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ADRENAL GLANDS Jen, Erin, Haleigh, Jeana Period 1.

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Presentation on theme: "ADRENAL GLANDS Jen, Erin, Haleigh, Jeana Period 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 ADRENAL GLANDS Jen, Erin, Haleigh, Jeana Period 1

2 WHERE ARE THEY? The adrenal glands are located bilaterally in the retroperitoneum superior and slightly medial to the kidneys

3 CORTISOL A type of glucocorticosteroid associated with stress-fighting and anti-inflammatory responses Helps metabolize lipids and proteins to produce energy Diets high in protein and fat require cortisol for these molecules to be used in place of carbohydrates The adrenal cortex would diminish without regular adrenocorticotrophic hormone secretions

4 ALDOSTERONE A steroid hormone that the adrenal cortex secretes to control sodium and potassium in the blood It is the major mineralocorticosteroid that the adrenal cortex secretes Regulates the minerals potassium and sodium A healthy balance of potassium and sodium are necessary for normal muscle and nerve function Increased potassium and decreased sodium in the blood are two factors that signal to release of aldosterone to regulate salts and retain water This occurs in the digestive system, kidneys, salivary glands, and sweat glands

5 ADRENALINE A hormone produced by the adrenal glands in response to exercise, fear, or stress It is the main hormone produced by the adrenal medulla Heavy physical exertion and stress are the two most common signals that cause adrenaline secretion Low blood sugar also promotes adrenaline secretion by signaling the hypothalamus Diverts blood away from many of the body organs and directs it to muscle Elevates the metabolic rate of muscle cells, and increases blood pressure and heart function

6 NOREPINEPHRINE A hormone produced by the adrenal glands that has a stimulatory effect on the nervous system Primarily affects nerve cell function related to the body’s response to activity stress Norepinephrine and adrenaline both increase the discharge of glucose and fats into the blood Causes an increase in the amount of oxygen going to the brain, an increase in heart rate, and an increase in breathing rate

7 VIDEO CLIP https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZDS3vJ_qTQ8

8 DISEASE ASSOCIATED WITH CORTISOL IN THE ADRENAL GLANDS Cushing’s Syndrome  is a hormonal disorder caused by prolonged exposure of the body's tissues to high levels of the hormone cortisol.  Cushing's syndrome occurs when the body's tissues are exposed to high levels of cortisol for too long.  This disease is relatively rare and most commonly affects adults aged 20 to 50.

9 WHAT CAUSES CUSHING’S SYNDROME? Cushing's syndrome occurs when the body's tissues are exposed to excessive levels of cortisol for long periods of time First, the hypothalamus sends corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) to the pituitary gland CRH causes the pituitary to secrete ACTH (adrenocorticotropin), a hormone that stimulates the adrenal glands When the adrenals, which are located just above the kidneys, receive the ACTH, they respond by releasing cortisol into the bloodstream

10 SYMPTOMS OF CUSHING SYNDROME People suffer symptoms because they take glucocorticoid hormones such as:  prednisone for asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus and other inflammatory diseases, or for immunosuppression after transplantation Symptoms vary  most people have upper body obesity, rounded face, increased fat around the neck, and thinning arms and legs  children tend to be obese with slowed growth rates Other symptoms appear in the skin  becomes fragile and thin  bruises easily and heals poorly  purplish pink stretch marks may appear on the abdomen, thighs, buttocks, arms and breasts  bones are weakened  routine activities such as bending, lifting or rising from a chair may lead to backaches, rib and spinal column fractures.

11 SYMPTOMS (CONT.) Most people have severe fatigue, weak muscles, high blood pressure and high blood sugar Irritability, anxiety and depression are common Women usually have excess hair growth on their faces, necks, chests, abdomens, and thighs  Their menstrual periods may become irregular or stop Men have decreased fertility with diminished or absent desire for sex.

12 WHAT CAUSES ADDISON’S DISEASE? Failure to produce adequate levels of cortisol can occur for different reasons The problem may be due to a disorder of the adrenal glands themselves (primary adrenal insufficiency) or to inadequate secretion of ACTH by the pituitary gland (secondary adrenal insufficiency) Most cases are caused by the gradual destruction of the adrenal cortex, the outer layer of the adrenal glands, by the body's own immune system

13 SYMPTOMS OF ADDISON’S DISEASE chronic, worsening fatigue muscle weakness loss of appetite weight loss nausea vomiting diarrhea low blood pressure that falls further when standing, causing dizziness or fainting skin changes

14 VIDEO CLIPS Cushing’s Syndrome: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1osIAtrto2khttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1osIAtrto2k Addison’s Disease: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1AEPFheyqYEhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1AEPFheyqYE

15 INTERESTING FACTS: Most people know about the adrenal glands because of James L. Wilson. He is naturopathic doctor who created the term “adrenal fatigue,” calling it the “21st- century stress syndrome and used it for the title of his book in He believes modern life and chronic stress exhaust the adrenal glands, overworking them and causing them to produce lower levels of hormones needed to cope with stress. Adrenal fatigue is unproven and most endocrinologists dismiss it as an “Internet disease.”

16 INTERESTING FACTS: Most people know about the adrenal glands because of James L. Wilson. He is naturopathic doctor who created the term “adrenal fatigue,” calling it the “21st- century stress syndrome and used it for the title of his book in He believes modern life and chronic stress exhaust the adrenal glands, overworking them and causing them to produce lower levels of hormones needed to cope with stress. Adrenal fatigue is unproven and most endocrinologists dismiss it as an “Internet disease.”

17 FUN FACTS Adrenal glands are acorn sized They control the flight or fight hormones Each gland weighs about 4 grams

18 CONCEPT QUESTIONS 1. Where is the adrenal gland located? 2. What are the four different hormones associated with the adrenal gland? 3. What are the causes of Cushing’s Syndrome and Addison’s Disease?

19 BIBLIOGRAPHY "Cushing's Syndrome Symptoms, Causes, Treatment - What Causes Cushing's Syndrome? - MedicineNet." MedicineNet. N.p., 15 Apr Web. 13 Mar "Addison's Disease Symptoms, Causes, Treatment - What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Addison's Disease? - MedicineNet." MedicineNet. N.p., 15 Apr Web. 13 Mar “Adrenal Gland: Fascinating Facts about Body Parts | Toronto Star." Thestar.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Mar ”


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