2 Manifest Destiny- the belief that it was America’s destiny to expand from coast to coast. To get to the West, settlers passed through the Great Plains and over the Rocky Mountains. At that time, the Great Plains were called the Great American Desert. The region was too dry for farming. But by 1850, people’s ideas about the Plains began to change
3 Factors Leading to the Settlement of the Last Frontier Americans first thought the Great Plains were better off with the IndiansAgriculturally, Americans thought the land was worth littleWhen gold was discovered in California (1840s) Americans wanted a quicker way west12,000 wagons traveled to Oregon and California
4 The “Great American Desert” Missouri was called the “Gateway to the West”It was the last “civilization” before the plainsThe 1st wagon train of white travelers left Missouri in 1842Travelers faced natives, little food, vicious weather, tight conditions
6 The Gold RushWhen gold was discovered 1849,in California, people from far West & East made their way as fast as they could to the gold field.The discovery of gold & silver quickened the settlement of the WestPeople who moved west to mine are called miners.CA. “ gold rush’’ (49ers)SD, CO, AK had gold discoveries too.
7 Boom towns TO Ghost towns. Gold or Silver strikeMiners arrive and build a small town.More people come to sell supplies.Real houses get built.Boom TownGold or silver production falls – decreases.Miners move on.The town is abandoned.Ghost Town.
8 The Transcontinental Railroad Before the Civil War; there were NO railroads west of the Mississippi River.U.S. Government hired Union Pacific and Central Pacific Railway Company to extend railways across the United States. The two railroad companies met in Promontory, Utah to drive the “Golden Spike” on May 10, 1869
9 Impact of the Railroads. Railroads brought growth and new settlement all across the West.The railroads enabled people, supplies, and mail to move quickly and cheaply and safer across the plains and the mountains.The largest cities and towns developed where major railroad lines met.Because of their rapid growth, western territories began to apply for statehood. Nevada, Colorado, North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana and Washington all became states from 1864 – 1890.
10 CATTLE BECOMES BIG BUSINESS Ranching became increasingly profitableThere were several million wild longhorn cattle grazing on the Great Plains in Texas.The cattle grazed (eat grass) on the short grasses of the “open range” public lands not belonging to anyone and not fenced.
11 GROWING DEMAND FOR BEEF After the Civil War the demand for beef surgedUrbanization and the rise of the railroad was instrumental in the increase of beef consumptionChicago Union Stock Yards was a famous market after 1865POSTCARD OF CHICAGO UNION STOCK YARDS
12 COW TOWN & THE TRAILAbilene, Kansas became famous for being a place where the Chisholm Trail met the railroadsTens of thousands of cattle came from Texas through Oklahoma to Abilene via the famous Chisholm trailOnce in Abilene the cattle would board rail cars for destinations across the countryChisholm Trail#5Chisholm Trail
13 Free LandHomestead Act: 160 acres free for US citizen if agreed to cultivate for 5 yrs.Oklahoma Land Rush (1889): US gov’t opened NA lands to settlers.Morrill Land Act: Gave $ to establish agricultural & mechanical colleges out West.
14 The HomesteadersTo convince Americans to move west the US government passed the Homestead Act (1862)Granted 160 acres of land for $1.65 an acre after 6 months but free if they farmed it for 5 years.An attempt to move settlers westMoving west was a major decision
15 OKLAHOMA SOONERSIn 1889, a major governmental land giveaway in what is now Oklahoma attracted thousandsIn less than a day, 2 million acres were claimed by settlersSome took possession before the government had officially declared it open – thus Oklahoma became known as the “Sooner State”
16 FARMER EDUCATION SUPPORTED The federal government financed agricultural educationThe Morrill Acts of 1862 and 1890 gave federal land to states to help finance agricultural colleges
18 African Americans were called Exodusters. Many African Americans moved to the West from the 1840s to late 1890s.They were escaping the difficult life in the South where Whites practiced Jim Crow Laws and denied African Americans their new Constitutional Rights.
19 INCREASED TECHNOLOGY HELPS FARMERS 1837 – John Deere invented a steel plow that could slice through heavy soil1847 – Cyrus McCormick mass-produced a reaping machineOther inventions included a grain drill to plant seed, barbed wire, and corn binderJOHN DEERE’S STEEL PLOW HAD TO BE PULLED BY A HORSE OR MULE
20 New Inventions to help Farmers Steel Plow-could slice through heavy soil making planting more efficient in root-filled soil.Grain drills-helped plant several rows of seed at once.Threshing machine-made removing grains of wheat faster & easier.Barbed wire-marked off their land & kept cattle from roaming.Windmill powered pumps that brought water to the surface.
21 THE GOVERNMENT RESTRICTS NATIVES As more and more settlers headed west, the U.S. government increasingly protected their interestsRailroad Companies also influenced government decisionsRAILROADS GREATLY IMPACTED NATIVE LIFE
22 THE END OF THE OPEN RANGE Almost as soon as ranching became big business, the cattle frontier met its endOvergrazing, bad weather, and the invention of barbed wire were responsible
23 Life on the farms was hard Severe weather: Cold winters, Dry summers, tornadoesIndian AttacksFarmers had to use a technique called dry-farming (growing crops that needed little water.)Sometimes grasshoppers would eat all the crops.
24 Due to few trees; the houses were built off of sodgrass with attached roots and dirt-into strips. They were known as Sod houses
25 Problems with Improvements Farm jobs decreasedThe price for crops dropped (too many farmers producing)
26 FARMERS AND THE POPULIST MOVEMENT In the late 1800s, many farmers were strugglingCrop prices were falling, debt increasedMortgages were being foreclosed by banks
27 ECONOMIC DISTRESS HITS FARMERS Between 1867 and 1887 the price of a bushel of wheat fell from $2.00 to 68 centsRailroads conspired to keep transport costs artificially highFarmers got caught in a cycle of debt
28 FARMERS ORGANIZE FOR CHANGE 1867 – Oliver Hudson Kelley started the Patrons of Husbandry, an organization for farmers that became known as the Grange. It purpose was to provide a social outlet & an educational forum for isolated farm families.By 1870, the Grange spent most of their time fighting the railroadsThe Farmer’s Alliances sent lecturers from town to town to educate people on lower interest rate on loans & government control on railroads & banks.
29 THIS POLITICAL CARTOON SHOWS A POPULIST CLUBBING A RAILROAD CAR POPULIST PARTY IS BORNLeaders of the farmers organization realized they needed to build a base of political powerPopulism – began where the people sought reforms to lift the burden of debt from the farmers and workers and to give the people a greater voice in their government.THIS POLITICAL CARTOON SHOWS A POPULIST CLUBBING A RAILROAD CAR
30 POPULIST REFORMSProposed economic reforms included; increase of money supply, a rise in crop prices, lower taxes, a federal loan programProposed political reforms included; direct election of senators, single terms for presidentsPopulists also called for an 8-hour workday and reduced immigration
31 THE STOCK MARKET CRASHED IN 1893 THE PANIC OF 1893Nationwide economic problems took center stage in America in 1893Railroads went bankrupt, the stock market lost value, 15,000 businesses and 500 banks collapsed,3 million people lost their jobs – putting unemployment at 20%THE STOCK MARKET CRASHED IN 1893
32 THE PEOPLE’S PARTY WAS SHORT-LIVED BUT LEFT AN IMPORTANT LEGACY THE END OF POPULISMWith McKinley’s election victory, Populism collapsed, burying the hopes of the farmerPopulism left two important legacies: 1) A message that the downtrodden can organize and be heard and 2) An agenda of reforms, many of which would be enacted in the 20th centuryTHE PEOPLE’S PARTY WAS SHORT-LIVED BUT LEFT AN IMPORTANT LEGACY
33 These are the states on the Plains. Homesteaders came to the Plains to farm the land.Miners searched for gold.Railroad companies built the train.Exodusters came to Kansas to start a new life and later became miners and Homesteaders and worked on the railroad.Immigrants worked on railroads and in mines and became Homesteaders.
34 Native American Land Native Americans lived here first. Native Americans and Whites came into bloody conflicts over the land.They tried to protect their lands, but finally, the United States government forced them onto reservations.
35 Who was already there? Plains Indians (Sioux, Cheyenne, & others) Indian Removal Act (1830): Pres. Jackson & Congress negotiated treaties that forced Native Americans to move West.Trail of Tears: name given to the forced relocation of Native Americans nations from southeastern parts of the United States following the Indian Removal Act of 1830NA did not believe land could be owned
37 Native AmericansPlains NA depended on the buffalo for food; clothing and shelter.The plains people were not farmers but they depended on the land in order to live.Federal govt began making treaties with NA; setting aside land for different NA people. Govt will keep others out of these lands.Most chiefs signed the Ft. Laramie Treaty
38 The buffalo is used for tepees, clothes, tools, food and more.
39 THE DESTRUCTION OF THE BUFFALO The most significant blow to tribal life on the plains was the destruction of the buffaloTourist and fur traders shot buffalo for sport1800: 65 million buffalo roamed the plains1890: less than 1000 remainedSHIRTLESS HUNTER WITH HIS KILL
40 Sand Creek MassacreDue to the discovery of gold found in Colorado on land given to Cheyenne & Arapaho. They were forced off the land.Colorado militia attacked a Cheyenne camp at Sand Creek that had surrendered to US.Soldiers killed more than a hundred Indians, mainly and children.The attack became known as Sand Creek Massacre.
41 The Indian WarsMany tribes refused to move onto reservationsChief Joseph was a Nez Percé chief who, faced with settlement by whites of tribal lands in Oregon, led his followers in a dramatic effort to escape to Canada.Apaches fought w their leader Geronimo against TexasTribes also fought throughout Kansas and Oklahoma
42 Battle of Little Big Horn In 1868, a treaty was made between Sioux and the US governmentSioux were relocated to Black Hills of S. DakotaIn 1875, Gold is discover at Black Hill and US government ordered Sioux to vacate and move back to the reservationsChief Sitting Bull led Sioux and Cheyenne warriors to the Little Big Horn River, west of the hunting grounds
43 Battle of Little Big Horn The US military wanted to force the tribes back to the reservationGeorge Custer led the assault of US CavalryHe did not know that the Indian warriors outnumbered him w/3 times his strengthHe divided his cavalry into 3 columns each being driven back
44 Battle of Little Big Horn Custer faced one of the fiercest Sioux—Crazy HorseCuster ordered his men to shoot their horses to make a wallCrazy Horse & other warriors surrounded General Custer and his 700 men. Custer & 267 of his men were killed.
45 HUNDREDS OF CORPSES WERE LEFT TO FREEZE ON THE GROUND BATTLE OF WOUNDED KNEEOn December 29, 1890, the Seventh Cavalry (Custer’s old regiment) rounded up 350 Sioux and took them to Wounded Knee, S.D.A shot was fired – within minutes the Seventh Cavalry slaughtered 300 unarmed NativesThis event brought the “Indian Wars”– and an entire era to a bitter endHUNDREDS OF CORPSES WERE LEFT TO FREEZE ON THE GROUND
46 BROKEN PROMISES!The United States government made many treaties with the Native Americans not to fight and not to touch certain areas of their land.For example, The Fort Laramie Treaty was a treaty made with the Cheyenne tribe, where Americans said an area of land belonged to the Cheyenne forever!However, when gold was discovered there, the Americans forced them to sign a new treaty giving up the land.The United States government broke many treaties with the Native Americans.
47 Indians defend their lands, but are defeated in the end.
49 FAMOUS DEPICTION OF NATIVE STRUGGLE THE DAWES ACTThe Dawes Act of 1887 attempted to assimilate nativesThe Act called for the break up of reservations and the introduction of natives into American lifeBy 1932, 2/3rds of the land committed to Natives had been takenFAMOUS DEPICTION OF NATIVE STRUGGLE
50 Problems Plain Indians were not farmers but hunters. The land given to them was not good for farming.They would sell their land to the whites.Purpose of Dawes Act was to Americanize Native Americans. It did not work! They had to give up their language; religion; customs and move away from their people.#18
51 Native Americans Today Today, many Native Americans are a part of our society.However, many still live on reservations and try to maintain their cultures.New laws returned some Native American lands back to the rightful owners.How would you feel about your history if you were a Native American?