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Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc 2011 SYSTEMS DESIGN: JOB-ORDER COSTING Chapter 5.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc 2011 SYSTEMS DESIGN: JOB-ORDER COSTING Chapter 5."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc 2011 SYSTEMS DESIGN: JOB-ORDER COSTING Chapter 5

2 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Types of Product Costing Systems Process Costing Job-order Costing  A company produces many units of a single product.  One unit of product is indistinguishable from other units of product.  The identical nature of each unit of product enables assigning the same average cost per unit.  A company produces many units of a single product.  One unit of product is indistinguishable from other units of product.  The identical nature of each unit of product enables assigning the same average cost per unit.

3 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Types of Product Costing Systems Process Costing Job-order Costing  A company produces many units of a single product.  One unit of product is indistinguishable from other units of product.  The identical nature of each unit of product enables assigning the same average cost per unit.  A company produces many units of a single product.  One unit of product is indistinguishable from other units of product.  The identical nature of each unit of product enables assigning the same average cost per unit. Example companies: 1. Weyerhaeuser (paper manufacturing) 2. Reynolds Aluminum (refining aluminum ingots) 3. Coca-Cola (mixing and bottling beverages) Example companies: 1. Weyerhaeuser (paper manufacturing) 2. Reynolds Aluminum (refining aluminum ingots) 3. Coca-Cola (mixing and bottling beverages)

4 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Types of Product Costing Systems Process Costing Job-order Costing  Many different products are produced each period.  Products are manufactured to order.  The unique nature of each order requires tracing or allocating costs to each job, and maintaining cost records for each job.  Many different products are produced each period.  Products are manufactured to order.  The unique nature of each order requires tracing or allocating costs to each job, and maintaining cost records for each job.

5 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Types of Product Costing Systems Process Costing Job-order Costing  Many different products are produced each period.  Products are manufactured to order.  The unique nature of each order requires tracing or allocating costs to each job, and maintaining cost records for each job.  Many different products are produced each period.  Products are manufactured to order.  The unique nature of each order requires tracing or allocating costs to each job, and maintaining cost records for each job. Example companies: 1. Boeing (aircraft manufacturing) 2. Bechtel International (large scale construction) 3. Walt Disney Studios (movie production) Example companies: 1. Boeing (aircraft manufacturing) 2. Bechtel International (large scale construction) 3. Walt Disney Studios (movie production)

6 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Comparing Process and Job-Order Costing

7 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Manufacturing Overhead Job No. 1 Job No. 2 Job No. 3 Charge direct material and direct labor costs to each job as work is performed. Job-Order Costing – An Overview Direct Materials Direct Labor Manufacturing Overhead, including indirect materials and indirect labor, are allocated to all jobs rather than directly traced to each job.

8 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc PearCo Job Cost Sheet Job Number A - 143Date Initiated Date Completed Department B3Units Completed Item Wooden cargo crate Direct MaterialsDirect LaborManufacturing Overhead Req. No.AmountTicketHoursAmountHoursRateAmount Cost SummaryUnits Shipped Direct MaterialsDateNumberBalance Direct Labor Manufacturing Overhead Total Cost Unit Product Cost The Job Cost Sheet

9 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Measuring Direct Materials Cost Will E. Delite

10 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Measuring Direct Materials Cost

11 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Measuring Direct Labor Costs PearCo Employee Time Ticket Time Ticket No.36 Date EmployeeI. M. Skilled Station42 StartingEndingHoursHourly Time CompletedRateAmountJob No $ 88.00$ A-143 Totals $ 88.00$ A-143 Supervisor C. M. Workman

12 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Job-Order Cost Accounting

13 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Overhead Allocation Manufacturing overhead is applied to jobs that are in process. An allocation base, such as direct labor hours, direct labor dollars, or machine hours, is used to assign manufacturing overhead to individual jobs. We use an allocation base because: 1.It is impossible or difficult to trace overhead costs to particular jobs. 2.Manufacturing overhead consists of many different items ranging from the grease used in machines to the production manager’s salary. 3.Many types of manufacturing overhead costs are fixed even though output fluctuates during the period.

14 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Using a predetermined rate makes it possible to estimate total job costs sooner. Actual overhead for the period is not known until the end of the period. $ Why Apply of Manufacturing Overhead?

15 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc The predetermined overhead rate (POHR) used to apply overhead to jobs is determined before the period begins. Ideally, the allocation base is a cost driver that causes overhead. Application of Manufacturing Overhead

16 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Application of Manufacturing Overhead  Estimate the level of production for the period.  Estimate the total amount of the allocation base in the denominator that would be required for that level of production.  Estimate the total manufacturing overhead cost in the numerator that would be incurred for the estimated amount of the allocation base. Predetermined overhead rates are calculated using a three-step process.

17 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Application of Manufacturing Overhead The predetermined overhead rate (POHR) is based on estimates and determined before the period begins. Actual amount of the allocation is based upon the actual level of activity.

18 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc For each direct labor hour worked on a particular job, $4.00 of factory overhead will be applied to that job. POHR = $4.00 per DLH $640, ,000 direct labor hours (DLH) POHR = Estimated total manufacturing overhead cost for the coming period Estimated total units in the allocation base for the coming period POHR = Application of Manufacturing Overhead

19 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Job-Order Cost Accounting

20 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Job-Order Cost Accounting

21 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Interpreting the Average Unit Cost The average unit cost should not be interpreted as the cost that would actually be incurred if an additional unit were produced. Fixed overhead would not change if another unit were produced, so the incremental cost of another unit is something less than $118. The average unit cost should not be interpreted as the cost that would actually be incurred if an additional unit were produced. Fixed overhead would not change if another unit were produced, so the incremental cost of another unit is something less than $118.

22 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc An Extended Example of Job-Order Costing Rand Company produces gold and silver commemorative medallions. At the beginning of April, Rand company had no finished goods inventory and one job (Job A) in process, a special minting of 1,000 gold medallions commemorating the invention of motion pictures. Manufacturing costs incurred to date on Job A total $30,000. Job A will be completed in April and Job B, an order for 10,000 sliver medallions commemorating the fall of the Berlin Wall, will be started in April and finished in a subsequent month. Rand Company produces gold and silver commemorative medallions. At the beginning of April, Rand company had no finished goods inventory and one job (Job A) in process, a special minting of 1,000 gold medallions commemorating the invention of motion pictures. Manufacturing costs incurred to date on Job A total $30,000. Job A will be completed in April and Job B, an order for 10,000 sliver medallions commemorating the fall of the Berlin Wall, will be started in April and finished in a subsequent month.

23 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc An Extended Example of Job-Order Costing Given this information, we will now track the flow of Rand Company’s raw materials, direct labor, and overhead costs for April and prepare an income statement for the month.

24 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc An Extended Example of Job-Order Costing

25 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc An Extended Example of Job-Order Costing

26 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc An Extended Example of Job-Order Costing

27 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Overhead Allocation for Extended Example of Job-Order Costing Let’s assume the following: Rand’s predetermined overhead rate is $6 per machine hour. During April, 10,000 machine hours were worked on Job A. During April, 5,000 machine hours were worked on Job B. Let’s assume the following: Rand’s predetermined overhead rate is $6 per machine hour. During April, 10,000 machine hours were worked on Job A. During April, 5,000 machine hours were worked on Job B.

28 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc An Extended Example of Job-Order Costing

29 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Underapplied or Overapplied Overhead The difference between the overhead cost applied to Work in Process and the actual overhead costs of a period is referred to as either underapplied or overapplied overhead. Underapplied overhead exists when the amount of overhead applied to jobs during the period using the predetermined overhead rate is less than the total amount of overhead actually incurred during the period. Overapplied overhead exists when the amount of overhead applied to jobs during the period using the predetermined overhead rate is greater than the total amount of overhead actually incurred during the period.

30 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Recall the following facts for Rand Company: Underapplied or Overapplied Overhead

31 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Disposition of Under- or Overapplied Overhead We will always assume that underapplied or overapplied overhead is closed out to Cost of Goods Sold. Overapplied deducted Overapplied overhead is deducted from Cost of Goods Sold. Underapplied added Underapplied overhead is added to Cost of Goods Sold.

32 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Prepare an Income Statement Let’s recall some key facts from the Rand Company example: Job A, which consisted of 1,000 gold medallions, was completed during April, but Job B was not completed. The unit product cost for each of the 1,000 gold medallions included in Job A was $158 ($158,000 ÷ 1,000 units). The overhead for April was underapplied by $5,000.

33 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc The Direct Method of Determining Cost of Goods Sold 750 of the 1,000 gold medallions included in Job A were shipped to customers by the end of April. Cost of the medallions sold to customers 750 $158 per unit = $118,500 Cost of the medallions sold to customers 750 $158 per unit = $118,500

34 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc The Direct Method of Determining Cost of Goods Sold

35 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Computing Ending Finished Goods Inventory 250 of the 1,000 gold medallions included in Job A were unsold and in ending finished goods inventory. Cost of the medallions in ending finished goods inventory 250 $158 per unit = $39,500 Cost of the medallions in ending finished goods inventory 250 $158 per unit = $39,500

36 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Prepare an Income Statement To complete the income statement, let’s assume that Rand Company’s total sales revenue and selling and administrative expenses for April were $225,000 and $87,000, respectively.

37 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Prepare an Income Statement

38 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Multiple Predetermined Overhead Rates To this point, we have assumed that there is a single predetermined overhead rate called a plantwide overhead rate. Large companies often use multiple predetermined overhead rates, Which is more complex but... it is more accurate because it reflects differences across departments.

39 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc End of Chapter 5


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