“tempo runs”) Steady-State Training (“tempo runs”) Performed as close to LT as possiblePerformed as close to LT as possible Duration will change depending on:Duration will change depending on: Training statusTraining status Type of endurance activity (i.e. cycling vs running)Type of endurance activity (i.e. cycling vs running) Distance of goal eventDistance of goal event Interval Training Interval Training Short duration training above the LTShort duration training above the LT Rest intervals allow lactate [ ]s to return to near-normal before the next intervalRest intervals allow lactate [ ]s to return to near-normal before the next interval Endurance Training Improving Lactate Threshold

19 Definition: describe oxygen consumption required to run at a given velocity Definition: describe oxygen consumption required to run at a given velocity Explains differences in performance with runners of similar VO2 maxExplains differences in performance with runners of similar VO2 max Biomechanics will influence economy of both cycling and running Biomechanics will influence economy of both cycling and running Other factors influencing exercise economy Other factors influencing exercise economy Body temperature Body temperature Wind resistance Wind resistance Weight Weight Daniels 1985 Daniels 1985 Daniels 1985 Daniels 1985 Endurance Training Exercise Economy

20 Endurance Training Monitoring Intensity Heart Rate Heart Rate Close relationship with HR and oxygen consumption (Fig 9.5) Close relationship with HR and oxygen consumption (Fig 9.5) Regardless of age, conditioning level, or gender this relationship between VO2 max and HR is maintained Regardless of age, conditioning level, or gender this relationship between VO2 max and HR is maintained Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) Borg Scale (RPE) 6 No exertion at all 7 Extremely Light 9 Very Light 11 Light 13 Somewhat Hard (70% of max HR) 15 Hard (heavy) 17 Very Hard 19 Extremely Hard May not be the best indicator for exercise intensities between 50-80%. Abstract

21 Lactic Acid Metabolism LDH Lactate Dehydorgenase (LDH): catalyzes the interconversion of pyruvate and lactate.lactate

22 Lactic Acid Metabolism Lactate produced and released from tissue even with adequate oxygen (LDH always present) Lactate produced and released from tissue even with adequate oxygen (LDH always present) Several tissues beside muscle produce lactate (skin, liver, heart, renal, RBCs) Several tissues beside muscle produce lactate (skin, liver, heart, renal, RBCs) Lactate constantly released into and taken up from blood: “turnover” (~75%) Lactate constantly released into and taken up from blood: “turnover” (~75%) Even oxidized within the heart! (Good Introduction in the article) Even oxidized within the heart! (Good Introduction in the article)Good Introduction in the articleGood Introduction in the article Lactate can serve as oxidative energy substrate (gluconeogenesis) or be incorporated in AA’s or proteins (~25%) Lactate can serve as oxidative energy substrate (gluconeogenesis) or be incorporated in AA’s or proteins (~25%) LA taken up by liver and used as building block to make liver glycogenLA taken up by liver and used as building block to make liver glycogen “Lactate Shuttle” – lactate produced in myofibers with ↑ rates of glycolysis used as ENERGY by nearby or remote cells with ↑ oxidative capacity “Lactate Shuttle” – lactate produced in myofibers with ↑ rates of glycolysis used as ENERGY by nearby or remote cells with ↑ oxidative capacityLactate ShuttleLactate Shuttle Never gets in blood so blood lactate NOT affectedNever gets in blood so blood lactate NOT affected Endurance training improves muscle capacity for lactate utilization and increases membrane transport of lactate probably via an increase in Type I monocarboxylate transport protein (MCT1) and perhaps other MCT isoforms as well.

23 Lactate Shuttle Illustration of the essential elements of the recently introduced intracellular lactate shuttle (red) in comparison to the more well-known malate-aspartate and glycerol- phosphate NAD+/NADH shuttles (blue). LDH, lactate dehydrogenase; MCT (monocarboxylate transporter), monocarboxylate transporter; ETC, electron transport chain; Shuttles, malate-aspartate and glycerol- phosphate NAD+/NADH shuttles. The H+ ions for pyruvate and lactate are inserted to emphasize that the MCT symports a proton; the same MCT carrier can transport both pyruvate and lactate. Note that the mitochondrial LDH may actually be in the intermembrane space of the mitochondria and on the outer surface of the inner membrane. Note also that operation of the intracellular lactate shuttle delivers both reducing equivalents and substrate for oxidation to mitochondria. The intracellular lactate shuttle explains HLa production and accumulation under aerobic exercise conditions. Endurance training improves muscle capacity for lactate utilization and increases membrane transport of lactate probably via an increase in Type I monocarboxylate transport protein (MCT1) and perhaps other MCT isoforms as well.

24 Lactate exchange can occur between: Lactate exchange can occur between: Active  Inactive Myofibers (same muscle) Active  Inactive Myofibers (same muscle) Active  Inactive Muscles (X-training effect) Active  Inactive Muscles (X-training effect) The Journal of Physiology workers from two different laboratories (Rasmussen et al. 2002; Sahlin et al. 2002) dissent from the refined concept, but do agree 'it is well documented that lactate can be released by one muscle and oxidized by another muscle'The Journal of Physiology workers from two different laboratories (Rasmussen et al. 2002; Sahlin et al. 2002) dissent from the refined concept, but do agree 'it is well documented that lactate can be released by one muscle and oxidized by another muscle'The Journal of Physiology workers from two different laboratories (Rasmussen et al. 2002; Sahlin et al. 2002) dissent from the refined concept, but do agree 'it is well documented that lactate can be released by one muscle and oxidized by another muscle'The Journal of Physiology workers from two different laboratories (Rasmussen et al. 2002; Sahlin et al. 2002) dissent from the refined concept, but do agree 'it is well documented that lactate can be released by one muscle and oxidized by another muscle' Blood  Muscle Blood  Muscle Active Muscle  Liver Active Muscle  Liver Active Muscle  Heart (sink for lactate, b/c of H-LDH) Active Muscle  Heart (sink for lactate, b/c of H-LDH) Within cytosol of same cell, [lactate] ↑ away from mitochondria and ↓ [lactate] close to mitochondria. Within cytosol of same cell, [lactate] ↑ away from mitochondria and ↓ [lactate] close to mitochondria. Lactic Acid Metabolism (con’t)

25 Exercise Conditions Exercise Conditions At beginning of exercise muscle becomes site of net lactate releaseAt beginning of exercise muscle becomes site of net lactate release Net release of lactate UNDERESTIMATES lactate production by muscle Net release of lactate UNDERESTIMATES lactate production by muscle Initial rate of release depends upon mass of active muscleInitial rate of release depends upon mass of active muscle With ↑ exercise intensity, VO2 in linear manner but lactate ↑ in curvilinear fashionWith ↑ exercise intensity, VO2 in linear manner but lactate ↑ in curvilinear fashion Primary reason for sharp in lactate production is stimulation of sympathetic nervous systemPrimary reason for sharp in lactate production is stimulation of sympathetic nervous system Catelcholamines stimulate glycolysis but not oxidative enzymes, also ↓ splanchic blood flow ( ↓ uptake by liver and kidneys) Catelcholamines stimulate glycolysis but not oxidative enzymes, also ↓ splanchic blood flow ( ↓ uptake by liver and kidneys)

26 Lactic Acid Metabolism (con’t) Fiber Type Differences Fiber Type Differences During exercise lactate produced by FT fibers can either diffuse directly or via blood into ST fibers which can take it up and oxidize itDuring exercise lactate produced by FT fibers can either diffuse directly or via blood into ST fibers which can take it up and oxidize it Concurrently some FOG fibers can release lactate while others consume itConcurrently some FOG fibers can release lactate while others consume it FT fibers have greater capillarity than needed for oxidative capacity, may be more important for lactate than oxygen transportFT fibers have greater capillarity than needed for oxidative capacity, may be more important for lactate than oxygen transport LDH profile strong predictor of whether fiber will be net producer or net consumerLDH profile strong predictor of whether fiber will be net producer or net consumer

27 Post-Exercise Lactate Metabolism Since 1928 it has been known that blood [lactate] ↓ more quickly with ACTIVE than PASSIVE recovery Since 1928 it has been known that blood [lactate] ↓ more quickly with ACTIVE than PASSIVE recovery Due to ↑ blood flow to removal centers and ↑ energy demand Due to ↑ blood flow to removal centers and ↑ energy demand Is there an optimal training intensity? Is there an optimal training intensity? Rate of blood lactate decline ↑ along with intensity up to a critical point Rate of blood lactate decline ↑ along with intensity up to a critical point

28 Tapering Tapering Phase: final period of training before most important competition Tapering Phase: final period of training before most important competition Still remains more of an art rather than an informed science “Scientific Bases for Precompetition Tapering Strategies” Mujika & Padilla (2003) Aim of Tapering: reduce psychological and physiological effects of everyday training with the thought that performance can be maximized over a short time frame Reduction of Training Load: the extent with which load can be reduced is of greatest concern so that detraining does not occur Reduction of Training Intensity: the most effective tapering involved a HI-Intensity and LO-volume approach Reduction of Training Frequency: for highly trained individuals training frequency should remain normal to avoid a “loss of feel”

29 Tapering (con’t) Muscle Fiber: type IIa (FOG) more affected than type I fibers (Trappe et al. 1998) Muscle Fiber: type IIa (FOG) more affected than type I fibers (Trappe et al. 1998) (Trappe et al. 1998) (Trappe et al. 1998) Duration of Taper: the optimal time frame has not been established Duration of Taper: the optimal time frame has not been established Type of Taper Type of Taper LinearLinear ExponentialExponential Slow Decay Slow Decay Fast Decay Fast Decay StepStep *Only 1 study has looked at the performance effects of different types of taper. A fast experimental produced the best performance increases in a group of triathletes

30 Tapering (con’t) Tapering Strategy Minimize fatigue without compromising fitness Maintain Training Intensity (middle distance taper)middle distance taper Reduce Training Volume by 60-90% Maintain Training frequency at >80% Individual taper duration between 4 and 28 d Use progressive, nonlinear taper designs Expect performance improvements of ~3% (range 0.5-6%) Mujika et al. (2002): resting testosterone increases following a 6-day taper improving the anabolic:catabolic ratio Mujika et al. (2002): resting testosterone increases following a 6-day taper improving the anabolic:catabolic ratio

31 Tapering Mathematical Modeling


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