Presentation on theme: "Cell Structure: A Tour of the Cell"— Presentation transcript:
1Cell Structure: A Tour of the Cell Chapter 4Cell Structure: A Tour of the Cell1
2The smallest structural unit of life. Cell:A basic unit of living matter separated from its environment by a plasma membrane.The smallest structural unit of life.1
3First observations of cells were made with light microscopes: MicroscopyFirst observations of cells were made with light microscopes:Robert Hooke (1665): Used primitive microscope to observe cork (dead plant cells). Coined the word cell.Anton van Leeuenhoeck (1670s): Made single lens microscopes. First person to observe live cells under microscope: “animalcules” (protists) in water, red blood cells, sperm, bacteria, and insect eggs.Theodor Schwann (1830s): Observed harder to view animal cells. Called cells “elementary particles” of both plants and animals.1
4Cell Theory: Developed in late 1800s. 1. All living organisms are made up of one or more cells.2. The smallest living organisms are single cells, and cells are the functional units of multicellular organisms.3. All cells arise from preexisting cells.1
5Microscope Features Magnification: Increase in apparent size of an object.Ratio of image size to specimen size.Resolving power: Measures clarity of image.Ability to see fine detail.Ability to distinguish two objects as separate.Minimum distance between 2 points at which they can be distinguished as separate and distinct.1
6Light Microscopes: Earliest microscopes used. Lenses pass visible light through a specimen.Magnification: Highest possible from 1000 X to 2000 X.Resolving power: Up to 0.2 mm (1 mm = 1/1000 mm).1
7Types of MicroscopeElectron Microscopes: Developed in 1950s. Electron beam passes through specimen.Magnification: Up to 200,000 X.Resolving power: Up to 0.2 nm (1nm = 1/1’000,000 mm).Two types of electron microscopes:1. Scanning Electron Microscope: Used to study cell or virus surfaces.2. Transmission Electron Microscope: Used to study internal cell structures.1
8Components of All Cells: 1. Plasma membrane: Separates cell contents from outside environment. Made up of phospholipid bilayers and proteins.2. Cytoplasm: Liquid, jelly-like material inside cell.3. Ribosomes: Necessary for protein synthesis.
9Procaryotic versus Eucaryotic Cells Feature Procaryotic EucaryoticOrganisms Bacteria All others (animals, plants,fungi, and protozoa)Nucleus Absent PresentDNA One chromosome Multiple chromosomesSize Small (1-10 um) Large (10 or more um)Membrane Absent Present (mitochondria,Bound golgi, chloroplasts, etc.)OrganellesDivision Rapid process Complex process(Binary fission) (Mitosis)
10Relative Sizes of Structures 1 nanometer (10-9 m) water molecule10 nanomters (10-8 m) small protein100 nanometers (10-7 m) HIV virus1 micron (10-6 m) cell vacuole10 microns (10-5 m) bacterium100 microns (10-4 m) large plant cell1 millimeter (10-3 m) single cell embryo
11Relative Sizes of Procaryotic and Eucaryotic Cells and Viruses
13Prokaryotic Cells Bacteria and blue-green algae. Small size: Range from micrometers in length. About one tenth of eukaryotic cell.No nucleus: DNA in cytoplasm or nucleoid region.Ribosomes are used to make proteinsCell wall: Hard shell around membraneOther structures that may be present:Capsule: Protective, outer sticky layer. May be used for attachment or to evade immune system.Pili: Hair-like projections (attachment)Flagellum: Longer whip-like projection (movement)
14Procaryotic Cells: Lack a Nucleus and other Membrane Bound Organelles
15Eucaryotic Cells Include protist, fungi, plant, and animal cells. Nucleus: Protects and houses DNAMembrane-bound Organelles: Internal structures with specific functions.Separate and store compoundsStore energyWork surfacesMaintain concentration gradients
19Nucleus Structure Functions Double nuclear membrane (envelope) Large nuclear poresDNA (genetic material) is combined with histones and exists in two forms:Chromatin (Loose, threadlike DNA, most of cell life)Chromosomes (Tightly packaged DNA. Found only during cell division)Nucleolus: Dense region where ribosomes are madeFunctionsHouse and protect cell’s genetic information (DNA)Ribosome synthesis
21Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) “Network within the cell”Extensive maze of membranes that branches throughout cytoplasm.ER is continuous with plasma membrane and outer nucleus membrane.Two types of ER:Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER)Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER)
22Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER) Flat, interconnected, rough membrane sacs“Rough”: Outer walls are covered with ribosomes.Ribosomes: Protein making “machines”.May exist free in cytoplasm or attached to ER.RER Functions:Synthesis of cell and organelle membranes.Synthesis and modification of proteins.Packaging, and transport of proteins that are secreted from the cell.Example: Antibodies
24Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER) Network of interconnected tubular smooth membranes.“Smooth”: No ribosomesSER Functions:Synthesis of phospholipids, fatty acids, and steroids (sex hormones).Breakdown of toxic compounds (drugs, alcohol, amphetamines, sedatives, antibiotics, etc.).Helps develop tolerance to drugs and alcohol.Regulates levels of sugar released from liver into the bloodCalcium storage for cell and muscle contraction.
26Golgi ApparatusStacks of flattened membrane sacs that may be distended in certain regions. Sacs are not interconnected.First described in 1898 by Camillo Golgi (Italy).Works closely with the ER to secrete proteins.Golgi Functions:Receiving side receives proteins in transport vesicles from ER.Modifies proteins into final shape, sorts, and labels proteins for proper transport.Shipping side packages and sends proteins to cell membrane for export or to other parts of the cell.Packages digestive enzymes in lysosomes.
27The Golgi Apparatus: Receiving, Processing, and Shipping of Proteins
28LysosomesSmall vesicles released from Golgi containing at least 40 different digestive enzymes, which can break down carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids.Optimal pH for enzymes is about 5Found mainly in animal cells.Lysosome Functions:Molecular garbage dump and recycler of macromolecules (e.g.: proteins).Destruction of foreign material, bacteria, viruses, and old or damaged cell components.Digestion of food particles taken in by cell.After cell dies, lysosomal membrane breaks down, causing rapid self-destruction.
30Lysosomes, Aging, and Disease As we get older, our lysosomes become leaky, releasing enzymes which cause tissue damage and inflammation.Example: Cartilage damage in arthritis.Steroids or cortisone-like anti-inflammatory agents stabilize lysosomal membranes, but have other undesirable effects (affect immune function).Diseases from “mutant” lysosome enzymes are usually fatal:Pompe’s disease: Defective glycogen breakdown in liver.Tay-Sachs disease: Defective lipid breakdown in brain. Common genetic disorder among Jewish people.
31Vacuoles Membrane bound sac. Different sizes, shapes, and functions: Central vacuole: In plant cells. Store starch, water, pigments, poisons, and wastes. May occupy up to 90% of cell volume.Contractile vacuole: Regulate water balance, by removing excess water from cell. Found in many aquatic protists.Food or Digestion Vacuole: Engulf nutrients in many protozoa (protists). Fuse with lysosomes to digest food particles.
33Interactions Between Membrane Bound Organelles of Eucaryotic Cells
34Chloroplasts Site of photosynthesis in plants and algae. CO2 + H2O + Sun Light -----> Sugar + O2Number may range from 1 to over 100 per cell.Disc shaped structure with three different membrane systems:1. Outer membrane: Covers chloroplast surface.2. Inner membrane: Contains enzymes needed to make glucose during photosynthesis. Encloses stroma (liquid) and thylakoid membranes.3. Thylakoid membranes: Contain chlorophyll, green pigment that traps solar energy. Organized in stacks called grana.
35Chloroplasts Trap Solar Energy and Convert it to Chemical Energy
36Chloroplasts Contain their own DNA, ribosomes, and make some proteins. Can divide to form daughter chloroplasts.Type of plastid: Organelle that produces and stores food in plant and algae cells.Other plastids include:Leukoplasts: Store starch.Chromoplasts: Store other pigments that give plants and flowers color.
37Mitochondria (Sing. Mitochondrion) Site of cellular respiration:Food (sugar) + O > CO2 + H2O + ATPChange chemical energy of molecules into the useable energy of the ATP molecule.Oval or sausage shaped.Contain their own DNA, ribosomes, and make some proteins.Can divide to form daughter mitochondria.Structure:Inner and outer membranes.Intermembrane spaceCristae (inner membrane extensions)Matrix (inner liquid)
39Origin of Eucaryotic Cells Endosymbiont Theory: Belief that chloroplasts and mitochondria were at one point independent cells that entered and remained inside a larger cell.Both organelles contain their own DNAHave their own ribosomes and make their own proteins.Replicate independently from cell, by binary fission.Symbiotic relationshipLarger cell obtains energy or nutrientsSmaller cell is protected by larger cell.
40Complex network of thread-like and tube-like structures. The CytoskeletonComplex network of thread-like and tube-like structures.Functions: Movement, structure, and structural support.Three Cytoskeleton Components:1. Microfilaments: Smallest cytoskeleton fibers. Important for:Muscle contraction: Actin & myosin fibers in muscle cells“Amoeboid motion” of white blood cells
41Components of the Cytoskeleton are Important for Structure and Movement
42Three Cytoskeleton Components: 2. Intermediate filaments: Medium sized fibersAnchor organelles (nucleus) and hold cytoskeleton in place.Abundant in cells with high mechanical stress.3. Microtubules: Largest cytoskeleton fibers. Found in:Centrioles: A pair of structures that help move chromosomes during cell division (mitosis and meiosis).Found in animal cells, but not plant cells.Movement of flagella and cilia.
44Cilia and Flagella Flagella: Large whip-like projections. Projections used for locomotion or to move substances along cell surface.Enclosed by plasma membrane and contain cytoplasm.Consist of 9 pairs of microtubules surrounding two single microtubules (9 + 2 arrangement).Flagella: Large whip-like projections.Move in wavelike manner, used for locomotion.Example: Sperm cellCilia: Short hair-like projections.Example: Human respiratory system uses cilia to remove harmful objects from bronchial tubes and trachea.
46Cell Surfaces A. Cell wall: Much thicker than cell membrane, (10 to 100 X thicker).Provides support and protects cell from lysis.Plant and algae cell wall: CelluloseFungi and bacteria have other polysaccharides.Not present in animal cells or protozoa.Plasmodesmata: Channels between adjacent plant cells form a circulatory and communication system between cells.Sharing of nutrients, water, and chemical messages.
47Plasmodesmata: Communication Between Adjacent Plant Cells
48Cell SurfacesB. Extracellular matrix: Sticky layer of glycoproteins found in animal cells.Important for attachment, support, protection, and response to environmental stimuli.Junctions Between Animal Cells:Tight Junctions: Bind cells tightly, forming a leakproof sheet. Example: Between epithelial cells in stomach lining.Anchoring Junctions: Rivet cells together, but still allow material to pass through spaces between cells.Communicating Junctions: Similar to plasmodesmata in plants. Allow water and other small molecules to flow between neighboring cells.
50Important Differences Between Plant and Animal Cells Plant cells Animal cellsCell wall None (Extracellular matrix)Chloroplasts No chloroplastsLarge central vacuole No central vacuoleFlagella rare Flagella more usualNo Lysosomes Lysosomes presentNo Centrioles Centrioles present
51Differences Between Plant and Animal Cells Plant Cell
53Summary of Eucaryotic Organelles Function: ManufactureNucleusRibosomesRough ERSmooth ERGolgi ApparatusFunction: BreakdownLysosomesVacuoles
54Summary of Eucaryotic Organelles Function: Energy ProcessingChloroplasts (Plants and algae)MitochondriaFunction: Support, Movement, CommunicationCytoskeleton (Cilia, flagella, and centrioles)Cell walls (Plants, fungi, bacteria, and some protists)Extracellular matrix (Animals)Cell junctions