1.Frederick: Jackson Turner: the Western Frontier established new “American” Culture. America must continue to push West. 2.Indian Wars: conflict over removal of natives from Western Lands. 1864-1890. 3.Reservations: Land set aside for Natives, sovereignty granted to individual tribes. 4.Dawes Act: 1887. Broke up reservations, attempt to “Americanize” Natives. 5.Sioux Wars: 1874, conflict over Great Plains and the Black Hills. 6.George Custer: Leader of US 7 th Cavalry, defeated at Little Big Horn. 7.Sitting Bull: Leader of Sioux, defeated Custer. 8.Wounded Knee: 1890, ended Indian Wars. Massacre by 7 th Cavalry in South Dakota.
9.The Grange: Organization of Frontier farmers. 10.Populist Party: “movement of the people”. Demanded reform for farmers and workers. 11.William McKinley: Defeated Bryan and Populist movement in election of 1896. 12.William Jennings Bryan: “Cross of Gold”. Leader of Populists, loses in 1896 Presidential Election.
Reservations become areas of conflict. Natives resist move, fight back. Red Cloud and Crazy Horse ambush white settlers in the “Fetterman Massacre” Gold is discovered in the Black Hills (1876). Many whites move West. “Custer’s Last Stand” in 1876 (Montana) US Defeated by Sitting Bull / Crazy Horse.
I am tired of fighting. Our chiefs are killed. Looking Glass is Dead. Toohulhulsote is dead. The old men are all dead. It is the young men who say yes or no. He who leads the young men is dead. It is cold and we have no blankets. The little children are freezing to death. My people, some of them, have run away to the hills and have no blankets, no food. No one knows where they are-- perhaps freezing to death. I want to have time to look for my children and see how many I can find. Maybe I shall find them among the dead. Hear me, my chiefs. I am tired. My heart is sick and sad. From where the sun now stands, I will fight no more forever. I will fight no more
Little Big Horn enrages American Public. Dawes Act is signed, forces ASSIMILATION of native tribes into US Culture. *** 1890 at the Battle of Wounded Knee, the Wars officially end with the 7 th Cavalry massacring 300 Sioux. All remaining Natives moved to reservations. The Culture of the Indians is gone.
Barbed Wire, Reaper, Steel Plow and Steel Windmill continue to tame the prairie. Farmers begin to unite under the Grange Movement ** The Populist Party (1892) demands reform to give farmers and commoners a stronger voice in government. Anti Railroad, Anti-Bank, Pro-Farmer Wanted direct election of senators William Jennings Bryan Farmers face many problems in late 1800’s Inflation, railroads, banks…
Railroads begin to go bankrupt, US gold supply goes thin. Silver plunges, causing 15,000 businesses and 500 banks to collapse. Election of 1896: McKinley (Gold standard) defeats Bryan, ending influence of Populism. OZ