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Reading: Understanding The Root of It all By: Ms. Aguiar Somerset Academy Charter School.

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Presentation on theme: "Reading: Understanding The Root of It all By: Ms. Aguiar Somerset Academy Charter School."— Presentation transcript:


2 Reading: Understanding The Root of It all By: Ms. Aguiar Somerset Academy Charter School

3 A History of our Words First, I want you to know a little about how our language got to be the way it is. This story explains why our English language is so complicated. It explains that English is a mixture of Greek and Latin and French and German.

4 Greeks Gave Us More Than Salad…. Most people think that Greek is the oldest layer of the English language. Greek words go way back, to about 3,000 years ago. We like to use old Greek roots to name new terms in medicine or science: dinosaur, technology, and esophagus. Even some simple words stem from old Greek: anchor, school, phone. About 10 percent of our English words are Greek. Some of the letters of our alphabet are Greek. Even the word alphabet is a Greek word.

5 Latin Is A Part of English! The next oldest layer of our language is Latin. Long ago, the Romans spoke a language called Latin. Today Rome is only a city in Italy, but 2,000 years ago the Roman Empire covered most of Europe. Many of the languages spoken in Europe today were originally Latin-based, including Spanish, French, Portuguese, and Italian. The Romans ruled a big chunk of the world.

6 Other Latin was used by the Catholic church. Soon, Latin religious words began to mix with the German words in our language: verse, priest, commandment. Words that were borrowed from the long-gone Greeks also joined our language: school, chorus, psalm.

7 Common Prefixes Un-Not, opposite ofEx. unaware, unbelievable, Re-Again Ex. redo, replay Im-, in-, il-, ir-NotEx. impossible, incapable, illogical, Dis-Not, opposite ofEx. dishonest, disgraceful, En-, em- Cause toEx. enable, emblaze Non-Not Ex. nonstick, nonfiction, nonexistent In-, im-In, intoEx. inject Over-Too muchEx. overtime, overeat Mis-WronglyEx. misunderstand, misuse Sub-Under Ex. subsurface, subway Pre-Before Ex. Prepay, preschool

8 More Prefixes, interact Mid-MiddleEx. midyear, midnight Under-Too littleEx.underweight, underpaid Fore-BeforeEx. forethought De-Opposite of Ex. decaffeinated, dehydrate Trans-AcrossEx. transatlantic Super-Above Ex. superhero, supermodel Semi-Half Ex. semiannual, semicolon Anti-AgainstEx. antiwar, antisocial

9 Common Suffixes -s, -esPlural of nounEx. cats, boxes -edPast tense of verb Ex. sailed -ingProgressive tense of verb Ex. jumping, racing -lyUsually an adverb; sometimes an adjective Ex. slowly, lovely -er, -or (agent)Noun (agent)Ex. runner, professor -ion, -tion, -ation, -itionNounEx. action, transition, vacation -able, -ibleAdjectiveEx. lovable, incredible -al, -ialAdjectiveEx. global, logical, partial -yAdjective Ex. funny -nessAbstract nounEx. kindness

10 And More….You Guessed It…Suffixes! -ity, -tyNoun Ex. activity -mentNoun Ex. merriment -icAdjectiveEx. historic -ous, -eous, -ious AdjectiveEx. hideous, spacious -enVerb Ex. quicken, thicken -er (comparative)AdjectiveEx. bigger -ive, -ative, -tive AdjectiveEx. alternative, pensive -fulAdjectiveEx. wonderful -lessAdjectiveEx.effortless -estAdjectiveEx.strongest

11 Common Greek and Latin Roots! ROOTORIGINMEANING EXAMPLES aud Latin Hear Auditorium, audition astro GreekStar Astronaut, astronomy bio GreekLife Biology, biography cept Latin Take Intercept, accept dict Latin Speak/tell Dictation, predict Duct LatinLead Conduct, induct geo GreekEarth Geography, geology

12 Other Greek/Latin Roots ject Latin ThrowEject, reject, projectile, meterGreekMeasureThermometer, barometer, centimeter, diameter min LatinLittle or smallMiniature, minimum, minimal mit or misLatin Send Mission, transmit, missile, dismiss, submit ped LatinFoot Pedal, pedestal, pedestrian

13 Continued phonGreekSoundTelephone, symphony, microphone, phonics, phoneme, phonograph portLatin Carry Transport, porter portable, import, export, rupt LatinBreakDisrupt, erupt, rupture, interrupt, bankrupt scrib or script LatinWrite Scribble, scribe, inscribe, describe, prescribe

14 Continued spect Latin See Inspect, suspect, respect, spectacle, spectator structLatin Build or form Construct, destruct, instruct, structure tele GreekFrom afar Telephone, telegraph, teleport tractLatin Pull Traction, tractor, attract, subtract, extract vers Latin TurnReverse, inverse

15 How Do I Figure Out The Meaning of A New Word? 1. Reread the sentence that contains the unknown word. Be on the lookout for signal words or punctuation. 2. Reread the sentences before and after the sentence that contains the unknown word. 3. Based on the clues, try to figure out the meaning of the word. 4. Insert your meaning in the original sentence to see whether it makes sense.

16 Context Clue Strategy DefinitionA definition in the sentenceIs, are, is called, means Signal punctuation: Set off by commasBrick made of sun-dried clay is called adobe. The Native Americans used adobe, or bricks made of sun-dried clay, to build their homes. SynonymA word with a similar meaning to the unknown word Also, as, like, same, similarly, tooThe Zuni built their homes with brick made of sun-dried clay. The Hopi also used adobe to build their homes. AntonymA word or phrase with the opposite meaning of the unknown wordBut, however, in contrast, on the other hand, though, unlikeThe Hopi lived in single-family houses, but the Iroquois lived in longhouses. ExampleSeveral examples in a listSuch as, for example, for instance, like, includingThe Pueblo people grew many crops such as corn, beans, and squash. GeneralGeneral or inexact cluesAfter 1700, the Pueblos got sheep from the Spanish, and wool replaced cotton as the most important textile.

17 The Vocabulary Strategy 1. Look for CONTEXT CLUES. Reread the sentence and the surrounding sentences. 2. Can you break the WORD into PARTS? (If not, go to Step 3.) a. Is there a PREFIX? What does it mean? b. Is there a SUFFIX? What does it mean? c. Is there a ROOT WORD? What does it mean? d. Put the meaning of the word parts together. What is the meaning of the whole word? 3. GUESS what the word means. 4. INSERT your meaning into the original sentence to see whether it makes sense. 5. If needed, use the DICTIONARY to confirm your meaning.

18 Multisyllable Word Reading Strategy 1. Find the vowels. 2. Look for word parts you know. 3. Read each word part. 4. Read the parts quickly. 5. Make it sound like a real word.

19 Know Your Syllable Types! Closed Ex. pic-nic, ab-sent Open Ex. ve-to, a-pron Silent e Ex. de-bate, base-ball Vowel team Ex. re-frain, car-toon Vowel-r Ex. en-ter, or-phan Consonant -le Ex. bot-tle, bea-gle Other Ex. gar-bage, fur-ni-ture

20 Final Thoughts Approach all reading as if you were a detective and the text represents the case that needs to be solved. Use the clues and strategies that you have been given and never dismiss any case as too difficult. The clues will ALWAYS lead you to the correct conclusion if you use your critical thinking skills and pay attention to detail. Enjoy the journey of reading!

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