2 Apparatus Familiarization During this presentation we are going define and become more familiar with:Various types of fire apparatus.Various types of aerial apparatus components and their function.Various equipment found on many fire apparatus.
3 Apparatus Familiarization In the second half of the presentation we will look at inspecting and maintaining of our apparatus. Often check-out sheets are not filled out or do not even exist. This is probably because it is not a fun and exciting task. Yet, this is one of the most important functions a department should pay attention too.**Chiefs beware that you and your officer core could be held liable if someone gets hurt or killed due to an apparatus not being well maintained and regularly inspected.
4 Apparatus Familiarization PumpersFire department Engines (also called pumper, pump, or wagon) are the most common of all apparatus.The pumper’s main purpose is to supply water and hose to for fire suppression.They must have a 750 gpm pump to qualify as a pumper.Rarely will you find an engine with a pump larger than 2000 gpm in the municipal setting. It is not uncommon, however, for industrial pumpers to be capable of gpm.
5 Apparatus Familiarization Initial Attack Fire ApparatusThere are two different types of these apparatus, the mini-pumper and the midi-pumper.The mini-pumper is designed to handle small fires or fires in remote locations. These trucks are normally mounted on one ton truck chassis equipped with four wheel drive for off road effectiveness. Pumps 500 gpm and smaller are usually used in combination with a foam system.
6 Apparatus Familiarization Initial Attack Fire ApparatusThe midi-pumper is sometimes called an interface engine. This type of unit is very prevalent in California. It will customarily have a gpm pump and be mount on a larger chassis such as an 12K GVW International or Freightliner. In many cases these units carry the same equipment as a class A pumper.
7 Apparatus Familiarization Mobile Water Supply ApparatusAccording to NFPA 1901 an apparatus must carry a minimum of 1000 gallons to be considered a Tender. Tankers/Tenders are utilized to transport water to remote areas with limited water sources and support the pumper operations on the fire scene.When writing specs for a tanker the follow list of items should be considered:Adequate, but reasonable, water tank size.Bigger not always betterAdequate fill rate time.Adequate dump rate.Adequate suspension and steering.Properly sized chassis.Properly sized engine for tank size and terrain.***Sufficient Braking ability.***Proper tank mounting.Proper tank baffling and venting.Ability to dump water from either side or the rear.
8 Apparatus Familiarization Mobile Water Supply ApparatusPlease consider the following information when evaluating the use of a surplus military chassis or surplus gasoline tanker for your next tanker. These chassis were not designed to carry the weight of the water that will be placed on them.**Very Important**Water weighs 8.33 pounds per gallon.Gasoline weighs 5.6 pounds per gallonSo, when you are looking at converting a 3000 gallon gasoline tanker to a water tanker, this is what you are going to be doing.A gasoline tanker designed to carry a payload of (3000*5.6=) 16,800lbs.To make it a water tanker, it will then have to carry a payload of (3000*8.33=) 24,990 lbs.This a difference of 8200 lbs.
9 Apparatus Familiarization Mobile Water Supply ApparatusWith all the grant money available today through the TFS and FEMA grant programs, we should no longer even consider this type of homemade apparatus.These units are hands down the most dangerous of all apparatus that we drive. It takes a lot of “Behind the wheel training time” to become proficient and safe driving these heavy vehicles.
10 Apparatus Familiarization Mobile Water Supply ApparatusCase and PointRead the following report;then consider the safety of yourapparatus and crew members.
11 Apparatus Familiarization Mobile Water Supply ApparatusSTATE FIRE MARSHAL'S OFFICEFirefighter Fatality InvestigationInvestigation NumberFirefighter Clint Dewayne RiceCarlton Volunteer Fire DepartmentNovember 22, 2005Texas Department of Insurance Austin, Texas
12 Apparatus Familiarization Mobile Water Supply ApparatusClick on the name below. Please read the entire report.Clint Dewayne Rice
13 Texas Department of Insurance Austin, Texas STATE FIRE MARSHAL'S OFFICEFirefighter Fatality InvestigationInvestigation NumberFirefighter Clint Dewayne RiceCarlton Volunteer Fire Department November 22, 2005Texas Department of Insurance Austin, Texas
14 Firefighter Fatality Investigation Firefighter Clint Dewayne Rice STATE FIRE MARSHAL’S OFFICE TEXAS DEPARTMENT OF INSURANCE AUSTIN, TEXASFirefighter Fatality InvestigationFirefighter Clint Dewayne RiceCarlton Volunteer Fire DepartmentSummaryFirefighter Clint Dewayne Rice, age 28, died in a motor vehicle incident while driving a tractor-trailer water tender to a wildfire in Hamilton County on November 22, Firefighter Rice was a member of the Carlton Volunteer Fire Department (CVFD).CVFD was providing mutual aid to the Hamilton, Texas fire department in fighting a large grass fire. Firefighter Rice lost control of his vehicle while rounding a turn on Farm-to-Market Road 219, causing the truck to overturn.Rice was ejected from the truck cab and was pronounced dead at the scene. He was not wearing a seat belt.Firefighter Rice served in the Carlton Volunteer Fire Department for three months. He is survived by his wife.
15 Building Structure and Systems No structures were reported involved in the wildfire.Investigation of the Death of the FirefighterOn November 22, 2005 at approximately 2:10 PM, the Hamilton County Sheriff’s Office notified the Carlton Volunteer Fire Department (CVFD) that the Hamilton Fire Department had requested assistance with a large wildfire six miles west of Hamilton on Highway 36.Unit 612, a modified military 6-wheel drive brush truck, driven by Firefighter James Rice, departed the CVFD station enroute to the fire. Firefighter Clint Rice departed shortly thereafter in Unit 610, a 1979 Freightliner cabover tractor-trailer water tender. CVFD purchased the Freightliner tractor of Unit 610 in The tank trailer of Unit 610 was a 1968 Heil 5000-gallon fuel tanker obtained from the Federal Excess Personal Property (FEPP) program administered by the Texas Forest Service. CVFD converted the former M131A5 military fuel tank trailer to a water tender, modified the tank compartment dividers into baffles, and installed additional equipment including a water pump, hose, and fittings.Approximately 2.5 miles from the CVFD station on Farm-to-Market Road 219, Unit 610 passed a diamond left curve sign with a 40 mph speed advisory sign attached
16 FM 219 approaching the incident scene in the direction of travel of Unit 610.
17 Warning chevrons delineated the curve Warning chevrons delineated the curve. The asphalt roadway was dry, in good condition, and had a slight downhill grade continuing into a banked left curve. The incident occurred during daylight hours.The right side tires of Unit 610 left the roadway at the transition of the straight road into the curve, .17 miles after passing the curve warning sign. Tire marks indicated that Firefighter Rice attempted to steer Unit 610 around the curve.As Unit 610 approached the apex of the curve, the slope of the shoulder, combined with lateral movement of water in the cargo tank, began to lift the left side tires of the cargo tank off the pavement.Path of right tires of tractor-trailer.
18 The weight transfer and body lean caused the cargo tank to roll onto its right side, pulling the truck tractor in turn onto its right side. The cargo tank slid down the shoulder and rolled onto its top. This continuingThe passenger side door of the truck tractor tore away from the truck cab during the rollover. The rollover continued with the cargo tank rolling onto its left side, pulling the truck tractor over onto its left side, tearing away the driver’s door.During the rollover, the truck cab roof was sheared away just above the dashboard. Firefighter Rice, who was not wearing the driver’s seat safety belt, was ejected from the truck cab and landed on the right hand lane of the roadway, approximately 30 feet from the final resting point of the truck cab.As the tractor-trailer combination came to rest in a field, the truck tractor rolled back upright onto its wheels. The cargo tank rollover pulled the truck tractor onto its top.
20 The vehicle traveled approximately 330 feet from the point the first tire left the roadway. Texas Department of Public Safety trooper Steven Schwartz investigated the motor vehicle incident and cited “unsafe speed (below legal limit), defective or slick tires, and defective or no trailer brakes” as contributing factors on his official report. Trooper Schwartz checked the air pressure in the undamaged tires of Unit 610 and his report states that air pressure in those tires ranged from 30 to 88 psi. This mix of tire pressures may have adversely affected the handling of the tractor-trailer water tender.The military technical and maintenance manual for the M135A5 fuel tank trailer states hard surface road tire pressure should be 60 psi based on a 48,035 pound gross trailer weight. This gross trailer weight was based on a 5,000 gallon cargo of fuel weighing 35,250 pounds. Filling this trailer with 5,000 gallons of water weighing 41,700 pounds, (8.34 pounds/gallon) produces a gross trailer weight of 54,485 pounds.This is 6,450 pounds over the maximum 48,035-pound gross weight listed on the information placard on the trailer frame. This does not take into account the weight of the water pump and any additional equipment installed by CVFD.Exceeding the gross trailer weight may have an adverse effect on vehicle handling, braking, and performance and may violate state motor vehicle laws.Military data plate on frame of tank trailerThe tank trailer originally had two compartments divided by bulkheads. SFMO investigators found that CVFD modified these bulkheads by cutting large holes in them to facilitate the transfer and discharge of water. While these modified bulkheads may have served as baffles to control the movement of water from front to back in the cargo tank, there were no baffles to control the lateral movement of water, which would tend to affect the handling characteristics of the vehicle as the weight of the water shifted from side-to-side.
22 Contributing factors: The fully loaded cargo tank trailer exceeded the maximum gross weight listed on the data plate by at least 6,450 pounds.The existing baffles in the cargo tank were inadequate to control water movement and subsequent weight shifts.The tires on the tractor-trailer combination had inconsistent inflation pressures, some of which were dangerously low.The Texas Department of Public Safety report cited “defective or no trailer brakes.”The overloaded vehicle, combined with unsafe and inconsistent tire pressures and inadequate water tank baffles presented an extreme challenge to the driver to maintain control, even at low speeds.Recommendation: All fire departments should consider safety and health as primary concerns in the specification, design, construction, acquisition, operation, maintenance, inspection, and repair of all fire department apparatus. Fire departments should utilize the resources discussed in this report to evaluate their water tender (tanker) policies.Texas Transportation Code § (Reasonable and Prudent Speed requirement) NFPA 1500, Standard on Fire Department Occupational Safety and Health Program, Chapter 6.1.1, Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association.
23 Apparatus Familiarization Mobile Water Supply ApparatusHow do you feel?Does it seem like a senseless death?Who all should share responsibility for this tragic event?Why are we using these vehicles (death traps)?We must make certain that Mr. Clint Rice’s death is not forgotten. It is one thing to have an accident in a vehicle designed for a particular task, but this was not the case. Please consider the safety of your department, and make appropriate changes to help avoid another senseless tragedy, such as Mr. Rice’s. Most importantly do not read this and say to yourself “That will not happen … we train, or we have driving policies in place, or whatever … .” If we find ourselves at this point it is time for us to check our egos!
24 Apparatus Familiarization Wildland ApparatusThese units are often known as Brush Trucks and usually have water tank sizes of less than 500 gallons.Many of these apparatus have places for firefighters to ride outside the cab to fight fire. Both NFPA 1500, Standard on Fire Department Occupational Safety and Health, and NIOSH prohibit this practice.
25 Apparatus Familiarization Aerial ApparatusAerial apparatus can be separated into two categories: those with pumps and those without. Aerials with pumps are referred to as ‘Quints’ because of how they are equipped …Aerial device with permanently attached waterway,85 feet of ground ladders,Fire pump of at least 1000 GPM,Water tank of at least 300 gallons,800 feet of 2 ½” or larger supply hose and 400 feet of attack hose.
27 Apparatus Familiarization Aerial ApparatusNFPA 1901 classifies aerial devices into three basic categories:Aerial laddersElevated platformsand Water towersFor those of us in the service we probably recognize about five different types of aerial apparatus: Aerial ladders (Straight stick), Aerial ladder platforms, Telescoping aerial platforms, Articulating aerial platforms, and Water towers.
28 Apparatus Familiarization Aerial LaddersAerial ladders are the most common type of aerial apparatus used in North America. The ladders of these apparatus range from 50 to 135 feet in height. This height is measured from the ground to the top rung when the ladder is fully elevated and fully extended.NFPA 1901 states that aerial ladders must have at least two sections and a minimum reach of 50 feet.The bottom section of the aerial ladder is referred to as the base (or bed) section. The second and subsequent sections that extend beyond the base section are called the fly sections.
29 Apparatus Familiarization Aerial LaddersNFPA 1901 also requires aerial ladders with a working height of 110 feet or less, with stabilizers set, should be able to be raised from the bedded position to its maximum elevation and extension and rotate 90 degrees in just 120 seconds.Aerial ladders with heights greater than 110 feet are allowed 180 seconds to perform the same evolution.All aerial ladders manufactured since 1991 must have a minimum tip load of 250 pounds when the ladder is fully extended at any elevation.
30 Apparatus Familiarization Aerial Apparatus ComponentsThe first system we are going to look at is the stabilizing system. Hydraulics control most all modern aerial apparatus stabilizing systems.The stabilizers are to be deployed every time the aerial device is to raised from its bed. These stabilizers are used to prevent the apparatus from tipping over when the aerial device is raised and maneuvered.The purpose of the stabilizer systems is to remove the weight of the apparatus from the suspension. This makes the apparatus more stable and does not allow for any give within the apparatus chassis.
31 Apparatus Familiarization Aerial Apparatus ComponentsThe second system using hydraulics is the elevating cylinders. The function of the hoisting cylinders is to raise and lower the aerial device. These cylinders attach to the aerial device at one end and the turntable at the other. Integral safety valves lock and hold oil in the cylinder in the event of a leak or a blowout.
32 Apparatus Familiarization Aerial Apparatus ComponentsThe third component using the hydraulic system is the extension cylinders.Typically two cylinders are used to extend the aerial device. They are mounted to the base section of the ladder and are used in conjunction with a series of pulleys and cables that, in turn, extend the fly sections.The cable and pulley system is very efficient its ability to extend the fly sections. The extension cylinders can extend a 100 foot aerial device with as little as about 96” of stroke.
33 Apparatus Familiarization Aerial Apparatus ComponentsThe turntable is also controlled by the hydraulic system.The turntable is where the aerial device attaches to the apparatus base. It is this component that allows for the ladder to be rotated left and right.Hydraulics can be used to manipulate the motor that drives a gear that spins around the turntable.
34 Apparatus Familiarization Apparatus EquipmentNFPA 1901 specifies the required amount of equipment to be carried on aerial apparatus. This is a rather long and specific list.Future presentations will only look at a few very common pieces: ground ladders, forcible entry equipment, ventilation equipment, and salvage & loss control equipment. These are some of the most common pieces of equipment carried on both aerial and pumping apparatus.
42 Apparatus Familiarization SummaryOur goal as driver operators is to be familiar with and know the capabilities of our apparatus, just as a pilot would be with a plane. We will cover in more detail the specifics of your department’s apparatus during the day of hands-on training.