2 OVERVIEW INTRODUCTION CRM HISTORY CRM HISTORY CRM PROGRAM CRM PROGRAM SEVEN SKILLS OVERVIEW SEVEN SKILLS OVERVIEW SEVEN SKILLS EXPANDED SEVEN SKILLS EXPANDED PRESENTATION TECHNIQUES PRESENTATION TECHNIQUES REVIEW SUMMARY
PRIVILEGED 3 For Official Use Only This brief contains privileged, limited-use, limited- distribution information. unauthorized disclosure of the information in this brief or its supporting enclosures by military personnel is a criminal offense punishable under article 92, uniform code of military justice. unauthorized disclosure of the information in this report or its supporting enclosures by civilian personnel will subject them to disciplinary action under civilian personnel instruction 752.
4 Rules of Engagement Your active participation –What experiences you have had –What potential incidents you have avoided –What importance you place on CRM Your ResponsibilityApplication of CRM skills is … Your Responsibility Learn from others’ mistakes, because you’re not going to live long enough to make all of them yourself. —Roger Coleman, Lead CRM Developer, AAL
Why CRM? To IMPROVE MISSION EFFECTIVENESS of Naval Aviation communities –minimizing crew preventable errors –by enhancing crew coordination –through increased awareness of associated behavioral skills 5
6 Aviation is Inherently Dangerous There will always be something or somebody out there trying to kill you...
7 CRM History In 1977, CRM was adopted by civil operators to improve safety. Four skills were identified as critical: –Decision making –Command –Leadership –Communication
8 CRM History In 1987, the NAVY researched CRM for adoption into its aviation programs. The study noted similarities and some significant differences between civilian and military operations.
9 CRM History Age Experience Military Rank Mission Objectives/ Requirements Crew Duties Centralized Training Differences Among Military Personnel / Operations
10 CRM History In 1989, the Naval Air Warfare Center began R&D on a program to apply CRM to tactical operations. Research identified seven behavioral skills most common in Naval Aviation. –Communication –Leadership –Adaptability/Flexibility –Situational Awareness –Decision Making –Assertiveness –Mission Analysis
11 CRM History In 1991, the Naval Safety Center found human error was significant in 50% of all Class “A” mishaps. In 1993, “Interim” Aircrew Coordination Training (ACT) was implemented. In 1995, OPNAVINST 1542.7A established “Integrated” ACT milestone.
12 CRM History In 1998, OPNAVINST 1542.7B established Aircrew Coordination Training (ACT) academic requirements/ flight evaluation. In 2001, OPNAVINST 1542.7C changed the ACT program’s name to Crew Resource Management (CRM).
13 Mishap History “Human beings by their very nature make mistakes; therefore, it’s unreasonable to expect error-free human performance” —Shappell & Wiegmann, 1997
14 For the past three decades commercial aviation, the federal government, and more recently the military have expended substantial resources in determining the cause of mishaps. Information recovered from cockpit voice recorders, SIRs, HAZREPS, and civilian mishap reports indicate the number one cause is Human Error Human Error Background
15 CRM History –Mission Specific –Based on Knowledge, Behaviors and Skills –Integrated into Training –Research Supported –Developed by Aircrews for Aircrews –Incorporates Existing Knowledge Base –Conforms to Instructional Strategies CRM is:
16 CRM Future in Navy/ USMC Continued integration of CRM concepts into procedures and NATOPS Specific CRM simulator training Computer Aided Debriefing Systems More focus on individual error prevention/mitigation Alignment with ICAO standards Data collection and trend analysis Automation CRM application to other fields
17 CRM History –1977—Civilian Operators adopt CRM –1993–1995—Naval Aviation adopts “Interim” ACT/CRM –FY-05-09—Human Error accounts for 85% of Naval Aviation Class A Mishaps –CRM Program to be T/M-specific and based 7 Skills Summary
19 CRM Program Purpose of CRM Chain of Command Unit-Level Responsibilities CRM Training Requirements
20 Purpose of CRM To IMPROVE MISSION EFFECTIVENESS of Naval Aviation communities –by enhancing crew coordination –through increased awareness of associated behavioral skills
21 Purpose of CNAFINST 1542.7 Series To establish policies, responsibilities and procedures for administration of the Crew Resource Management (CRM) program –Establishes CRM content –Defines conduct/type of training –Delineates documentation requirements –Assigns CRM responsibilities
22 Chain of Command Controlling Custodians NASC Pensacola IMM Curriculum Model Manager (CO) Program ManagerCRM InstructorsCRM Facilitators CNAF TRAINING POLICY OPNAV N88
23 Curriculum Model Manager (CMM) CO of a model manager squadron (VAW-120) CRM training program for T/M/S Correct number of CRM-I and CRM-F Coordinate with T/M NATOPS Model Manager Sets focus for the community
24 CRM Program Manager (PM) A CRM-I designated by the CMM Currently: LT HAWKE T/M/S SME and fleet POC Develop aircraft-specific integrated CRM programs Ensure curriculum current and relevant Provide CRM materials to the IMMs
25 CRM Instructor (CRM-I) Train new CRM facilitators Conduct annual training and check rides Assist PM in distribution and standardization of CRM materials
26 CRM Facilitator (CRM-F) Conduct and document annual CRM training Submit changes (NATOPS, 1542) Feedback to Program Manager Check rides All FRS Pilot and Aircrew Instructors are made Facilitators as part of the IUT Syllabus/Check In.
27 Instructor vs. Facilitator NATOPS Qualified O-3/E-5 or above Graduate of both the NASC IMM CRM Instructor’s Course AND the Curriculum Program Manager’s CRM Facilitator Course Designated in writing by the Type/Model Curriculum Model Manager Qualified to train CRM Facilitators Curriculum Model Manager establishes minimum experience level requirements Graduate of Curriculum Program Manager’s CRM Facilitator Course (T/M specific) Designated in writing by the unit CO Qualified to conduct CRM initial and refresher training
28 Unit-Level Responsibilities Facilitate integrated CRM training program Conduct annual CRM training IAW OPNAVINST 3710.7/ CNAF 1542.7 Provide feedback to the CRM Model Manager (VAW-120)
29 CRM training shall be conducted by a designated instructor or facilitator CRM Ground Training INITIAL Shall occur during undergraduate aviation training and during all fleet replacement/ initial training leading to T/M aircrew designationREFRESHER Shall occur annually while in a flight billet Specific CRM qualification is required for operation of each aircraft T/M/S.
30 CRM Ground Training CRM Principles and Seven Critical CRM Skills Topics Of Concern / Recent Trends T/M-Specific Case Study/ Scenario Open and Frank Discussion on Current State of CRM Must use PowerPoint developed by CRM Model Manager. Annual Ground Training Requirements COMNAVAIRFORINST 1542.7A, PARA. 7-D
Annual CRM Flight Evaluation Annual Requirement –May be accomplished within 60 days of expiration without rebasing. –Typically done with NATOPS check. CRM-I or CRM-F Required May Be Completed In Simulator 31
32 Must be entered into NATOPS Jacket Section II, Part C Utilize CNAFINST 1542.7 encl. 3 NATOPS Check Paperwork Shall State “Conducted CRM flight evaluation per CNAFINST 1542.7A.”NATOPS Check Paperwork Shall State “Conducted CRM flight evaluation per CNAFINST 1542.7A.” Training Documentation
33 Training Documentation COs may grant extensions for deployed aircrew whose CRM training will expire. Extensions shall not exceed 90 days after return from deployment. Document all extensions in NATOPS jacket. REBASE YOUR DETS! DON’T PLAN ON EXTENSIONS. Extensions
34 Training Documentation “Personnel who fail to meet CRM requirements without a written extension shall not serve as aircrew members.”
35 CRM Program Purpose of CRM Program Chain of Command Unit-Level Responsibilities Training Policies Qualifications/Evaluation Extensions Summary
37 Seven Critical CRM Skills CRM skills are necessary because errors repeat even with new technology!
38 Decision Making Assertiveness Mission Analysis Communication Leadership Adaptability/Flexibility Situational Awareness Seven Critical CRM Skills DAM CLAS
How do you define Decision Making? 39 Decision Making Definition: The ability to choose a course of action using logical and sound judgment based on available information. Definition: The ability to choose a course of action using logical and sound judgment based on available information.
40 Decision Making Question: How do hazardous attitudes affect decision making? Negative Effect: Peer pressurePeer pressure Mind setMind set “Get home-itis”“Get home-itis” Getting behind the aircraftGetting behind the aircraft
41 Decision Making in the C-2A C-2 Capabilities vs. Air Wing Desires Detailed Preflight Planning vs. “Canned Route” Attitude Any member of a Detachment can end up being put in a position where they need to speak for the OIC
What is Assertiveness? 42 Assertiveness Definition: The willingness/readiness to actively participate, state and maintain a position until convinced by the facts that other options are better. Definition: The willingness/readiness to actively participate, state and maintain a position until convinced by the facts that other options are better.
43 Assertiveness Question: When is it appropriate to be assertive? Speak up when you encounter: Unclear mission objectivesUnclear mission objectives Overly aggressive or passive crewmembersOverly aggressive or passive crewmembers Conflict in the aircraftConflict in the aircraft Issues not addressed in the debriefIssues not addressed in the debrief Whenever your comfort level is exceeded… SPEAK UP !
44 Assertiveness in the C-2A 3P vs Aircraft Commander Aircraft Commander vs Aircraft Commander 2P/2P Flights C-2 vs Air Wing/Air Boss/Flight Deck Handler
How do you define Mission Analysis? 45 Definition: The ability to develop short-term, long-term and contingency plans and to coordinate, allocate and monitor crew and aircraft resources. Definition: The ability to develop short-term, long-term and contingency plans and to coordinate, allocate and monitor crew and aircraft resources. Mission Analysis
46 Mission Analysis Question: What are three components of Mission Analysis? Planning and preparationPlanning and preparation Monitoring inflight mission progressMonitoring inflight mission progress Postflight debriefingPostflight debriefing
47 Mission Analysis in the C-2A How good is your Debrief?
What is Communication? 48 Communication Definition: The ability to clearly and accurately send and acknowledge information, instructions, or commands, and provide useful feedback. Definition: The ability to clearly and accurately send and acknowledge information, instructions, or commands, and provide useful feedback.
49 Communication Question: When can experience in flight be a barrier to communication? Less experience— Less likely to speak upLess experience— Less likely to speak up More experience— May resist change and the need to adaptMore experience— May resist change and the need to adapt
50 Communication in the C-2A Detachment personality dynamics Enlisted Aircrew/Pilot relationship Ship to Shore Communication
How do you define Leadership? 51 Leadership Definition: The ability to direct/coordinate the activities of other crewmembers or wingmen, and to encourage them to work together as a team. Definition: The ability to direct/coordinate the activities of other crewmembers or wingmen, and to encourage them to work together as a team.
52 Leadership Question: What are some leadership traits that inspire peak performance in a crew? DecisiveDecisive CompetentCompetent Keeping crew informedKeeping crew informed Open to suggestionsOpen to suggestions Leading by exampleLeading by example TrustTrust
53 Leadership in the C-2A C-2 Pilots have to grow up fast Any member of a Det can be cornered by CAG, Flag, etc Leadership challenges associated with being on perpetual “Port Call”
What is Adaptability/ Flexibility? 54 Adaptability/ Flexibility Definition: The ability to alter a course of action based on new information, maintain constructive behavior under pressure and adapt to internal/external environmental changes. Definition: The ability to alter a course of action based on new information, maintain constructive behavior under pressure and adapt to internal/external environmental changes.
55 Adaptability/ Flexibility Question: What are some situations that require Adaptability/ Flexibility? Routine becomes an emergencyRoutine becomes an emergency Inclement weatherInclement weather CV environmentCV environment Changing primary missionChanging primary mission
56 Adaptability/ Flexibility in the C-2A This is the C-2 skill Legs added to flight Destinations changed CV arrival intentions can vary/change last minute At mercy of DV sched Last minute PAX/Cargo Hazardous Cargo
What is Situational Awareness? 57 Situational Awareness Definition: The degree of accuracy by which one’s perception of the current environment mirrors reality. Definition: The degree of accuracy by which one’s perception of the current environment mirrors reality.
58 Situational Awareness Question: If good situational awareness means looking around at what’s happening, what else must be recognized? What led to the present situation?What led to the present situation? What will happen in the next 30 seconds, 10 minutes, etc?What will happen in the next 30 seconds, 10 minutes, etc? Crosschecking and communicationCrosschecking and communication
59 Situational Awareness in the C-2A 80% of Aircraft is behind you Who is in your plane? What is in your plane? What country clearances do you have? What does having PAX add to divert considerations?
Several polls have been conducted during the last decade, asking Americans what they fear the most. The number 1 response, which is above even death--by as much as a 2-1 margin is….. Adults #1 Fear…
Stage Fright “The human brain is a wonderful thing. It operates from the moment you’re born until the first time you get up to make a speech.” --Howard Goshorn
Principles of Communication Desire to communicate
Principles of Communication Desire to communicate Believe in what you say
Principles of Communication Desire to communicate Believe in what you say Know your subject
Principles of Communication Desire to communicate Believe in what you say Know your subject Know your audience
Principles of Communication Desire to communicate Believe in what you say Know your subject Know your audience Deliver with enthusiasm
Principles of Communication Desire to communicate Believe in what you say Know your subject Know your audience Deliver with enthusiasm Rehearse, Rehearse, Rehearse