Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Cells and Tissues.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Cells and Tissues."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cells and Tissues

2 Cells and Tissues Carry out all chemical activities needed to sustain life Cells are the building blocks of all living things Tissues are groups of cells that are similar in structure and function For Example: muscle tissue

3 Anatomy of the Cell Cells are not all the same
All cells share general structures All cells have three main regions Nucleus Cytosol (cytoplasm) Plasma membrane

4 The Nucleus Control center of the cell Three regions
Contains genetic material (DNA) Three regions Nuclear envelope (membrane) Nucleolus (plural nucleoli) Chromatin (DNA coiled around protein – protein acts as support for fragile DNA)

5 The Nucleus

6 The Nucleus continued…
Nuclear envelope ( or nuclear membrane) Barrier of the nucleus; separates in from out Consists of a double membrane Contains nuclear pores that allow for exchange of material with the rest of the cell

7 The Nucleus continued….
Nucleoli Nucleus contains one or more nucleoli Sites of ribosome production Ribosomes move into the cytoplasm through nuclear pores Nucleolus

8 The Nucleus continued….
Chromatin Composed of DNA and protein Present when the cell is not dividing Scattered throughout the nucleus Coils and shortens to form chromosomes when the cell divides (protects fragile DNA during cell separation)

9 Plasma Membrane Barrier for cell contents
Controls what exits and enters the cell through osmosis and diffusion Also contains proteins, cholesterol, and glycoproteins (proteins with sugar attached)

10 Plasma Membrane PLAY Membrane Structure

11 Plasma Membrane Specializations
Microvilli Finger-like projections that increase surface area for absorption Microvilli are present in our intestines; helps absorp nutrients and water we consume by eating

12 Cytoplasm or Cytosol Cytoplasm is the material outside the nucleus and inside the plasma membrane It’s the fluid that all organelles are suspended in

13 Cytoplasm Contains three major elements Cytosol Organelles Inclusions
Fluid that suspends other elements (jello) Organelles machinery of the cell “Little organs” that perform functions for the cell Inclusions Chemical substances such as stored nutrients or cell products like waste

14 Cytoplasmic Organelles

15 Cytoplasmic Organelles
Mitochondria “Powerhouses” of the cell Change shape continuously Carry out reactions where oxygen is used to break down food Provides energy for cell

16 Cytoplasmic Organelles
Ribosomes Made of protein and RNA Sites of protein production Found at two locations Free in the cytoplasm On Rough ER

17 Cytoplasmic Organelles
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Fluid-filled tubes for carrying substances Two types of ER Rough endoplasmic reticulum Covered with ribosomes Makes proteins Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Functions in lipid and steroid production and also detoxifies drugs and pesticides that invade the cell

18 Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Ribosome Protein Protein inside transport vesicle Transport vesicle buds off mRNA Rough ER As the protein is synthesized on the ribosome, it migrates into the rough ER cistern. In the cistern, the protein folds into its functional shape. Short sugar chains may be attached to the protein (forming a glycoprotein). The protein is packaged in a tiny membranous sac called a transport vesicle. The transport vesicle buds from the rough ER and travels to the Golgi apparatus for further processing or goes directly to the plasma membrane where its contents are secreted.

19 Cytoplasmic Organelles
Golgi apparatus Modifies and packages proteins Produces different types of packages Secretory vesicles Cell membrane components Lysosomes

20 Pathway 3 Pathway 2 Pathway 1 Rough ER Proteins in cisterna Cisterna
Membrane Lysosome fuses with ingested substances Transport vesicle Golgi vesicle containing digestive enzymes becomes a lysosome Pathway 3 Pathway 2 Golgi apparatus Secretory vesicles Pathway 1 Golgi vesicle containing membrane components fuses with the plasma membrane Proteins Golgi vesicle containing proteins to be secreted becomes a secretory vesicle Secretion by exocytosis Plasma membrane Extracellular fluid

21 Lysosomes Contain enzymes that digest worn-out or nonusable materials within the cell

22 Cytoplasmic Organelles
Peroxisomes Membranous sacs of oxidase enzymes Detoxify harmful substances such as alcohol, hydrogen peroxide and formaldehyde Break down free radicals (highly reactive chemicals)

23 Cytoskeleton Network of protein structures that extend throughout the cytoplasm Provides the cell with an internal framework which keeps the cell 3-Dimensional

24 Cellular Projections Not found in all cells Used for movement
Cilia move materials across the cell surface Located in the respiratory system to move mucus Flagella propel the cell The only flagellated cell in the human body is sperm

Download ppt "Cells and Tissues."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google