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Cells and Tissues Chapter 3. Cells and Tissues Carry out all chemical activities Cells are the building blocks of all living things Tissues are groups.

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Presentation on theme: "Cells and Tissues Chapter 3. Cells and Tissues Carry out all chemical activities Cells are the building blocks of all living things Tissues are groups."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cells and Tissues Chapter 3

2 Cells and Tissues Carry out all chemical activities Cells are the building blocks of all living things Tissues are groups of cells that are similar in structure and function

3 Anatomy of the Cell Cells are not all the same All cells share general structures All cells have three main regions ▫Nucleus ▫Cytoplasm ▫Plasma membrane

4 The Nucleus Control center of the cell ▫Contains genetic material (DNA)

5 The Nucleus Three regions ▫Nuclear envelope (membrane) ▫Nucleolus ▫Chromatin

6 The Nucleus

7 Nuclear envelope (membrane) ▫Barrier of the nucleus ▫Consists of a double membrane ▫Contains nuclear pores that allow for exchange of material

8 The Nucleus Nucleoli ▫Nucleus contains one or more nucleoli ▫Sites of ribosome assembly ▫Ribosomes migrate into the cytoplasm through nuclear pores

9 The Nucleus Chromatin ▫Composed of DNA and protein ▫Present when the cell is not dividing ▫Scattered in the nucleus ▫Condenses to form chromosomes when the cell divides

10 Comparing a Cell to a School Use pages to complete the chart comparing a cell to a school Fill in the cell organelle that best fits the described person or place Write out the function of this organelle in a cell

11 Plasma Membrane Barrier for cell contents Double phospholipid layer ▫Hydrophilic heads ▫Hydrophobic tails Also contains proteins, cholesterol, and glycoproteins

12 Plasma Membrane

13 Plasma Membrane Specializations Microvilli ▫Finger-like projections that increase surface area for absorption ▫Do all cells have microvilli?

14 Plasma Membrane Specializations Membrane junctions ▫Tight junctions ▫Desmosomes ▫Gap junctions

15 Plasma Membrane Specializations Membrane junctions ▫Tight junctions  Impermeable junctions  Bind cells together into leak-proof sheets ▫Desmosomes  Anchoring junctions that prevent cells from being pulled apart (Think ANCHORS) ▫Gap junctions  Allow communication between cells (GAPS)

16 Plasma Membrane Specializations

17 Cytoplasm Cytoplasm is the material outside the nucleus and inside the plasma membrane

18 Cytoplasm Cytosol  Fluid that suspends other elements Organelles  “Little organs” that perform functions Inclusions  Stored nutrients or cell products

19 Cytoplasmic Organelles

20 Mitochondria ▫“Powerhouses” of the cell ▫Carry out reactions: oxygen used to break down food ▫Provides ATP

21 Cytoplasmic Organelles Ribosomes ▫Sites of protein synthesis ▫Found at two locations:  Free in cytoplasm  Part of the Rough ER

22 Cytoplasmic Organelles Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) ▫Fluid-filled tubules for carrying substances

23 Cytoplasmic Organelles Rough ER  Studded with ribosomes  Synthesizes proteins Smooth ER  Lipid metabolism and detoxification of drugs and pesticides

24 Cytoplasmic Organelles Golgi apparatus ▫Modifies and packages proteins:  Secretory vesicles  Cell membrane components  Lysosomes

25 Extracellular fluid Plasma membrane Golgi vesicle containing membrane components fuses with the plasma membrane Golgi vesicle containing digestive enzymes becomes a lysosome Proteins in cisterna Lysosome fuses with ingested substances Membrane Transport vesicle Pathway 3 Pathway 2 Secretory vesicles Pathway 1 Golgi apparatus Golgi vesicle containing proteins to be secreted becomes a secretory vesicle Cisterna Rough ER Proteins Secretion by exocytosis

26 Cytoplasmic Organelles Lysosomes ▫Contain enzymes that digest worn-out or non-usable materials within the cell

27 Cytoplasmic Organelles Peroxisomes ▫Membranous sacs of oxidase enzymes  Detoxify harmful substances  Break down free radicals (highly reactive chemicals) ▫Replicate by pinching in half

28 Cytoplasmic Organelles Cytoskeleton ▫Network of protein structures that extend throughout the cytoplasm ▫Internal framework/structure

29 Cytoplasmic Organelles Cytoskeleton ▫Three different types:  Microfilaments (largest)  Intermediate filaments  Microtubules (smallest)

30 Cytoplasmic Organelles Centrioles ▫Rod-shaped bodies made of microtubules ▫Direct the formation of mitotic spindle during cell division

31 Cellular Projections Not found in all cells Used for movement

32 Cellular Projections Cilia: move materials across the cell surface  Located in the respiratory system to move mucus Flagella: propel the cell  The only cell in the human body with flagella is sperm

33 Human Cheek Cells Unstained

34 Human Cheek Cells Stained – Low

35 Human Cheek Cells Stained – High

36 Human Cheek Cells Stained – High (Labeled)

37 Other Cell Examples SkinMuscle (cardiac)


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