Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9: Product Architecture"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 9: Product Architecture Product Design and DevelopmentFourth Editionby Karl T. Ulrich and Steven D. Eppinger
2 Product Design and Development Karl T. Ulrich and Steven D Product Design and Development Karl T. Ulrich and Steven D. Eppinger 2nd edition, Irwin McGraw-Hill, 2000.Chapter Table of Contents1. Introduction2. Development Processes and Organizations3. Product Planning4. Identifying Customer Needs5. Product Specifications6. Concept Generation7. Concept Selection8. Concept Testing9. Product Architecture10. Industrial Design11. Design for Manufacturing12. Prototyping13. Product Development Economics14. Managing Projects
3 Product Development Process PlanningConceptDevelopmentSystem-LevelDesignDetailDesignTesting andRefinementProductionRamp-UpPlatform decisionConcept decisionDecomposition decisionProduct architecture is determined early in the development process.
4 Product Architecture: Definition The arrangement of functional elements into physical chunks which become the building blocks for the product or family of products.moduleThis is where we “map” the functions from our functional analysis/functional decomposition to physical design elementsmoduleProductmodulemodulemodulemodulemodulemodule
5 Aspects of Product Architecture ModularityPoint of product differentiationImportance of Product ArchitectureWe are looking at these topics early because they matter to the early stage of design. We also don’t want to lock ourselves out of the possibility of later product enhancements (adding a sunroof, adding a supercharger, etc)Decided early and drives designImpacts manufacturing costImpacts product evolutionImpacts organization structure of design teams
6 Modular Design Displays the Following Properties: Each physical chunk implements one or a few functional elements in their entiretyThe interactions between chunks are well defined (i.e. the interfaces are well defined)
7 Integral Product Architectures Functional elements are implemented by multiple chunks, or a chunk may implement many functions.Interactions between chunks are poorly defined.Integral architecture generally increases performance and reduces costs for any specific product model.
9 Examples Video Games Power Supplies Modular: gaming systems (e.g. GameCube)Integrated: stand-alone arcade gamesPower SuppliesModular: power bricksIntegrated: on-board power converter
10 Trailer Example: Modular Architecture boxprotect cargofrom weatherhitchconnect to vehicleOne function – one design elementfairingminimize air dragbedsupportcargo loadsspringssuspend trailer structurewheelstransfer loads to road
11 Trailer Example: Integral Architecture upper halfprotect cargofrom weatherlower halfconnect to vehicleFunctions may map to several design elements or several functions may map to a single design elementnose pieceminimize air dragcargo hanging strapssupportcargo loadsspring slotcoverssuspend trailer structurewheelstransfer loads to road
12 Integral vs. Modular Integral Higher system performance Tightly coupled design teamsHard to changeModularReduced performanceDecoupled design teamsRequires clear definition of interfacesIncreased flexibilityAccommodates made-to-order productsA single straight screwdriver is often more satisfying than an interchangeable tip screwdriver wit the same blade
13 Integral vs. Modular Integral Higher system performance Lower system cost (in large volume)Tightly coupled design teamsExpensive ToolingHard to changeModularChangeabilityDecoupled design teamsReduced performanceRequires flexible manufacturingCheaper at low volumes
14 What is this?Note that this is a nearly pure modular design in that each function maps to a single design element
16 Modular or Integral Architecture? AppleiBookYou will notice that all designs have aspects of both, but most electronics are assemblies of modules like keyboard, hard drive, screen that can be swapped out with more or less ease. Laptops tend to be more integral while destops tend to be more modular. Apple tends toward more modular vversions of dektops in which some of their designs have had the monitor and computer in a single case.Automobiles have traditionally been more integral than modular, though frequently replaced items like windsield wipers, wheels and batteries tend to have a little more flexible interfaces.Motorola StarTACCellular PhoneFordExplorerRollerbladeIn-Line Skates
17 Types of Modularity Slot-Modular Architecture Bus-Modular Architecture unique interfaces for attachment to a base element (e.g. pacemaker leads)Bus-Modular Architecturecommon interfaces for attachment to a base element (e.g. USB connectors on a computer)Sectional-Modular ArchitectureCommon interfaces between elements without a base element (e.g. legos & piping)
18 Bus?Slot?Sectional?The specific ports for printer, keyboard and mouse are examples of SLOT modularWhile the USB can handle printer, keyboard and mouse with a single port type, making it an example of BUS modularSo what is sectional?
19 Sectional is a collection of parts that can fit together in multiple ways. Interface design is very important here as well. (Note that a welded pressure vessel (like an airplane fuselage is a collection of parts )modules) with welds as the interface. A filament wound pressure vessel is an integral design for the same function.
20 Choosing the Product Architecture Architecture decisions relate to product planning and concept development decisions:Product Change (copier toner, camera lenses)Product Variety (computers, automobiles)Standardization (motors, bearings, fasteners)Performance (racing bikes, fighter planes)Manufacturing Cost (disk drives, razors)Project Management (team capacity, skills)System Engineering (decomposition, integration)
21 The concepts of integral and modular apply at several levels: systemsub-systemcomponent
22 Product Architecture = Decomposition + Interactions Interactions within chunksInteractions across chunks
24 Establishing the Architecture To establish a modular architecture, create a schematic of the product, and cluster the elements of the schematic to achieve the types of product variety desired.
25 DeskJet Printer Schematic Enclose PrinterPrintCartridgeProvideStructuralSupportAcceptUserInputsDisplayStatusPositionCartridgeIn X-AxisStore OutputPositionPaperIn Y-AxisControlPrinterSupplyDCPowerStore Blank Paper“Pick”PaperCommunicatewithHostCommandPrinterFunctionalor PhysicalElementsFlow of forces or energyFlow of materialFlow of signals or dataConnecttoHost
29 Additional Advantage to Modular Design: HP products are designed to be recycled. Recycling design features include:Modular design to allow components to be removed, upgraded or replacedEliminating glues and adhesives, for example, by using snap-in featuresMarking plastic parts weighing more than 25g according t ISO international standards, to speed up materials identification during recyclingReducing the number and types of materials usedUsing single plastic polymersUsing molded-in colors and finishes instead of paint, coatings or platingRelying on modular designs for ease of disassembly of dissimilar recyclable materials
30 Planning a Modular Product Line: Commonality Table Differentiation versus CommonalityTrade off product variety and production complexity
31 Fundamental Decisions Integral vs. modular architecture?What type of modularity?How to assign functions to chunks?How to assign chunks to teams?Which chunks to outsource?
32 System Team Assignment Based on Product Architecture From “Innovation at the Speed of Information”, S. Eppinger, HBR, January 2001.
33 Practical ConcernsPlanning is essential to achieve the desired variety and product change capability.Coordination is difficult, particularly across teams, companies, or great distances.Special attention must be paid to handle complex interactions between chunks (system engineering methods).
34 Product Architecture: Conclusions Architecture choices define the sub-systems and modules of the product platform or family.Architecture determines:ease of production varietyfeasibility of customer modificationsystem-level production costsKey Concepts:modular vs. integral architectureclustering into chunksplanning product families
35 Power Bricks are annoying to most consumers. Why are they viewed as a good example of modular design?
36 Product Structure Make to order (Dell Computers) Make to stock (Roaster Pans)Delayed Differentiation (Washing Machines)
37 Design Conflict: Low Cost vs. Large Variety Integral DesignFocused mission/manufacturingExample – conventional screwdriverModular DesignFlexible mission/manufacturingExample – bit holder and driver bits
38 Point of Product Differentiation The point in the manufacturing process where a product can only be made into a specific stock keeping unit (SKU)
39 Delayed Point of Product Differentiation The point in the manufacturing process where an item is limited to use for a single specific product is called the “Point of Product Differentiation”Delaying the point of product differentiation is called “Late Point Product Differentiation”
40 Delayed differentiation or Postponement is a concept in supply chain management where the manufacturing process starts by making a generic or family product that is later differentiated into a specific end-product. This is a widely used method, especially in industries with high demand uncertainty, and can be effectively used to address the final demand even if forecasts cannot be improved.An example would be Benetton and their knitted sweaters that are intially all white, and then dyed into different colored only when the seasons customer color preference/demand is know. It is usually necessary to redesign the products specifically for delayed differentiation, and resequence to modify the order of product manufacturing steps.From Wikipediaback
41 Advantages of Late Point Product Differentiation Reduced inventoriesMore easily respond to demand variation
42 Late Point Differentiation Examples Paint where pigment is added at the storeBenetton sweatersHP printers
48 Late Point Differentiation Principles The differentiating elements of the product must be concentrated in one or a few chunksThe product and production process must be designed so that the differentiating chunk(s) can be added to the product near the end of the supply chain.
49 Platform PlanningThe process of deciding what should be shared across products and what should be unique across products?For example:How many driveshafts should you have for a Ford F150?Note that the current ford F150 has 5 different wheelbases (different cab length and different bed length)There are also two different engines. Should there be different driveshaft for each engine? Advantages, disadvantages.
50 Platform Planning Attempts to resolve the tension between Differentiating the product for various customersTaking advantage of the economic benefits of using common componentsProduct architecture will determine what trade-offs are available… if no good options are available, see if the options can be improved by changing the product architecture
51 In-class exerciseYour company manufactures and sells spinal fixation devices.Assume that the design concept is to secure a rigid body (e.g. a metallic plate) to adjacent vertebrae so that the unstable region is immobilized.Consider how product architecture could impact your design. Please note that your product needs to serve a population where spines come in a variety of sizes.What would be the embodiment of this design concept for a modular design?What would be the embodiment of this design concept for an integrated design?
52 In-Class Exercise 1:Your company manufactures and sells spinal fixation devices.Assume that the design concept is to secure a rigid body (e.g. a metallic device) to adjacent vertebrae so that the unstable region is immobilized.Consider how product structure could impact your design. Please note that your product needs to serve a population where spines come in a variety of sizes.What would be the embodiment of this design concept for a modular design?What would be the embodiment of this design concept for an integrated design?How do these embodiments impact late point identification.?