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Presentation on theme: "The Adrenal Gland: Fight or Flight ALEXA BRANCO, EMILY HAGOPIAN, ROB DIBENEDETTO, ALLY ARLUNA."— Presentation transcript:


2 Location, Location, Location  Position: On top of the kidneys  2 parts:  Adrenal Medulla  Inner part of gland  Produces hormones such as adrenaline  Adrenal Cortex  Outer part of gland  Produces hormones such as coritsol

3 Hormones  Cortisol  Steroid hormone  Produced in humans by the zona fasciculata  Released in response to stress and low blood glucose  The function is to increase blood sugar, to suppress the immune system, and to aid in the metabolism of fat, protein, and carbohydrate  Decreases bone formation  Aldosterone  Steroid hormone  Produced by the zona glomerulosa  Regulates blood pressure  Increases reabsorption of ions and water in the kidneys

4 Hormones (cont.)  Adrenaline  Also known as Epinephrine  Produced in the medulla of the adrenal glands  Released into the bloodstream and serve as chemical mediators  Also convey the nerve impulses to various organs  Key action: increasing the heart rate, increasing blood pressure, expanding air passages of the lungs, etc.  Norepinephrine  Has the role of a neurotransmitter and a hormone  Also referred as a stress hormone  The neurotransmitter released from the sympathetic neurons to affect the heart  Increase in heart rate, glucose release, and breathing rate  It also helps us think clearer by increasing the amount of oxygen going to our brain


6 Diseases related to the Adrenal Glands  With adrenal gland (or suprarenal) disorders, your glands make too much or not enough hormones.  Causes  Genetic mutations  Tumors  Infections  A problem in another gland, such as the pituitary, which helps to regulate the adrenal gland  Adverse reaction to medication

7 Addison’s Disease  Hypo secretion of the adrenal cortices  results from damage to the adrenal cortex  this causes the cortex to produce hormone levels that are too low  insufficient production of cortisol and aldosterone

8 Causes and Symptoms of Addison’s Disease  destruction of the adrenal glands by infection  an autoimmune attackautoimmune  an inherited mutation in the ACTH receptor on adrenal cells  Symptoms include weakness of the muscles and constant fatigue, loss of appetite leading to weight loss, nausea, vomiting and a fall in blood pressure  With hormone, or replacement therapy with glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids, most people with Addison disease are able to lead a normal life

9 Cushing’s Disease  -excessive production of glucocorticoids  -cortisol levels are too high  -high hormone levels  -disfiguration of the body Causes and Symptoms -excessive production of ACTH by the anterior lobe of the pituitary -excessive production by the adrenals themselves (e.g., because of a tumor) -result of glucocorticoid therapy for some other disorder such as -Rheumatoid arthritis or -preventing the rejection of an organ transplant Cure -Removal of tumor -Steroid drugs

10 Fun Facts  The adrenal gland is responsible for human’s fight or flight response.  The adrenal gland changes in size throughout a person’s life.  Prior to birth, the glands are the size of the kidneys, but shrink once the baby is born.  When a person reaches old age, the glands are so small they can hardly be seen.

11 Concept Check Questions  What are the two parts of the adrenal gland? What are the functions of each? Adrenal Medulla- produces hormones such as adrenaline Adrenal Cortex- produces hormones such as cortisol  What is another name for epinephrine and what action does this hormone perform? Adrenaline- Increases heart rate, increases blood pressure, expands air passages of the lungs  Name two adrenal gland hormones. Give a similarity and a difference between the two. Cortisol- produced in zona fasciculata Aldosterone- produced in zona glomerulosa Both are steroid hormones

12 Works Cited  "Aldosterone." You & Your Hormones. Society for Endocrinology, n.d. Web. 13 Mar. 2015..  Sargis, Robert M. "An Overview of the Adrenal Glands." Endocrine Web. Vertical Health, n.d. Web. 13 Mar. 2015..  Shmaefsky, Brian R. Applied Anatomy & Physiology. St. Paul: Paradigm, 2007. Print.

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