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McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 2 Systems Design: Job-Order Costing.

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Presentation on theme: "McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 2 Systems Design: Job-Order Costing."— Presentation transcript:

1 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 2 Systems Design: Job-Order Costing

2 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Learning Objective 1 Distinguish between process costing and job-order costing and identify companies that would use each costing method.

3 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Types of Product Costing Systems Process Costing Job-order Costing A company produces many units of a single product. A company produces many units of a single product. One unit of product is indistinguishable from other units of product. One unit of product is indistinguishable from other units of product. The identical nature of each unit of product enables assigning the same average cost per unit. The identical nature of each unit of product enables assigning the same average cost per unit. A company produces many units of a single product. A company produces many units of a single product. One unit of product is indistinguishable from other units of product. One unit of product is indistinguishable from other units of product. The identical nature of each unit of product enables assigning the same average cost per unit. The identical nature of each unit of product enables assigning the same average cost per unit.

4 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Types of Product Costing Systems Process Costing Job-order Costing Example companies: 1. Weyerhaeuser (paper manufacturing) 2. Reynolds Aluminum (refining aluminum ingots) 3. Coca-Cola (mixing and bottling beverages) Example companies: 1. Weyerhaeuser (paper manufacturing) 2. Reynolds Aluminum (refining aluminum ingots) 3. Coca-Cola (mixing and bottling beverages)

5 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Types of Product Costing Systems Process Costing Job-order Costing Many different products are produced each period. Many different products are produced each period. Products are manufactured to order. Products are manufactured to order. The unique nature of each order requires tracing or allocating costs to each job, and maintaining cost records for each job. The unique nature of each order requires tracing or allocating costs to each job, and maintaining cost records for each job. Many different products are produced each period. Many different products are produced each period. Products are manufactured to order. Products are manufactured to order. The unique nature of each order requires tracing or allocating costs to each job, and maintaining cost records for each job. The unique nature of each order requires tracing or allocating costs to each job, and maintaining cost records for each job.

6 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Types of Product Costing Systems Process Costing Job-order Costing Example companies: 1. Boeing (aircraft manufacturing) 2. Bechtel International (large scale construction) 3. Walt Disney Studios (movie production) Example companies: 1. Boeing (aircraft manufacturing) 2. Bechtel International (large scale construction) 3. Walt Disney Studios (movie production)

7 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Comparing Process and Job-Order Costing

8 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Quick Check Which of the following companies would be likely to use job-order costing rather than process costing? a. Scott Paper Company for Kleenex. b. Architects. c. Heinz for ketchup. d. Caterer for a wedding reception. e. Builder of commercial fishing vessels. Which of the following companies would be likely to use job-order costing rather than process costing? a. Scott Paper Company for Kleenex. b. Architects. c. Heinz for ketchup. d. Caterer for a wedding reception. e. Builder of commercial fishing vessels.

9 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Which of the following companies would be likely to use job-order costing rather than process costing? a. Scott Paper Company for Kleenex. b. Architects. c. Heinz for ketchup. d. Caterer for a wedding reception. e. Builder of commercial fishing vessels. Which of the following companies would be likely to use job-order costing rather than process costing? a. Scott Paper Company for Kleenex. b. Architects. c. Heinz for ketchup. d. Caterer for a wedding reception. e. Builder of commercial fishing vessels. Quick Check

10 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Manufacturing Overhead Job No. 1 Job No. 2 Job No. 3 Charge direct material and direct labor costs to each job as work is performed. Job-Order CostingAn Overview Direct Materials Direct Labor

11 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Manufacturing Overhead, including indirect materials and indirect labor, are allocated to jobs rather than directly traced to each job. Job-Order CostingAn Overview Direct Materials Direct Labor Job No. 1 Job No. 2 Job No. 3 Manufacturing Overhead

12 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Learning Objective 2 Identify the documents used in a job-order costing system.

13 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Job Cost Sheet

14 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Materials Requisition Form

15 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Job Cost Sheet

16 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Employee Time Ticket

17 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Job Cost Sheet

18 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Application of Manufacturing Overhead Manufacturing overhead is applied to jobs that are in process. An allocation base, such as direct labor hours, direct labor dollars, or machine hours, is used to assign manufacturing overhead to individual jobs. We use an allocation base because: 1.It is impossible or difficult to trace overhead costs to particular jobs. 2.Manufacturing overhead consists of many different items ranging from the grease used in machines to a production managers salary. 3.Many types of manufacturing overhead costs are fixed even though output fluctuates during the period.

19 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Learning Objective 3 Compute predetermined overhead rates and explain why estimated overhead costs (rather than actual overhead costs) are used in the costing process.

20 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The predetermined overhead rate (POHR) used to apply overhead to jobs is determined before the period begins. Application of Manufacturing Overhead Estimated total manufacturing overhead cost for the coming period Estimated total units in the allocation base for the coming period POHR = Ideally, the allocation base is a cost driver that causes overhead.

21 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Using a predetermined overhead rate (POHR) makes it possible to estimate total job costs sooner. Actual overhead for the period is not known until sometime after the period has ended. Actual overhead costs can fluctuate seasonally, thus misleading decision makers. It simplifies record keeping. Application of Manufacturing Overhead $

22 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Actual amount of the allocation based upon the actual level of activity (this is called a normal costing system). Based on estimates, and determined before the period begins. Application of Manufacturing Overhead Overhead applied = POHR × Actual activity

23 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. For each direct labor hour worked on a particular job, $4.00 of factory overhead will be applied to that job. Application of Manufacturing Overhead POHR = $4.00 per DLH $640, ,000 direct labor hours (DLH) POHR = Estimated total manufacturing overhead cost for the coming period Estimated total units in the allocation base for the coming period POHR =

24 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Application of Manufacturing Overhead

25 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Completing the Job Cost Sheet

26 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Interpreting the Average Unit Cost The average unit cost should not be interpreted as the costs that would actually be incurred if an additional unit were produced. Fixed overhead would not change if another unit were produced, so the incremental cost of another unit may be somewhat less than $118. The average unit cost should not be interpreted as the costs that would actually be incurred if an additional unit were produced. Fixed overhead would not change if another unit were produced, so the incremental cost of another unit may be somewhat less than $118.

27 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Quick Check Job WR53 at NW Fab, Inc. required $200 of direct materials and 10 direct labor hours at $15 per hour. Estimated total overhead for the year was $760,000 and estimated direct labor hours were 20,000. What would be recorded as the cost of job WR53? a. $200. b. $350. c. $380. d. $730. Job WR53 at NW Fab, Inc. required $200 of direct materials and 10 direct labor hours at $15 per hour. Estimated total overhead for the year was $760,000 and estimated direct labor hours were 20,000. What would be recorded as the cost of job WR53? a. $200. b. $350. c. $380. d. $730.

28 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Job WR53 at NW Fab, Inc. required $200 of direct materials and 10 direct labor hours at $15 per hour. Estimated total overhead for the year was $760,000 and estimated direct labor hours were 20,000. What would be recorded as the cost of job WR53? a. $200. b. $350. c. $380. d. $730. Job WR53 at NW Fab, Inc. required $200 of direct materials and 10 direct labor hours at $15 per hour. Estimated total overhead for the year was $760,000 and estimated direct labor hours were 20,000. What would be recorded as the cost of job WR53? a. $200. b. $350. c. $380. d. $730. Quick Check

29 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Lets summarize the document flow in a job-order costing system. Job-Order Costing Document Flow Summary

30 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Job-Order Costing Document Flow Summary A sales order is the basis of issuing a production order. A production order initiates work on a job.

31 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Job-Order Costing Document Flow Summary Job Cost Sheets Materials Requisition Manufacturing Overhead Account Direct materials Indirect materials Materials used may be either direct or indirect.

32 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Job-Order Costing Document Flow Summary Job Cost Sheets Employee Time Ticket Manufacturing Overhead Account An employees time may be either direct or indirect. Direct Labor Indirect Labor

33 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Job-Order Costing Document Flow Summary Manufacturing Overhead Account Other Actual OH Charges Job Cost Sheets Applied Overhead Materials Requisition Employee Time Ticket Indirect Material Indirect Labor

34 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Learning Objective 4 Prepare journal entries to record costs in a job-order costing system.

35 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Learning Objective 7 Use T-accounts to show the flow of costs in a job-order costing system.

36 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Job-Order CostingThe Flow of Costs Lets examine the transactions in T- account and journal entry forms in a job- order costing system.

37 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Raw Materials Material Purchases Mfg. Overhead Work in Process (Job Cost Sheet) ActualApplied Direct Materials Indirect Materials Summary of Cost Flows

38 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Journal Entry – Material Purchases Raw material purchases are recorded in an inventory account.

39 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Journal Entry – Material Usage Direct materials issued to a job increase Work in Process and decrease Raw Materials. Indirect materials used are charged to Manufacturing Overhead and decrease Raw Materials.

40 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Mfg. Overhead Salaries and Wages Payable Work in Process (Job Cost Sheet) Direct Materials Direct Labor Indirect Labor Indirect Materials ActualApplied Indirect Labor Summary of Cost Flows

41 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Journal Entry – Labor Costs The cost of direct labor incurred increases Work in Process and the cost of indirect labor increases Manufacturing Overhead.

42 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Mfg. Overhead Indirect Materials ActualApplied Indirect Labor Summary of Cost Flows Other Overhead In addition to indirect materials and indirect labor, other actual manufacturing overhead costs are debited to the Manufacturing Overhead account.

43 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Journal Entry – Actual Overhead In addition to indirect materials and indirect labor, other manufacturing overhead costs are charged to the Manufacturing Overhead account as they are incurred.

44 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Learning Objective 5 Apply overhead cost to Work in Process using a predetermined overhead rate.

45 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Mfg. Overhead Work in Process (Job Cost Sheet) Direct Materials Overhead Applied Overhead Applied to Work in Process Direct Labor Indirect Materials ActualApplied If actual and applied manufacturing overhead are not equal, a year-end adjustment is required. Indirect Labor Summary of Manufacturing Overhead Cost Flows Other Overhead

46 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Journal Entry – Overhead Applied Work in Process is increased when Manufacturing Overhead is applied to jobs.

47 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Accounting for Nonmanufacturing Costs Nonmanufacturing costs are not assigned to individual jobs, rather they are expensed in the period incurred. Income Statement Expense nonmanufacturing costs as incurred.

48 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Journal Entry – Accounting for Nonmanufacturing Costs Nonmanufacturing Cost Examples: 1. Salary expense of employees that work in a marketing, selling, or administrative capacity. 2. Advertising expenses are expensed in the period incurred. Nonmanufacturing Cost Examples: 1. Salary expense of employees that work in a marketing, selling, or administrative capacity. 2. Advertising expenses are expensed in the period incurred.

49 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Finished Goods Cost of Goods Mfd. Work in Process (Job Cost Sheet) Direct Materials Direct Labor Overhead Applied Summary of Goods Manufactured Cost Flows

50 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Journal Entry – Cost of Goods Manufactured As jobs are completed, the Cost of Goods Manufactured is transferred to Finished Goods from Work in Process.

51 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Learning Objective 6 Prepare schedules of cost of goods manufactured and cost of goods sold.

52 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Finished Goods Cost of Goods Sold Work in Process (Job Cost Sheet) Direct Materials Direct Labor Overhead Applied Cost of Goods Mfd. Cost of Goods Sold Summary of Job-Order System Cost Flows

53 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Journal Entry – Sales When finished goods are sold, two entries are required: (1) to record the sale, and (2) to record COGS and reduce Finished Goods.

54 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Learning Objective 8 Compute underapplied or overapplied overhead cost and prepare the journal entry to close the balance in Manufacturing Overhead to the appropriate accounts.

55 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Defining Under- and Overapplied Overhead The difference between the overhead cost applied to Work in Process and the actual overhead costs of a period is termed either underapplied or overapplied overhead. Underapplied overhead exists when the amount of overhead applied to jobs during the period using the predetermined overhead rate is less than the total amount of overhead actually incurred during the period. Overapplied overhead exists when the amount of overhead applied to jobs during the period using the predetermined overhead rate is greater than the total amount of overhead actually incurred during the period.

56 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. PearCos actual overhead for the year was $650,000 with a total of 170,000 direct labor hours worked on jobs. PearCos actual overhead for the year was $650,000 with a total of 170,000 direct labor hours worked on jobs. How much total overhead was applied to PearCos jobs during the year? Use PearCos predetermined overhead rate of $4.00 per direct labor hour. PearCos actual overhead for the year was $650,000 with a total of 170,000 direct labor hours worked on jobs. PearCos actual overhead for the year was $650,000 with a total of 170,000 direct labor hours worked on jobs. How much total overhead was applied to PearCos jobs during the year? Use PearCos predetermined overhead rate of $4.00 per direct labor hour. Overhead Application Example Overhead Applied During the Period Applied Overhead = POHR × Actual Direct Labor Hours Applied Overhead = $4.00 per DLH × 170,000 DLH = $680,000

57 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Overhead Applied During the Period Applied Overhead = POHR × Actual Direct Labor Hours Applied Overhead = $4.00 per DLH × 170,000 DLH = $680,000 PearCos actual overhead for the year was $650,000 with a total of 170,000 direct labor hours worked on jobs. PearCos actual overhead for the year was $650,000 with a total of 170,000 direct labor hours worked on jobs. How much total overhead was applied to PearCos jobs during the year? Use PearCos predetermined overhead rate of $4.00 per direct labor hour. PearCos actual overhead for the year was $650,000 with a total of 170,000 direct labor hours worked on jobs. PearCos actual overhead for the year was $650,000 with a total of 170,000 direct labor hours worked on jobs. How much total overhead was applied to PearCos jobs during the year? Use PearCos predetermined overhead rate of $4.00 per direct labor hour. Overhead Application Example PearCo has overapplied overhead for the year by $30,000. What will PearCo do?

58 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Quick Check Tiger, Inc. had actual manufacturing overhead costs of $1,210,000 and a predetermined overhead rate of $4.00 per machine hour. Tiger, Inc. worked 290,000 machine hours during the period. What is Tigers over- or underapplied overhead? a. $50,000 overapplied. b. $50,000 underapplied. c. $60,000 overapplied. d. $60,000 underapplied. Tiger, Inc. had actual manufacturing overhead costs of $1,210,000 and a predetermined overhead rate of $4.00 per machine hour. Tiger, Inc. worked 290,000 machine hours during the period. What is Tigers over- or underapplied overhead? a. $50,000 overapplied. b. $50,000 underapplied. c. $60,000 overapplied. d. $60,000 underapplied.

59 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Quick Check Tiger, Inc. had actual manufacturing overhead costs of $1,210,000 and a predetermined overhead rate of $4.00 per machine hour. Tiger, Inc. worked 290,000 machine hours during the period. What is Tigers over- or underapplied overhead? a. $50,000 overapplied. b. $50,000 underapplied. c. $60,000 overapplied. d. $60,000 underapplied. Tiger, Inc. had actual manufacturing overhead costs of $1,210,000 and a predetermined overhead rate of $4.00 per machine hour. Tiger, Inc. worked 290,000 machine hours during the period. What is Tigers over- or underapplied overhead? a. $50,000 overapplied. b. $50,000 underapplied. c. $60,000 overapplied. d. $60,000 underapplied. Applied Overhead $4.00 × 290,000 hours = $1,160,000

60 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Disposition of Under- or Overapplied Overhead PearCos Mfg. Overhead Actual overhead costs $650,000 $30,000 overapplied Overhead applied to jobs $680,000 PearCos Cost of Goods Sold Unadjusted Balance Adjusted Balance $30,000

61 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Quick Check What effect will the adjustment of the overapplied overhead have on PearCos net operating income? a. Net operating income will increase. b. Net operating income will be unaffected. c. Net operating income will decrease. What effect will the adjustment of the overapplied overhead have on PearCos net operating income? a. Net operating income will increase. b. Net operating income will be unaffected. c. Net operating income will decrease.

62 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. What effect will the adjustment of the overapplied overhead have on PearCos net operating income? a. Net operating income will increase. b. Net operating income will be unaffected. c. Net operating income will decrease. What effect will the adjustment of the overapplied overhead have on PearCos net operating income? a. Net operating income will increase. b. Net operating income will be unaffected. c. Net operating income will decrease. Quick Check

63 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Multiple Predetermined Overhead Rates To this point, we have assumed that there is a single predetermined overhead rate called a plantwide overhead rate. Large companies often use multiple predetermined overhead rates. May be more complex but... May be more accurate because it reflects differences across departments.

64 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Job-Order Costing in Service Companies Job-order costing is used in many difference types of service companies.

65 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. End of Chapter 2


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