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1 Teaching materials to accompany: Product ArchitectureTeaching materials to accompany:Product Design and Development Chapter 9Karl T. Ulrich and Steven D. Eppinger 2nd Edition, Irwin McGraw-Hill, 2000.
2 Product Design and Development Karl T. Ulrich and Steven D Product Design and Development Karl T. Ulrich and Steven D. Eppinger 2nd edition, Irwin McGraw-Hill, 2000.Chapter Table of Contents1. Introduction2. Development Processes and Organizations3. Product Planning4. Identifying Customer Needs5. Product Specifications6. Concept Generation7. Concept Selection8. Concept Testing9. Product Architecture10. Industrial Design11. Design for Manufacturing12. Prototyping13. Product Development Economics14. Managing Projects
3 Product Development Process PlanningConceptDevelopmentSystem-LevelDesignDetailDesignTesting andRefinementProductionRamp-UpPlatform decisionConcept decisionDecomposition decisionProduct architecture is determined early in the development process.
5 Product Architecture: Definition The arrangement of functional elements into physical chunks which become the building blocks for the product or family of products.modulemoduleProductmodulemodulemodulemodulemodulemodule
6 Trailer Example: Modular Architecture boxprotect cargofrom weatherhitchconnect to vehiclefairingminimize air dragbedsupportcargo loadsspringssuspend trailer structurewheelstransfer loads to road
7 Trailer Example: Integral Architecture upper halfprotect cargofrom weatherlower halfconnect to vehiclenose pieceminimize air dragcargo hanging strapssupportcargo loadsspring slotcoverssuspend trailer structurewheelstransfer loads to road
10 Modular Product Architectures Chunks implement one or a few functions entirely.Interactions between chunks are well defined.Modular architecture has advantages in simplicity and reusability for a product family or platform.Swiss Army KnifeSony Walkman
12 Integral Product Architectures Functional elements are implemented by multiple chunks, or a chunk may implement many functions.Interactions between chunks are poorly defined.Integral architecture generally increases performance and reduces costs for any specific product model.High-Performance WheelsCompact Camera
13 Choosing the Product Architecture Architecture decisions relate to product planning and concept development decisions:Product Change (copier toner, camera lenses)Product Variety (computers, automobiles)Standardization (motors, bearings, fasteners)Performance (racing bikes, fighter planes)Manufacturing Cost (disk drives, razors)Project Management (team capacity, skills)System Engineering (decomposition, integration)
15 Modular or Integral Architecture? AppleiBookMotorola StarTACCellular PhoneFordExplorerRollerbladeIn-Line Skates
16 The concepts of integral and modular apply at several levels: systemsub-systemcomponent
17 Product Architecture = Decomposition + Interactions Interactions within chunksInteractions across chunks
18 Establishing the Architecture To establish a modular architecture, create a schematic of the product, and cluster the elements of the schematic to achieve the types of product variety desired.
19 DeskJet Printer Schematic Enclose PrinterPrintCartridgeProvideStructuralSupportAcceptUserInputsDisplayStatusPositionCartridgeIn X-AxisStore OutputPositionPaperIn Y-AxisControlPrinterSupplyDCPowerStore Blank Paper“Pick”PaperCommunicatewithHostCommandPrinterFunctionalor PhysicalElementsFlow of forces or energyFlow of materialFlow of signals or dataConnecttoHost
23 System Team Assignment Based on Product Architecture From “Innovation at the Speed of Information”, S. Eppinger, HBR, January 2001.
24 Planning a Modular Product Line: Commonality Table Differentiation versus CommonalityTrade off product variety and production complexity
25 Product Model Lifetime actionSurvivingSonyAverageLifeAIWA1.OthersSonyToshiba1.18yr1.97yrPanasonic.8.6From Sanderson and Uzumeri,The Innovation Imperative, Irwin 1997..4.212345SurvivalTime(years)
26 Fabricate-to-Fit Modularity Types of ModularitySwapping ModularitySharing ModularityAdapted from K. Ulrich,” The Role of Product Architecturein the Manufacturing Firm”, Research Policy, 1995.Sectional ModularityBus ModularityFabricate-to-Fit ModularityMix Modularity
28 Fundamental Decisions Integral vs. modular architecture?What type of modularity?How to assign functions to chunks?How to assign chunks to teams?Which chunks to outsource?
29 Practical ConcernsPlanning is essential to achieve the desired variety and product change capability.Coordination is difficult, particularly across teams, companies, or great distances.Special attention must be paid to handle complex interactions between chunks (system engineering methods).
30 Product Architecture: Conclusions Architecture choices define the sub-systems and modules of the product platform or family.Architecture determines:ease of production varietyfeasibility of customer modificationsystem-level production costsKey Concepts:modular vs. integral architectureclustering into chunksplanning product families