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Cells and Tissues. Carry out all chemical activities needed to sustain life Carry out all chemical activities needed to sustain life Cells are the building.

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Presentation on theme: "Cells and Tissues. Carry out all chemical activities needed to sustain life Carry out all chemical activities needed to sustain life Cells are the building."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cells and Tissues

2 Carry out all chemical activities needed to sustain life Carry out all chemical activities needed to sustain life Cells are the building blocks of all living things Cells are the building blocks of all living things Tissues are groups of cells that are similar in structure and function Tissues are groups of cells that are similar in structure and function For Example: muscle tissue For Example: muscle tissue

3 Anatomy of the Cell Cells are not all the same Cells are not all the same All cells share general structures All cells share general structures All cells have three main regions All cells have three main regions Nucleus Nucleus Cytosol (cytoplasm) Cytosol (cytoplasm) Plasma membrane Plasma membrane

4 The Nucleus Control center of the cell Control center of the cell Contains genetic material (DNA) Contains genetic material (DNA) Three regions Three regions Nuclear envelope (membrane) Nuclear envelope (membrane) Nucleolus (plural nucleoli) Nucleolus (plural nucleoli) Chromatin (DNA coiled around protein – protein acts as support for fragile DNA) Chromatin (DNA coiled around protein – protein acts as support for fragile DNA)

5 The Nucleus

6 The Nucleus continued… Nuclear envelope ( or nuclear membrane) Nuclear envelope ( or nuclear membrane) Barrier of the nucleus; separates in from out Barrier of the nucleus; separates in from out Consists of a double membrane Consists of a double membrane Contains nuclear pores that allow for exchange of material with the rest of the cell Contains nuclear pores that allow for exchange of material with the rest of the cell

7 The Nucleus continued…. Nucleoli Nucleoli Nucleus contains one or more nucleoli Nucleus contains one or more nucleoli Sites of ribosome production Sites of ribosome production Ribosomes move into the cytoplasm through nuclear pores Ribosomes move into the cytoplasm through nuclear pores Nucleolus

8 The Nucleus continued…. Chromatin Chromatin Composed of DNA and protein Composed of DNA and protein Present when the cell is not dividing Present when the cell is not dividing Scattered throughout the nucleus Scattered throughout the nucleus Coils and shortens to form chromosomes when the cell divides (protects fragile DNA during cell separation) Coils and shortens to form chromosomes when the cell divides (protects fragile DNA during cell separation)

9 Plasma Membrane Barrier for cell contents Barrier for cell contents Controls what exits and enters the cell through osmosis and diffusion Controls what exits and enters the cell through osmosis and diffusion Also contains proteins, cholesterol, and glycoproteins (proteins with sugar attached) Also contains proteins, cholesterol, and glycoproteins (proteins with sugar attached)

10 Plasma Membrane Membrane Structure PLAY

11 Plasma Membrane Specializations Microvilli Microvilli Finger-like projections that increase surface area for absorption Finger-like projections that increase surface area for absorption Microvilli are present in our intestines; helps absorp nutrients and water we consume by eating Microvilli are present in our intestines; helps absorp nutrients and water we consume by eating

12 Cytoplasm or Cytosol Cytoplasm is the material outside the nucleus and inside the plasma membrane Cytoplasm is the material outside the nucleus and inside the plasma membrane Its the fluid that all organelles are suspended in Its the fluid that all organelles are suspended in

13 Cytoplasm Contains three major elements Contains three major elements Cytosol Cytosol Fluid that suspends other elements (jello) Fluid that suspends other elements (jello) Organelles Organelles machinery of the cell machinery of the cell Little organs that perform functions for the cell Little organs that perform functions for the cell Inclusions Inclusions Chemical substances such as stored nutrients or cell products like waste Chemical substances such as stored nutrients or cell products like waste

14 Cytoplasmic Organelles

15 Mitochondria Mitochondria Powerhouses of the cell Powerhouses of the cell Change shape continuously Change shape continuously Carry out reactions where oxygen is used to break down food Carry out reactions where oxygen is used to break down food Provides energy for cell Provides energy for cell

16 Cytoplasmic Organelles Ribosomes Ribosomes Made of protein and RNA Made of protein and RNA Sites of protein production Sites of protein production Found at two locations Found at two locations Free in the cytoplasm Free in the cytoplasm On Rough ER On Rough ER

17 Cytoplasmic Organelles Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Fluid-filled tubes for carrying substances Fluid-filled tubes for carrying substances Two types of ER Two types of ER Rough endoplasmic reticulum Rough endoplasmic reticulum Covered with ribosomes Covered with ribosomes Makes proteins Makes proteins Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Functions in lipid and steroid production and also detoxifies drugs and pesticides that invade the cell Functions in lipid and steroid production and also detoxifies drugs and pesticides that invade the cell

18 Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Ribosome Protein Protein inside transport vesicle Transport vesicle buds off mRNA Rough ER As the protein is synthesized on the ribosome, it migrates into the rough ER cistern. In the cistern, the protein folds into its functional shape. Short sugar chains may be attached to the protein (forming a glycoprotein). The protein is packaged in a tiny membranous sac called a transport vesicle. The transport vesicle buds from the rough ER and travels to the Golgi apparatus for further processing or goes directly to the plasma membrane where its contents are secreted.

19 Cytoplasmic Organelles Golgi apparatus Golgi apparatus Modifies and packages proteins Modifies and packages proteins Produces different types of packages Produces different types of packages Secretory vesicles Secretory vesicles Cell membrane components Cell membrane components Lysosomes Lysosomes

20 Extracellular fluid Plasma membrane Golgi vesicle containing membrane components fuses with the plasma membrane Golgi vesicle containing digestive enzymes becomes a lysosome Proteins in cisterna Lysosome fuses with ingested substances Membrane Transport vesicle Pathway 3 Pathway 2 Secretory vesicles Pathway 1 Golgi apparatus Golgi vesicle containing proteins to be secreted becomes a secretory vesicle Cisterna Rough ER Proteins Secretion by exocytosis

21 Lysosomes Contain enzymes that digest worn-out or nonusable materials within the cell Contain enzymes that digest worn-out or nonusable materials within the cell

22 Cytoplasmic Organelles Peroxisomes Peroxisomes Membranous sacs of oxidase enzymes Membranous sacs of oxidase enzymes Detoxify harmful substances such as alcohol, hydrogen peroxide and formaldehyde Detoxify harmful substances such as alcohol, hydrogen peroxide and formaldehyde Break down free radicals (highly reactive chemicals) Break down free radicals (highly reactive chemicals)

23 Network of protein structures that extend throughout the cytoplasm Network of protein structures that extend throughout the cytoplasm Provides the cell with an internal framework which keeps the cell 3-Dimensional Provides the cell with an internal framework which keeps the cell 3-DimensionalCytoskeleton

24 Cellular Projections Not found in all cells Not found in all cells Used for movement Used for movement Cilia move materials across the cell surface Cilia move materials across the cell surface Located in the respiratory system to move mucus Located in the respiratory system to move mucus Flagella propel the cell Flagella propel the cell The only flagellated cell in the human body is sperm The only flagellated cell in the human body is sperm


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