3 PRIVILEGED For Official Use Only This brief contains privileged, limited-use, limited-distribution information. unauthorized disclosure of the information in this brief or its supporting enclosures by military personnel is a criminal offense punishable under article 92, uniform code of military justice. unauthorized disclosure of the information in this report or its supporting enclosures by civilian personnel will subject them to disciplinary action under civilian personnel instruction 752.
4 Rules of Engagement Your active participation What experiences you have hadWhat potential incidents you have avoidedWhat importance you place on CRMApplication of CRM skills is … Your ResponsibilityLearn from others’ mistakes, because you’re not going to live long enough to make all of them yourself.—Roger Coleman, Lead CRM Developer, AAL
6 Aviation is Inherently Dangerous There will always be something orsomebody out there trying to kill you...
7 CRM HistoryIn 1977, CRM was adopted by civil operators to improve safety.Four skills were identified as critical:Decision makingCommandLeadershipCommunicationThis slide introduces an overview and a history of CRM, emphasizing the role it continues to play in ensuring aircrew safety.
8 CRM HistoryIn 1987, the NAVY researched CRM for adoption into its aviation programs.The study noted similarities and some significant differences between civilian and military operations.After 10 years of apparent success within the civilian community, the military decided it was time to infuse CRM into their training programs.
9 Differences Among Military Personnel / Operations CRM HistoryDifferences Among Military Personnel / OperationsAgeExperienceMilitary RankMission Objectives/ RequirementsCrew DutiesCentralized TrainingThe challenge facing NAVAIR was to develop a CRM program that would address tactical aircraft operations. The differences between civil and military flight operations were numerous. The Navy CRM program was developed to address these differences and apply the training to military flight operations.
10 CRM HistoryIn 1989, the Naval Air Warfare Center began R&D on a program to apply CRM to tactical operations.Research identified seven behavioral skills most common in Naval Aviation.Decision MakingAssertivenessMission AnalysisCommunicationLeadershipAdaptability/FlexibilitySituational AwarenessThe Navy determined that accident rate reduction was needed. They had noted improvement in civil airline accident rates after the introduction of CRM into their training programs.
11 CRM HistoryIn 1991, the Naval Safety Center found human error was significant in 50% of all Class “A” mishaps.In 1993, “Interim” Aircrew Coordination Training (ACT) was implemented.In 1995, OPNAVINST A established “Integrated” ACT milestone.
12 CRM HistoryIn 1998, OPNAVINST B established Aircrew Coordination Training (ACT) academic requirements/ flight evaluation.In 2001, OPNAVINST C changed the ACT program’s name to Crew Resource Management (CRM).
13 Mishap History“Human beings by their very nature make mistakes; therefore, it’s unreasonable to expect error-free human performance”—Shappell & Wiegmann, 1997
14 Human Error Background For the past three decades commercial aviation, the federal government, and more recently the military have expended substantial resources in determining the cause of mishaps.Information recovered from cockpit voice recorders, SIRs, HAZREPS, and civilian mishap reports indicate the number one cause isHuman Error
15 CRM History CRM is: Mission Specific Based on Knowledge, Behaviors and SkillsIntegrated into TrainingResearch SupportedDeveloped by Aircrews for AircrewsIncorporates Existing Knowledge BaseConforms to Instructional Strategies
16 CRM Future in Navy/ USMC Continued integration of CRM concepts into procedures and NATOPSSpecific CRM simulator trainingComputer Aided Debriefing SystemsMore focus on individual error prevention/mitigationAlignment with ICAO standards Data collection and trend analysisAutomationCRM application to other fields
17 CRM History Summary 1977—Civilian Operators adopt CRM 1993–1995—Naval Aviation adopts “Interim” ACT/CRMFY-05-09—Human Error accounts for 85% of Naval Aviation Class A MishapsCRM Program to be T/M-specific and based 7 Skills
19 CRM Program Purpose of CRM Chain of Command Unit-Level ResponsibilitiesCRM Training Requirements
20 Purpose of CRMTo IMPROVE MISSION EFFECTIVENESS of Naval Aviation communitiesby enhancing crew coordinationthrough increased awareness of associated behavioral skills
21 Purpose of CNAFINST 1542.7 Series To establish policies, responsibilities and procedures for administration of the Crew Resource Management (CRM) programEstablishes CRM contentDefines conduct/type of trainingDelineates documentation requirementsAssigns CRM responsibilities
22 Controlling Custodians Curriculum Model Manager (CO) Chain of CommandOPNAV N88CNAF TRAINING POLICYNASC Pensacola IMMControlling Custodians1542.7C also delineates a change in the chain of command of responsibility for administering and implementing CRM. There is now a direct Marine Corps representative (CG MCCDC) in it. Also, CNO (N78) is now directly in charge.Curriculum Model Manager (CO)CRM InstructorsProgram ManagerCRM Facilitators
23 Curriculum Model Manager (CMM) CO of a model manager squadron (VAW-120)CRM training program for T/M/SCorrect number of CRM-I and CRM-FCoordinate with T/M NATOPS Model ManagerSets focus for the community
24 CRM Program Manager (PM) A CRM-I designated by the CMMCurrently: LT HAWKET/M/S SME and fleet POCDevelop aircraft-specific integrated CRM programsEnsure curriculum current and relevantProvide CRM materials to the IMMs
25 CRM Instructor (CRM-I) Train new CRM facilitatorsConduct annual training and check ridesAssist PM in distribution and standardization of CRM materials
26 CRM Facilitator (CRM-F) Conduct and document annual CRM trainingSubmit changes (NATOPS, 1542)Feedback to Program ManagerCheck ridesAll FRS Pilot and Aircrew Instructors are made Facilitators as part of the IUT Syllabus/Check In.
27 Instructor vs. Facilitator NATOPS Qualified O-3/E-5 or aboveGraduate of both the NASC IMM CRM Instructor’s Course AND the Curriculum Program Manager’s CRM Facilitator CourseDesignated in writing by the Type/Model Curriculum Model ManagerQualified to train CRM FacilitatorsCurriculum Model Manager establishes minimum experience level requirementsGraduate of Curriculum Program Manager’s CRM Facilitator Course (T/M specific)Designated in writing by the unit COQualified to conduct CRM initial and refresher training
28 Unit-Level Responsibilities Facilitate integrated CRM training programConduct annual CRM training IAW OPNAVINST / CNAFProvide feedback to the CRM Model Manager (VAW-120)
29 CRM Ground TrainingINITIALShall occur during undergraduate aviation training and during all fleet replacement/ initial training leading to T/M aircrew designationREFRESHERShall occur annually while in a flight billetSpecific CRM qualification is required for operation of each aircraft T/M/S.CRM training shall be conducted by a designated instructor or facilitator
30 CRM Ground Training Annual Ground Training Requirements COMNAVAIRFORINST A, PARA. 7-DCRM Principles and Seven Critical CRM SkillsTopics Of Concern / Recent TrendsT/M-Specific Case Study/ ScenarioOpen and Frank Discussion on Current State of CRMMust use PowerPoint developed by CRM Model Manager.
31 Annual CRM Flight Evaluation Annual RequirementMay be accomplished within 60 days of expiration without rebasing.Typically done with NATOPS check.CRM-I or CRM-F RequiredMay Be Completed In Simulator
32 Training Documentation Must be entered into NATOPS JacketSection II, Part CUtilize CNAFINST encl. 3NATOPS Check Paperwork Shall State “Conducted CRM flight evaluation per CNAFINST A.”
33 Training Documentation ExtensionsCOs may grant extensions for deployed aircrew whose CRM training will expire.Extensions shall not exceed 90 days after return from deployment.Document all extensions in NATOPS jacket.REBASE YOUR DETS! DON’T PLAN ON EXTENSIONS.
34 Training Documentation You’re going to be grounded if you don’t comply.“Personnel who fail to meet CRM requirements without a written extension shall not serve as aircrew members.”
35 CRM Program Summary Purpose of CRM Program Chain of Command Unit-Level ResponsibilitiesTraining PoliciesQualifications/EvaluationExtensionsIn summary, CRM is not just another Navy/Marine program, but like an exercise regimen, CRM develops the skills for successful and safe flight missions.
37 Seven Critical CRM Skills CRM skills are necessary because errors repeat even with new technology!
38 Seven Critical CRM Skills DAM CLASDecision MakingAssertivenessMission AnalysisCommunicationLeadershipAdaptability/FlexibilitySituational Awareness
39 Decision Making How do you define Decision Making? Definition: The ability to choose a course of action using logical and sound judgment based on available information.How do you define Decision Making?39
40 Decision MakingQuestion: How do hazardous attitudes affect decision making?Negative Effect:Peer pressureMind set“Get home-itis”Getting behind the aircraft
41 Decision Making in the C-2A C-2 Capabilities vs. Air Wing DesiresDetailed Preflight Planning vs. “Canned Route” AttitudeAny member of a Detachment can end up being put in a position where they need to speak for the OIC
42 Assertiveness What is Assertiveness? Definition: The willingness/readiness to actively participate, state and maintain a position until convinced by the facts that other options are better.What is Assertiveness?42
43 Whenever your comfort level is exceeded… AssertivenessQuestion: When is it appropriate to be assertive?Speak up when you encounter:Unclear mission objectivesOverly aggressive or passive crewmembersConflict in the aircraftIssues not addressed in the debriefWhenever your comfort level is exceeded…SPEAK UP !
44 Assertiveness in the C-2A 3P vs Aircraft CommanderAircraft Commander vs Aircraft Commander2P/2P FlightsC-2 vs Air Wing/Air Boss/Flight Deck Handler
45 Mission Analysis How do you define Mission Analysis? Definition: The ability to develop short-term, long-term and contingency plans and to coordinate, allocate and monitor crew and aircraft resources.How do you define Mission Analysis?45
46 Mission AnalysisQuestion: What are three components of Mission Analysis?Planning and preparationMonitoring inflight mission progressPostflight debriefing
47 Mission Analysis in the C-2A How good is your Debrief?
48 Communication What is Communication? Definition: The ability to clearly and accurately send and acknowledge information, instructions, or commands, and provide useful feedback.What is Communication?48
49 CommunicationQuestion: When can experience in flight be a barrier to communication?Less experience— Less likely to speak upMore experience— May resist change and the need to adapt
50 Communication in the C-2A Detachment personality dynamicsEnlisted Aircrew/Pilot relationshipShip to Shore Communication
51 Leadership How do you define Leadership? Definition: The ability to direct/coordinate the activities of other crewmembers or wingmen, and to encourage them to work together as a team.How do you define Leadership?51
52 LeadershipQuestion: What are some leadership traits that inspire peak performance in a crew?DecisiveCompetentKeeping crew informedOpen to suggestionsLeading by exampleTrust
53 Leadership in the C-2A C-2 Pilots have to grow up fast Any member of a Det can be cornered by CAG, Flag, etcLeadership challenges associated with being on perpetual “Port Call”
54 Adaptability/ Flexibility Definition:The ability to alter a course of action based on new information, maintain constructive behavior under pressure and adapt to internal/external environmental changes.What is Adaptability/ Flexibility?54
55 Adaptability/ Flexibility Question: What are some situations that require Adaptability/ Flexibility?Routine becomes an emergencyInclement weatherCV environmentChanging primary mission
56 Adaptability/ Flexibility in the C-2A This is the C-2 skillLegs added to flightDestinations changedCV arrival intentions can vary/change last minuteAt mercy of DV schedLast minute PAX/CargoHazardous Cargo
57 Situational Awareness Definition:The degree of accuracy by which one’s perception of the current environment mirrors reality.What is Situational Awareness??57
58 Situational Awareness Question: If good situational awareness means looking around at what’s happening, what else must be recognized?What led to the present situation?What will happen in the next 30 seconds, 10 minutes, etc?Crosschecking and communication
59 Situational Awareness in the C-2A 80% of Aircraft is behind youWho is in your plane?What is in your plane?What country clearances do you have?What does having PAX add to divert considerations?
61 Adults #1 Fear… PUBLIC SPEAKING Several polls have been conducted during the last decade, asking Americans what they fear the most.The number 1 response, which is above even death--by as much as a 2-1 margin is…..Several polls have been conducted during the last decade, asking Americans what they fear the most.The number 1 response, which is above even death--by as much as a 2-1 margin is…..PUBLIC SPEAKING
62 Stage Fright“The human brain is a wonderful thing. It operates from the moment you’re born until the first time you get up to make a speech.”--Howard Goshorn
63 Principles of Communication Desire to communicateb. You have to have the desire to communicate.(If you do not feel comfortable in front of a group or do not want to be an instructor then you will not do well in that role.)
64 Principles of Communication Desire to communicateBelieve in what you sayc. You have to believe in what you say. Your audience will know the difference.Believing in what you say is crucial to delivering an effective message.You can not teach convincingly or brief a plan effectively if you don’t believe wholeheartedly in what you say.Take President Bush’s speech after 9/11 for example:You could tell that he really believed in what he was sayingHe was very genuine and convincingEven though the had speech writers that did most or all of the writing, you could really tell that he believed in what he was saying
65 Principles of Communication Desire to communicateBelieve in what you sayKnow your subjectd. You have to know your subject.(As instructors it is imperative that we are intimately familiar with our subject.)(Keep in mind that you will very rarely fool your audience. Trying to pull the wool over your audience’s eyes will most likely cause you to lose all credibility is an instructor.)
66 Principles of Communication Desire to communicateBelieve in what you sayKnow your subjectKnow your audienceDON’T PLAY THE CLIP RIGHT AWAY!!Knowing your audience can play in important role in getting your message across.We have all sat through classes that have either insulted our intelligence or lost us after the introduction.Knowing your audience and tailoring your class to meet their needs will accomplish two things. The first is that it will prevent information from being misunderstood because of a lack of knowledge. Second, it will minimize the wasting time on information that is already known.NOW, PLAY THE CLIP!What was wrong with that clip?Obviously, these guys didn’t really know their audience.Violence.Language.Displays an abuse of power.Etc.You must know your audience!
67 Principles of Communication Desire to communicateBelieve in what you sayKnow your subjectKnow your audienceDeliver with enthusiasmWe all know that enthusiasm is contagious.If the instructor is bored with the information or presents it in a dry way then the audience will have a difficult time remaining interested.On the other hand, if the instructor is even the least bit excited or animated about the subject then the audience will probably remain alert.Senses dull things out, tune things out.
68 Principles of Communication Desire to communicateBelieve in what you sayKnow your subjectKnow your audienceDeliver with enthusiasmRehearse, Rehearse, RehearseThe bottom line on rehearsing is that if you do not do it, your presentation will very likely be poor.
69 Instructing vs. Teaching When discussing the differences between teaching and instructing you need to look at what the desired effect is.2 different things with 2 different desired effects.
70 Interactive Process…Relationships…Thinking normally involves a great deal of participation by the instructor and very little by the audienceINSTRUCTING1 v ManyInstructing is very formal. The one vs. many fight.It normally involves a great deal of participation by the instructor and very little by the audience. The formal definition of instructing is to provide with authoritative information or advice, or an order or command from one individual to another. Most lectures are periods of instruction. Very structured--a lot of the way we pass info. in the military.Teaching on the other hand connotes a process.It has more of a one vs. one relationship.The goal of teaching is to encourage or require the student to think.It is interactive and challenges the students to debate the issues and develop the answers on their own.Teaching is more difficult because the teacher must find a way for the student to learn.TEACHING1 v 1Interactive Process…Relationships…Thinking
71 3 Basic Questions Audience - Who am I teaching? Material - What do they need to know?Instructor - How am I going to present it?It boils down to three basic questions:1) Who am I teaching?2) What do they need to know?3) How am I going to present the information?We’ll talk about each of these now.
72 Audience Analysis Motivation Interest Familiarity Capability Some factors to help you identify these limits are:1) Determine the motivation of the audience. Find out why they are in the audience.2) What is their interest in the subject?3) Determine how familiar they are with the subject and how familiar they need to be by the end of the course.4) Determine the capability of the audience to understand and grasp the information.Relate to developing the presentation as well as analyzing during the presentation.
73 Know the Material Read Everything Talk to experts – SME’s Write Things DownIt starts by reading everything you can about the subject.Additionally, talking to recognized experts on the subject can be beneficial to gaining insight to the subject.Writing down the important points you want to remember is always a good idea.
74 "The mind can only absorb what the butt can endure.“ Brief FatigueRemember..."The mind can only absorbwhat the butt can endure.“Remember, the mind can only absorb what the but can endure.If you have a tremendous amount of information that needs to be presented break it into usable bites for your audience.
75 Presentation Techniques Complete MemorizationPartial MemorizationApproximate MemorizationOnce we have completed putting together our presentation it is now time to decide how to present it.There are several methods that one can use. They are Complete Memorization, Partial Memorization and Approximate Memorization.There are benefits and shortfall associated with each method.Try to find the one that supports the material you are covering and suites your teaching style.Complete memorization: word for word. Good in that it may erase anxiety for the nervous. It is impressive, but it has its drawbacks. If you are interrupted or miss a word, it may mess up your flow, after which you may lose your place and have to run back through the info in your head to get back on track.Partial Memorization: You deliver, verbatim, selected parts of the presentation. This could be the intro, or the first sentence of each paragraph, or maybe quotes. This is better than memorization especially when accuracy is important on key parts of your presentation.Last is approximate memorization.
76 Notes Note Cards (3X5) Sheets of Paper Power Point Notes Pages Fold-overDepending on the time one has to prepare and the volume of information the instructor may need notes to help them through the presentation. Here are some techniques that can be used to help with the coordination of speaker notes.Note Cards: Use 3x5 cards and put only one point or idea on each card. Attach the cards together and number them to make it easy to keep your place.Paper: This method has all the information written out for the instructor to read.Fold-over: This method takes on piece of paper and folds it down the middle. The instructor can then write notes on each section.Overhead Margins: If overheads are used, attach a border around them so you can make notes on this border.
77 Notes Note Cards (3X5) Sheets of Paper Power Point Notes Pages Fold-overMAKE IT WORK FOR YOU, NOT AGAINST YOU…Those are a few techniques. Bottom line, no right or wrong answer to this one: if you use notes, pick a technique that will work for you.THERE IS NO SUBSTITUTE FOR PREPARATION AND REHEARSAL
78 Communicating the Message 7% Verbal Content55% Visual Stimulation38% Tone of VoiceResearch has proven that long term retention and learning is influenced by 3 factors.These factors are verbal content, visual stimulation and tone of voice.The amount they contribute is 7%, 55%, and 38% respectively.Use of hands helps with voice intonation and inflection. Hand movement actually modulates how the air moves through the larynx.Standing stiff, or grasping for life on the podium will make it difficult to use voice inflection. If you ever see someone bolted to the podium, they usually give a lousy brief.
79 Maximizing Verbal Impact Create a Mental ImageRelate Relevant IdeasBe ImaginativeIn your own wordsAlthough verbal content accounts for only a small amount of retention there are ways to maximize this small percentage. One way is to create a mental image.When discussing a point try to relate a relevant idea, use imagination in your application and put things in your own words.For complex or highly technical points, try and give your example in laymen’s terms.All these techniques can help increase the learning from the verbal content..Simplify Complex Conceptsand Ideas
80 Delivering Presentations When the time comes to actually present the class there are some common pit falls that should to be avoided.
81 Delivering Presentations Public Speaking is a Combination of… - Presentation Content (Material) and - ShowmanshipYou need to be able to deliver the material that you spent so much time to compile.This is basically a two step process:Preparation:This is where your preparation is going to payoff. If you’ve done your homework, and got the best information you have half of the fight won. If you did a rush job developing your presentation, and are not sure about the accuracy, or depth you may not be able to give a convincing face to your audience. Remember, your audience will be able to tell if you are comfortable in front of them. So ensure you did a good job compiling your information so you’re confident in the material presented.Showmanship:This is where you have to be able to read the audience, and see what type of delivery style will be appropriate.
82 Delivering Presentations ENTERTAINING IS EFFECTIVE but….Remember, although telling jokes and entertaining your audience can be an effective teaching technique, it is not required.The only thing required of an instructor is to present the information in a professional way.It is also incumbent on the audience to be professional and stay awake for the class.If you have a good sense of humor use it, if you do not then don’t.IT IS NOT REQUIRED
83 NEVER APOLOGIZE ! Your audience will be very distracted and few people can rejuvenate anatmosphere littered withself-proclaimed weaknessNever apologize to your audience for the material or presentation techniques.When the time comes, present the information to the best of your ability.If you goon something up, the audience will know it, and apologizing will only worsen the situation.If the class does not go well, make the adjustment the next time around.
84 APPEARANCE AND BODY LANGUAGE As mentioned earlier, people receive a great deal of information through visual stimulation.A person’s appearance and body language will send a strong message to the audience.We know this to especially be so in the military.
85 Body Language The Hands When teaching a class there are some telltale signs of how comfortable an instructor feels in front of a group.One of these signs maybe the instructors hands.A nervous person will often lose control of his hands and they will shake continuously.This a natural reaction and there is not much a person can do.If you know this is a weakness of yours then try to disguise it as best a possible.Do not hold things that will rattle, try folding your hands or arms to give them stability or simply keep them out of sight.One can keep them out of sight by placing them behind you or standing behind a podium.Obviously in the military we do not want to place our hands in our pockets so try to avoid this technique.Arms folded or on hips occasionally is okay.Besides being nervous there are other ways that a persons hands maybe distracting to an audience.Some people like to wave their hands when they talk.Although there is nothing wrong with this try to avoid some common pit falls.Never wave your hands near someone.Try to avoid pointing directly at people in your audience as this may offend some people.
86 Body Language The Hands Props Props are another item that can be very annoying to an audience.The key to effectively using props is to only use them for what they are intended for.Pointers can be one of the biggest offenders. When using a pointer it should only be in the instructor’s hands when pointing out an object. All other times it should be stored in a secure place. If the instructor is caring it around all class, point at everything with it or swinging it like a golf club then people will be focused on his stick work not the class material.The same is true for laser pointers. Be careful not to aim a laser pointer at anyone in the audience. Eye safe or not, people get nervous when laser pointers are directed their way.
87 Body Language The Hands Props Movement / Eye Contact When trying to discuss a person’s movement in front of a group one can be reminded of basic training.During basic training one of the goals is to teach future Marines how to march. The environment is so stressful and the group is trying so hard to march correctly that some members forget the basics of walking. Focusing so much on stepping in time they forget to swing their arms. In trying to script their movements they look rigid and unnatural.The same happens when trying to script your movements in front of a group: the results often look unnatural. If your are comfortable standing behind the podium or in one place, then that is what you should do. Regardless of the amount you move on stage, you should always try to establish eye contact with your audience. One who is constantly looking at the board or at the ground will not be able to monitor the audience or get the feedback required.
88 Body Language The Hands PropsMovement /Eye ContactAll amount to the audience’s initial assessment of you, and their continued re-assessment of what you're sayingAll these points add up to one thing, the more the instructor does to distract the audience the less chance his entire message will be received in its entirety.
89 Use of the Voice Quality Intelligibility Variety Once rid of all the distracting bad habits an instructor can then focus on improving the qualities of their voice.A good voice has three important characteristics. It is reasonably pleasant, easy to understand and can express differences in meaning.Dr. John A. Kline of Air University refers to these properties as quality, intelligibility and variety.Quality is the hardest aspect of your voice to control. If you consider your voice extremely irritating, you have the ability to retrain it. A good reference for altering characteristics of your voice is 7 Steps to Fearless Speaking, by Lilyan Wilder.Your articulation, pronunciation, vocalization and choice of words affect intelligibility of your speech. Speak carefully, not slowly, intentionally avoiding poor grammar and stock expressions such as OK, like, you know and all right.Variety is the conscious avoidance of monotone delivery.Speaking 100 to 180 words per minute is the norm, but you should vary that considerably to stress particularly lucid points.Changing pitch to be illustrative or humorous is effective but take care to avoid over use.Monotone is like a bad persistent smell.
90 Dealing With A Distracting Audience The ClownThe Know-it-allThe DistractedThe clown just wants to be the center of attention.This person doesn’t care about learning, they don’t want to be in your class, so they want to give you pain for making them stay.The springbutt. They’re always out there. They’re not asking or answering questions for the good of the class. They’re out there to prove how smart they are.You can use this to your advantage by digging deeper into there question and opening it up the room, but never loose control.When his or her questions are starting to go down a road that’s not supporting your subject, you must take action.
91 Who are these People? …People who show the following signs. No Eye ContactCleaning FingernailsLooking Out the WindowReading or TalkingSleeping / DroolingUp to this point we have been discussing ways to not distract your audience and we have done it! The audience is inspired and ready to listen to every word of the dynamic presentation.The question is, how do you continue to keep them entertained?The first thing you need to do is monitor the audience. There are obvious signs of boredom. It could be no eye contact, looking out the window or any number of things. Be attentive to these signs and learn to deal with them.As an instructor, try to have a trick up your sleeve that can break up the monotony or recapture the audience’s attention.
92 Close Combat # 1 - Ignore or Dismiss First, try to ignore the culprit and maybe the spring butt will will go away.If a person is sleeping just accept the fact that some people will nod off during a presentation.As long as the offender doesn’t snore too loud, you can continue with the class.
93 # 2 - Subtle Confrontation Close Combat# 1 - Ignore or Dismiss# 2 - Subtle ConfrontationIf ignoring does not work, you may have to go to slight, subtle confrontation: Next slide
94 # 2 - Subtle Confrontation Close Combat# 1 - Ignore or Dismiss# 2 - Subtle ConfrontationGet Physically CloseGet close to the person. Continue to ignore him, but get close and keep on talking as if he doesn’t exist. This may send the message that I know that you are messing with me, but you aren’t important enough for me to deal with yet.Ask the person politely to hold his questions until the end or to see you after class and you will answer all his questions.Sometimes, if you move close and stand near the person disrupting the class or sleeping they will get the idea.
95 # 2 - Subtle Confrontation Close Combat# 1 - Ignore or Dismiss# 2 - Subtle ConfrontationGet Physically CloseMake Eye ContactIf that does not work, make eye contact.Stare them straight in the eye and talk directly to them.You will be surprised how uncomfortable some people get when you look them right in the eye.And if that does not work say….
97 Redirect your attention towards the audience Close Combat# 1 - Ignore or Dismiss# 2 - Subtle ConfrontationGet Physically CloseMake Eye ContactSAY "STOP!"Redirect your attention towards the audienceKnowing that your message was received redirect your attention to the audience and to the topic at hand.
98 "Never argue with an idiot; people watching may not be able to tell the difference" --UnknownNo matter what the situation, avoid arguing with a member of the audience. Be receptive to others opinions, but do not give control of the conversation to them. If a person has an issue that they need to debate offer to discuss it after class and move on to the next question or, if need be, end the class.
99 Leave time for Questions Remain alertRepeat the questionAnswer it to the audienceFinish on a good noteRemain alert!Be prepared for the hard questions.Be honest with the audience. If you do not know the answer to the question say so - credibility is your most important asset. Let them know you will research the answer and provide the answer at a later date. Once you do find the answer ensure the class is provided with that information. However, try to finish by giving at least one good answer to the audience's questions.When a persons asks a question, repeat the question so the entire audience can get the benefit of the question.If you can, explain the answer to the entire audience.Finish on a good note:Try not to ever say, "I've got time for one more question". If you do not answer that last question adequately, you could jeopardize the value of the entire presentation.Use “I have time for a few questions”--what’s a few? Now you get to pick the question to end on.Set up a “safety net” in the audience before hand (here is a question I want you to ask if nobody asks a question at the end).Have a “commonly asked question” in mind to use to break the ice if nobody has a question.And there is the “parachute”…”Are there any more questions before we go on break?”If you get shelled, just tactfully end the class and cut your losses.
101 Familiarity Spaces Equipment REHEARSE! Everyone is comfortable playing in their backyard or using their local ranges.The same can be true for teaching a class. If you teach in an area that is familiar it will help to put the instructor at ease.This is also true when it comes to the equipment used to present the class. If you have pre-flighted the equipment and are familiar with its use, it will ease your anxiety.Dogs have the right idea. What does a dog do when they go somewhere new? They sniff around, mark the territory, and then there good to go.You need to do the same thing--be familiar with your spaces and pre-flight your equipment. Everyone feels more comfortable playing in their back yard or training in their local ranges. The same holds true for teaching a class.
102 Have Your Opening Nailed "Being able to start is more than half the whole."--AristotleIf instructor feels the need to memorize any part of the presentation then memorizing the opening would be a good place to start. The first 5 to 10 minuets of a presentation are normally the most stressful. When a person can start out on a good note then the remaining portion normally goes well. Aristotle was correct when he observed that starting was more than half the whole.Start slow if need be. If you blurt everything out at once you will turn a 50 minute class into a 5 minute class. You’ll be out of breath and the audience won’t be able to keep up. If you have to memorize anything, memorize the opening to get you through the first part, break the ice, and get into the groove.
103 Reduced to it's most Basic form... You’re only talking...You do that everyday!!!Put things in perspective.When you reduce it to its basic form it is only talking, and you do that every day.
104 Annual Training BriefReview Annual Training BriefBrief location?