# Lecture 11.

## Presentation on theme: "Lecture 11."— Presentation transcript:

Lecture 11

Lecture 10 Types of Costing Systems Used to Determine Product Costs
Job-Order Costing Process Costing Sequence of Events in a Job-Order Costing System

Application of Manufacturing Overhead
The predetermined overhead rate (POHR) used to apply overhead to jobs is determined before the period begins. Estimated total manufacturing overhead cost for the coming period Estimated total units in the allocation base for the coming period POHR = Ideally, the allocation base is a cost driver that causes overhead.

Application of Manufacturing Overhead
Based on estimates, and determined before the period begins. Overhead applied = POHR × Actual activity Actual amount of the allocation base such as units produced, direct labor hours, or machine hours incurred during the period.

Application of Manufacturing Overhead
Recall the wooden crate example where: Overhead applied = \$4 per DLH × 8 DLH = \$32 Overhead applied = POHR × Actual activity

The Need for a Predetermined Manufacturing Overhead Rate
Using a predetermined rate makes it possible to estimate total job costs sooner. Actual overhead for the period is not known until the end of the period.

Note If we wait until the end of the period, we will know the actual TOTAL overhead cost. However, still we won’t know the actual overhead cost of a particular job. Why? Overhead consists of costs that are either difficult or impossible to trace to particular jobs. Difficult-to-trace costs include the cost of indirect materials like glue in a furniture factory. Impossible-to-trace costs include fixed common costs like the property taxes on the factory building and land.

PearCo applies overhead based on direct labor hours. Total estimated overhead for the year is \$640,000. Total estimated labor cost is \$1,400,000 and total estimated labor hours are 160,000. What is PearCo’s predetermined overhead rate per hour?

Estimated total manufacturing overhead cost for the coming period Estimated total units in the allocation base for the coming period POHR = \$640,000 160,000 direct labor hours (DLH) POHR = POHR = \$4.00 per DLH For each direct labor hour worked on a job, \$4.00 of factory overhead will be applied to the job.

MCQs Test If the number of wooden crates in the order on the previous page is increased or decreased by one unit, what would you expect to happen to the total spending of PearCo? a. Total spending would probably change by less than \$105. b. Total spending would probably change by about \$105. c. Total spending would probably change by more than \$105.

MCQs Test If the number of wooden crates in the order on the previous page is increased or decreased by one unit, what would you expect to happen to the total spending of PearCo? a. Total spending would probably change by less than \$105. b. Total spending would probably change by about \$105. c. Total spending would probably change by more than \$105. Total spending would change by \$105 only if all of the costs were variable with respect to the number of units produced. Direct materials is variable, but much of the overhead and perhaps even direct labor may be fixed.

MCQs Test Job WR53 at Pharmo Inc. required \$200 of direct materials and 10 direct labor hours at \$15 per hour. Estimated total overhead for the year was \$760,000 and estimated direct labor hours were 20,000. What would be recorded as the cost of job WR53? a. \$200. b. \$350. c. \$380. d. \$730.

MCQs Test Job WR53 at Pharmo , Inc. required \$200 of direct materials and 10 direct labor hours at \$15 per hour. Estimated total overhead for the year was \$760,000 and estimated direct labor hours were 20,000. What would be recorded as the cost of job WR53? a. \$200. b. \$350. c. \$380. d. \$730.

MCQs Test Job WR53 at Pharmo , Inc. required \$200 of direct materials and 10 direct labor hours at \$15 per hour. Estimated total overhead for the year was \$760,000 and estimated direct labor hours were 19,000. What would be recorded as the cost of job WR53? a. \$200. b. \$350. c. \$750. d. \$730.

MCQs Test Job WR53 at NW Fab, Inc. required \$200 of direct materials and 10 direct labor hours at \$15 per hour. Estimated total overhead for the year was \$760,000 and estimated direct labor hours were 19,000. What would be recorded as the cost of job WR53? a. \$200. b. \$350. c. \$750. d. \$730.

MCQs Test If overhead contains fixed costs, what will happen to the predetermined overhead rate if lower unit sales volume is expected? a. The predetermined overhead rate will likely increase. b. The predetermined overhead rate would be unaffected. c. The predetermined overhead rate will likely decrease.

MCQs Test If overhead contains fixed costs, what will happen to the predetermined overhead rate if lower unit sales volume is expected? a. The predetermined overhead rate will likely increase. b. The predetermined overhead rate would be unaffected. c. The predetermined overhead rate will likely decrease.

MCQs Test If overhead contains fixed costs and management set prices by marking up product costs by a preset percentage, what will happen to selling prices if lower unit sales volume is expected? a. Selling prices will likely increase. b. Selling prices would be unaffected. c. Selling prices will likely decrease.

MCQs Test If overhead contains fixed costs and management set prices by marking up product costs by a preset percentage, what will happen to selling prices if lower unit sales volume is expected? a. Selling prices will likely increase. b. Selling prices would be unaffected. c. Selling prices will likely decrease.

MCQs Test If selling prices increase, what will happen to unit sales volume? a. Unit sales volume will likely increase. b. Unit sales volume would be unaffected. c. Unit sales volume will likely decrease.

MCQs Test If selling prices increase, what will happen to unit sales volume? a. Unit sales volume will likely increase. b. Unit sales volume would be unaffected. c. Unit sales volume will likely decrease.

Budgeted Sales Revenue Rs. 205000 Actual Manufacturing overhead 340000
Budgeted Machine Hour 10000 Budgeted direct labour hour 20000 Budgeted Direct labour rate Rs. 14 Budgeted Manufacturing overhead Rs Actual machinge hours 11000 Actual direct labour hours 18000 Actual direct labour rate Rs. 15 Compute the firm’s predetermined overhead rate for the year using each of the following commons cost drivers: a) Machine hours, b) Direct labor hours, c) direct labor rupees. Calculate the over/under applied FOH for the year suing each of the cost drivers listed above.

End of Lecture 11