Presentation on theme: "Melanie McGovern Anthony Totera Jaylin Martinez Period 5"— Presentation transcript:
1 Melanie McGovern Anthony Totera Jaylin Martinez Period 5 Adrenal GlandMelanie McGovernAnthony ToteraJaylin MartinezPeriod 5
2 What Is the Endocrine System The Endocrine System influences almost every cell, organ, and function of our bodies.The endocrine system is instrumental in regulating mood, growth and development, tissue function, metabolism, and sexual function and reproductive processes.It is in charge of body processes that happen slowly, such as cell growth.The nervous system works with the endocrine system to help the body function properly.The hormones and glands are the foundations of the endocrine system.The major glands that make up the human endocrine system include the:hypothalamuspituitary glandthyroidparathyroidsadrenal glandspineal bodyreproductive glands (which include the ovaries and testes)pancreas
4 Adrenal Gland Location The adrenal glands are located in the retroperitoneum superior to the kidneys, they are quadrilateral in shape and are situated bilaterally.
5 Adrenal Glands Role/ Function The adrenal glands are small organs that rest on top of each kidney.They play an important role in the body, producing numerous hormones that impact our development and growth, affect our ability to deal with stress, and help to regulate kidney function.It is comprised of two parts, the cortex and the medulla.The medulla, which is the inner part of the adrenal glands, produces the hormones norepinephrine and epinephrine, which regulates the body's reaction to stressful events.The cortex, which is the outer part of the adrenal glands, produces several hormones that affect blood pressure and blood sugar levels, growth, and also some sexual characteristics.Adrenal Glands AnimationAdrenal Glands Role/ Function
6 Hormones secreted by Adrenal Gland Epinephrine (adrenaline)Norepinephrine (non adrenaline)GlucocorticoidsHormones secreted by Adrenal Gland
7 Epinephrine “Fight or Flight” Hormone Adrenaline It is being constantly produced but in times of danger, excitement, or stress the adrenal gland produces much moreEffects on the body:Increased physical strengthGreater energyHeart is stimulatedRaised blood pressureConstricts blood vesselsReleases sugar in the liverRelaxes involuntary muscles while contracting others
8 Norepinephrine “Fight or Flight” Hormone Non Adrenaline This hormone balances Epinephrine. It is also produced during times of danger, excitement, or stress but its job is to get the body back to regular conditions.Effects:Increases blood pressureStimulates respirationDecreases heart rateConstricts blood vessels in skin, muscles, and the peripheral nervous systemDecreases stimulation in airways and lungs
9 Glucocorticoids “Stress Hormones” Hydrocortisone (also known as, cortisol or cortisone) is the most abundant formBest known for providing energy during physical or emotional stress (like while fighting illnesses or when your safety is threatened).Effects:Releases sugar glucoseConverts sugar, fat, and protein into usable energySuppresses immune responsesSpeeds up metabolism
10 Disease 1: Cushing’s Syndrome A hormonal disorder that is caused by over exposure to too much cortisol (a hormone that the adrenal gland creates).Symptoms:Upper body obesityThin arms and legsSevere fatigue and muscle weaknessHigh blood pressureHigh blood sugarEasy bruisingStretch marksAcneBone lossThis is diagnosed by your doctorcompleting a physical exam and ablood or urine or saliva testDepending on what caused the disease it can be treated by reducing corticosteroid use, surgery, radiation therapy, or medications.
11 Disease 2: Addison’s Disease This disease is caused when the adrenal gland doesn’t produce enough cortisol or aldosterone.Symptoms:Muscle weakness and fatigueWeight loss and decreased appetiteHyperpigmentationLow blood pressure, even faintingSalt cravingLow blood sugar (hypoglycemia)Nausea, diarrhea or vomitingMuscle or joint painsIrritabilityDepressionBody hair loss or sexual dysfunction in womenThis can be diagnosed by a blood test, ACTH stimulation test, imaging test, or a hypoglycemia test.The disease can be treated by oral corticosteroids, corticosteroid injections, or androgen replacement therapy.
12 Interesting facts about the Adrenal Gland There are 2 Adrenal glands that sit on top of both of the kidneys. They are orange and triangular shaped. The Adrenal gland is about a ½ inch high and 3 inches long. Each of the glands release hormones and do different jobs.Tumors of the pituitary gland (located in the brain) cause problems in the adrenal glandHave been referred to as the kidney’s hat because of their location and appearanceInteresting facts about the Adrenal Gland
13 The Free Dictionary. Farlex, n. d. Web. 11 Mar. 2013 The Free Dictionary. Farlex, n.d. Web. 11 Mar < dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/norepinephrine>.Kids Health. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Mar < /endocrine.html>.Mayo Clinic. N.p., 11 Mar Web. 11 Mar < ndex>.Medical Discoveries. N.p., 3 Oct Web. 11 Mar < Ho/Epinephrine.html>.Thompson, Gale. Human Anatomy and Physiology. N.p.: n.p., Print.Bibliography
14 Concept Check Questions Which organ are the Adrenal Glands located closest to?The BrainThe KidneysThe LungsThe PancreasWhat are the two parts of the Adrenal Gland?The cortex and medullaThe inner and outerThe epimysium and perimysiumThe later and medial
15 Concept Check Questions What are the two parts of the Adrenal Gland?The cortex and medullaThe inner and outerThe epimysium and perimysiumThe later and medialWhat are the hormones secreted by the Adrenal Gland? Explain what each of the hormones do.Which of the following is NOT a disease caused by the adrenal gland?Cushing’s SyndromeAddison’s DiseaseBarlow’s SyndromeHypoglcemiaWhat are the hormones secreted by the Adrenal Gland ? Explain what each of the hormones do .Concept Check Questions