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PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing.

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Presentation on theme: "PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing."— Presentation transcript:

1 PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PART A 3 Cells and Tissues

2 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cells and Tissues Carry out all chemical activities needed to sustain life Cells are the building blocks of all living things Tissues are groups of cells that are similar in structure and function

3 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Anatomy of the Cell Cells are not all the same All cells share general structures All cells have three main regions Nucleus Cytoplasm Plasma membrane Figure 3.1a

4 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Nucleus Control center of the cell Contains genetic material (DNA) Three regions Nuclear envelope (membrane) Nucleolus Chromatin

5 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Nucleus Figure 3.1b

6 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Nucleus Nuclear envelope (membrane) Barrier of the nucleus Consists of a double membrane Contains nuclear pores (relatively large) that allow for exchange of material with the rest of the cell Nucleoplasm – jellylike fluid in which the nucleoli and chromatin are suspended.

7 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Nucleus Nucleoli Nucleus contains one or more nucleoli Sites of ribosome assembly Ribosomes migrate into the cytoplasm through nuclear pores Serve as the actual sites of protein synthesis

8 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Nucleus Chromatin Composed of DNA and protein Present when the cell is not dividing Scattered throughout the nucleus Condenses to form chromosomes when the cell divides

9 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Plasma Membrane Barrier for cell contents Double phospholipid layer Hydrophilic heads Hydrophobic tails Also contains: proteins cholesterol glycoproteins

10 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Plasma Membrane Proteins Scattered through out lipid bilayer. Responsible for most specialized functions Enzymes Receptors, or bindings sites, for hormones Chemical messengers Most are involved in transport functions

11 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Plasma Membrane Cholesterol Located in the plasma membrane Helps to stabilize membrane Helps keep membrane fluid

12 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Plasma Membrane Glycoproteins Branching sugar groups attached to most proteins. Found on the extracellular side Gives the cell a fuzzy, sticky, sugar-rich surface Determine your blood type Act as receptors for bacteria, viruses or toxins

13 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Plasma Membrane Figure 3.2

14 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Plasma Membrane Specializations Microvilli Finger-like projections that increase surface area for absorption

15 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Plasma Membrane Specializations Membrane junctions Tight junctions Impermeable junctions Bind cells together into leakproof sheets Small intestines – prevent digestive enzymes from seeping into bloodstream.

16 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Plasma Membrane Specializations Membrane junctions Desmosomes Anchoring junctions that prevent cells from being pulled apart Buttonlike Connected by fine protein filaments

17 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Plasma Membrane Specializations Membrane junctions Gap junctions Allow communication between cells Common with heart and embryonic cells. Cells are connected by hollow cylinder composed of proteins - connexons

18 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Plasma Membrane Specializations Figure 3.3


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