Presentation on theme: "Aerobic Endurance Exercise Training"— Presentation transcript:
1 Aerobic Endurance Exercise Training chapter 18Aerobic Endurance Exercise TrainingBenjamin H. Reuter, PhD; ATC; CSCS,*D Patrick S. Hagerman, EdD, CSCS, NSCA-CPT, FNSCA
2 Chapter ObjectivesDiscuss factors related to aerobic endurance performance.Select modes of aerobic endurance training.Set aerobic endurance training frequency based on training status, sport season, and recovery requirements.Assign aerobic endurance training duration and understand its interaction with training intensity.(continued)
3 Chapter Objectives (continued) Assign aerobic endurance exercise intensity and understand the various methods used to monitor intensity.Describe various types of aerobic endurance programs.Apply program design variables based on the sport season.Address cross-training, detraining, tapering, and supplemental resistance training when designing an aerobic endurance training program.
4 Section Outline Factors Related to Aerobic Endurance Performance Maximal Aerobic PowerLactate ThresholdExercise Economy
5 Factors Related to Aerobic Endurance Performance Maximal Aerobic PowerAs the duration of an aerobic endurance event increases, so does the proportion of the total energy that must be supplied by aerobic metabolism.There is a high correlation between VO2max and performance in aerobic endurance events..
6 Factors Related to Aerobic Endurance Performance Lactate ThresholdIn aerobic endurance events, the best competitor among athletes with similar VO2max values is typically the person who can sustain aerobic energy production at the highest percentage of his or her VO2max without accumulating large amounts of lactic acid in the muscle and blood...
7 Key Termlactate threshold: The speed of movement or the percentage of VO2max at which a specific blood lactate concentration is observed or the point at which blood lactate concentration begins to increase above resting levels..
8 Factors Related to Aerobic Endurance Performance Exercise EconomyA measure of the energy cost of activity at a given exercise velocity is referred to as the exercise economy.An improvement in exercise economy can enhance maximal aerobic power (VO2max) and lactate threshold..
9 Section Outline Designing an Aerobic Endurance Program Step 1: Exercise ModeStep 2: Training FrequencyStep 3: Training IntensityHeart RateRatings of Perceived ExertionMetabolic EquivalentsPower MeasurementStep 4: Exercise DurationStep 5: Exercise Progression
10 Designing an Aerobic Endurance Program Step 1: Exercise ModeExercise mode is the specific activity performed by the athlete: cycling, running, swimming, and so on.Remember that the more specific the training mode is to the sport, the greater the improvement in performance.
11 Designing an Aerobic Endurance Program Step 2: Training FrequencyTraining frequency is the number of training sessions conducted per day or per week.The frequency of training sessions will depend on the interaction of exercise intensity and duration, the training status of the athlete, and the specific sport season.
12 Designing an Aerobic Endurance Program Step 3: Training IntensityAdaptations in the body are specific to the intensity of the training session.High-intensity aerobic exercise increases cardio-vascular and respiratory function and allows for improved oxygen delivery to the working muscles.Increasing exercise intensity may also benefit skeletal muscle adaptations by affecting muscle fiber recruitment.
13 Designing an Aerobic Endurance Program Step 3: Training IntensityHeart RateThe most frequently used method for prescribing aerobic exercise intensity
15 Designing an Aerobic Endurance Program Target Heart Rate CalculationsKarvonen MethodAge-predicted maximum heart rate (APMHR) = 220 – ageHeart rate reserve (HRR) = APMHR – resting heart rate (RHR)Target heart rate (THR) = (HRR × exercise intensity) + RHRDo this calculation twice to determine the target heart rate range (THRR).
16 Designing an Aerobic Endurance Program Target Heart Rate CalculationsPercentage of Maximal Heart Rate MethodAge-predicted maximum heart rate (APMHR) = 220 − ageTarget heart rate (THR) = (APMHR × exercise intensity)Do this calculation twice to determine the target heart rate range (THRR).
17 Designing an Aerobic Endurance Program Step 3: Training IntensityRatings of Perceived ExertionCan be used to regulate intensity of aerobic endurance training across changes in fitness levelTypically uses the 15-point Borg scaleMay be influenced by external environmental factors
19 Designing an Aerobic Endurance Program Step 3: Training IntensityMetabolic EquivalentsOne MET is equal to 3.5 ml · kg–1 · min–1 of oxygen consumption and is considered the amount of oxygen required by the body at rest.
20 Designing an Aerobic Endurance Program Step 3: Training IntensityPower MeasurementCyclists may use power-measuring cranks and hubs to regulate exercise intensity.Metabolic rate is closely related to mechanical power production.Step 4: Exercise DurationExercise duration is the length of time of the training session.
21 Key PointThe duration of a training session is often influenced by the exercise intensity: the longer the exercise duration, the lower the exercise intensity.
22 Designing an Aerobic Endurance Program Step 5: Exercise ProgressionProgression of an aerobic endurance program involves increasing the frequency, intensity, and duration.Frequency, intensity, or duration should not increase by more than 10% each week.When it is not feasible to increase frequency or duration, progression can occur with intensity manipulation.Progression of intensity should be monitored to prevent overtraining.
23 Section Outline Types of Aerobic Endurance Training Programs Long, Slow Distance TrainingPace/Tempo TrainingInterval TrainingRepetition TrainingFartlek Training
25 Types of Aerobic Endurance Training Programs Long, Slow Distance TrainingTraining is longer than race distance (or 30 minutes to 2 hours) at 70% of VO2max.Adaptations from this exercise include the following:Enhances the body’s ability to clear lactateChronic use of this type of training causes an eventual shift of Type IIx fibers to Type I fibersIntensity is lower than that of competition, which may be a disadvantage if too much LSD training is used..
26 Sample LSD Training Program for a Marathon Runner
27 Types of Aerobic Endurance Training Programs Pace/Tempo TrainingIntensity at or slightly above competition intensity, corresponding to the lactate thresholdSteady pace/tempo training: 20 to 30 minutes of continuous training at the lactate thresholdIntermittent pace/tempo training: series of shorter intervals with brief recovery periodsObjectivesDevelop a sense of race pace and enhance the body’s ability to sustain exercise at that paceImprove running economy and increase lactate threshold
28 Sample Pace/Tempo Training Program for a 50 km Cyclist
29 Types of Aerobic Endurance Training Programs Interval TrainingExercise at an intensity close to VO2max for intervals of 3 to 5 minutes. Work:rest ratio should be 1:1.This allows athletes to train at intensities close to VO2max for a greater amount of time.It increases VO2max and enhances anaerobic metabolism.Method should be used sparingly, and only when training athletes with a firm aerobic endurance training base....
30 Sample Interval Training Program for a 10 km Runner
31 Types of Aerobic Endurance Training Programs Repetition TrainingConducted at intensities greater than VO2max, with work intervals lasting secondsWork:rest ratio is about 1:5Long recovery periods needed between sessionsBenefits includeImproved running speed and economyIncreased capacity and tolerance for anaerobic metabolism.
32 Sample Repetition Training Program for a Triathlete
33 Types of Aerobic Endurance Training Programs Fartlek TrainingCombines other methods of trainingEasy running (~70% VO2max) combined with hills or short, fast bursts (~85-90% VO2max)Can be adapted for cycling and swimmingBenefits are likely to includeEnhanced VO2maxIncreased lactate thresholdImproved running economy and fuel utilization...
34 Sample Fartlek Training Program for a Collegiate Cross-Country Runner
35 Key PointThe various types of training induce dif-ferent physiological responses. A sound program should incorporate all types of training into the athlete’s weekly, monthly, and yearly training schedule.
36 Section Outline Application of Program Design to Training Seasons Off-Season (Base Training)PreseasonIn-Season (Competition)Postseason (Active Rest)
38 Application of Program Design to Training Seasons Off-Season (Base Training)Begin with long duration and low intensity. Gradually increase intensity and, to a lesser extent, duration.PreseasonFocus on increasing intensity, maintaining or reducing duration, and incorporating all types of training.In-Season (Competition)Program should be designed around competition, with low-intensity and short-duration training just before race days.Postseason (Active Rest)Focus on recovering from the competitive season while maintaining sufficient fitness.
39 Key PointA sound year-round aerobic endurance training program should be divided into sport seasons with specific goals and objectives designed to improve perfor-mance gradually and progressively.
40 Section Outline Special Issues Related to Aerobic Endurance Training Cross-TrainingDetrainingTaperingResistance Training
41 Special Issues Related to Aerobic Endurance Training Cross-TrainingCross-training is a mode of training that can be used to maintain general conditioning in athletes during periods of reduced training due to injury or during recovery from a training cycle.
42 Special Issues Related to Aerobic Endurance Training DetrainingDetraining occurs when the athlete reduces the training duration or intensity or stops training altogether due to a break in the training program, injury, or illness.In the absence of an appropriate training stimulus, the athlete experiences a loss of the physiological adaptations brought about by training.
43 Special Issues Related to Aerobic Endurance Training TaperingTapering is the systematic reduction of training duration and intensity combined with an increased emphasis on technique work and nutritional intervention.The objective of tapering the training regimen is to attain peak performance at the time of competition.
44 Special Issues Related to Aerobic Endurance Training Resistance TrainingResearch is limited, but some data suggest that benefits can be derived from performing resistance training during aerobic endurance training.Benefits may includeImprovement in short-term exercise performanceFaster recovery from injuriesPrevention of overuse injuries and reduction of muscle imbalancesIt can improve hill climbing, bridging gaps between competitors during breakaways, and the final sprint.