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C-2A GREYHOUND FACILITATOR CRM COURSE VAW-120 2 OVERVIEW INTRODUCTION CRM HISTORY CRM HISTORY CRM PROGRAM CRM PROGRAM SEVEN SKILLS OVERVIEW SEVEN SKILLS.

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Presentation on theme: "C-2A GREYHOUND FACILITATOR CRM COURSE VAW-120 2 OVERVIEW INTRODUCTION CRM HISTORY CRM HISTORY CRM PROGRAM CRM PROGRAM SEVEN SKILLS OVERVIEW SEVEN SKILLS."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 C-2A GREYHOUND FACILITATOR CRM COURSE VAW-120

3 2 OVERVIEW INTRODUCTION CRM HISTORY CRM HISTORY CRM PROGRAM CRM PROGRAM SEVEN SKILLS OVERVIEW SEVEN SKILLS OVERVIEW SEVEN SKILLS EXPANDED SEVEN SKILLS EXPANDED PRESENTATION TECHNIQUES PRESENTATION TECHNIQUES REVIEW SUMMARY

4 PRIVILEGED 3 For Official Use Only This brief contains privileged, limited-use, limited- distribution information. unauthorized disclosure of the information in this brief or its supporting enclosures by military personnel is a criminal offense punishable under article 92, uniform code of military justice. unauthorized disclosure of the information in this report or its supporting enclosures by civilian personnel will subject them to disciplinary action under civilian personnel instruction 752.

5 4 Rules of Engagement Your active participation –What experiences you have had –What potential incidents you have avoided –What importance you place on CRM Your ResponsibilityApplication of CRM skills is … Your Responsibility Learn from others’ mistakes, because you’re not going to live long enough to make all of them yourself. —Roger Coleman, Lead CRM Developer, AAL

6 Why CRM? To IMPROVE MISSION EFFECTIVENESS of Naval Aviation communities –minimizing crew preventable errors –by enhancing crew coordination –through increased awareness of associated behavioral skills 5

7 6 Aviation is Inherently Dangerous There will always be something or somebody out there trying to kill you...

8 7 CRM History In 1977, CRM was adopted by civil operators to improve safety. Four skills were identified as critical: –Decision making –Command –Leadership –Communication

9 8 CRM History In 1987, the NAVY researched CRM for adoption into its aviation programs. The study noted similarities and some significant differences between civilian and military operations.

10 9 CRM History Age Experience Military Rank Mission Objectives/ Requirements Crew Duties Centralized Training Differences Among Military Personnel / Operations

11 10 CRM History In 1989, the Naval Air Warfare Center began R&D on a program to apply CRM to tactical operations. Research identified seven behavioral skills most common in Naval Aviation. –Communication –Leadership –Adaptability/Flexibility –Situational Awareness –Decision Making –Assertiveness –Mission Analysis

12 11 CRM History In 1991, the Naval Safety Center found human error was significant in 50% of all Class “A” mishaps. In 1993, “Interim” Aircrew Coordination Training (ACT) was implemented. In 1995, OPNAVINST A established “Integrated” ACT milestone.

13 12 CRM History In 1998, OPNAVINST B established Aircrew Coordination Training (ACT) academic requirements/ flight evaluation. In 2001, OPNAVINST C changed the ACT program’s name to Crew Resource Management (CRM).

14 13 Mishap History “Human beings by their very nature make mistakes; therefore, it’s unreasonable to expect error-free human performance” —Shappell & Wiegmann, 1997

15 14 For the past three decades commercial aviation, the federal government, and more recently the military have expended substantial resources in determining the cause of mishaps. Information recovered from cockpit voice recorders, SIRs, HAZREPS, and civilian mishap reports indicate the number one cause is Human Error Human Error Background

16 15 CRM History –Mission Specific –Based on Knowledge, Behaviors and Skills –Integrated into Training –Research Supported –Developed by Aircrews for Aircrews –Incorporates Existing Knowledge Base –Conforms to Instructional Strategies CRM is:

17 16 CRM Future in Navy/ USMC Continued integration of CRM concepts into procedures and NATOPS Specific CRM simulator training Computer Aided Debriefing Systems More focus on individual error prevention/mitigation Alignment with ICAO standards Data collection and trend analysis Automation CRM application to other fields

18 17 CRM History –1977—Civilian Operators adopt CRM –1993–1995—Naval Aviation adopts “Interim” ACT/CRM –FY-05-09—Human Error accounts for 85% of Naval Aviation Class A Mishaps –CRM Program to be T/M-specific and based 7 Skills Summary

19 18 Discussion

20 19 CRM Program Purpose of CRM Chain of Command Unit-Level Responsibilities CRM Training Requirements

21 20 Purpose of CRM To IMPROVE MISSION EFFECTIVENESS of Naval Aviation communities –by enhancing crew coordination –through increased awareness of associated behavioral skills

22 21 Purpose of CNAFINST Series To establish policies, responsibilities and procedures for administration of the Crew Resource Management (CRM) program –Establishes CRM content –Defines conduct/type of training –Delineates documentation requirements –Assigns CRM responsibilities

23 22 Chain of Command Controlling Custodians NASC Pensacola IMM Curriculum Model Manager (CO) Program ManagerCRM InstructorsCRM Facilitators CNAF TRAINING POLICY OPNAV N88

24 23 Curriculum Model Manager (CMM) CO of a model manager squadron (VAW-120) CRM training program for T/M/S Correct number of CRM-I and CRM-F Coordinate with T/M NATOPS Model Manager Sets focus for the community

25 24 CRM Program Manager (PM) A CRM-I designated by the CMM Currently: LT HAWKE T/M/S SME and fleet POC Develop aircraft-specific integrated CRM programs Ensure curriculum current and relevant Provide CRM materials to the IMMs

26 25 CRM Instructor (CRM-I) Train new CRM facilitators Conduct annual training and check rides Assist PM in distribution and standardization of CRM materials

27 26 CRM Facilitator (CRM-F) Conduct and document annual CRM training Submit changes (NATOPS, 1542) Feedback to Program Manager Check rides All FRS Pilot and Aircrew Instructors are made Facilitators as part of the IUT Syllabus/Check In.

28 27 Instructor vs. Facilitator NATOPS Qualified O-3/E-5 or above Graduate of both the NASC IMM CRM Instructor’s Course AND the Curriculum Program Manager’s CRM Facilitator Course Designated in writing by the Type/Model Curriculum Model Manager Qualified to train CRM Facilitators Curriculum Model Manager establishes minimum experience level requirements Graduate of Curriculum Program Manager’s CRM Facilitator Course (T/M specific) Designated in writing by the unit CO Qualified to conduct CRM initial and refresher training

29 28 Unit-Level Responsibilities Facilitate integrated CRM training program Conduct annual CRM training IAW OPNAVINST / CNAF Provide feedback to the CRM Model Manager (VAW-120)

30 29 CRM training shall be conducted by a designated instructor or facilitator CRM Ground Training INITIAL Shall occur during undergraduate aviation training and during all fleet replacement/ initial training leading to T/M aircrew designationREFRESHER Shall occur annually while in a flight billet Specific CRM qualification is required for operation of each aircraft T/M/S.

31 30 CRM Ground Training CRM Principles and Seven Critical CRM Skills Topics Of Concern / Recent Trends T/M-Specific Case Study/ Scenario Open and Frank Discussion on Current State of CRM Must use PowerPoint developed by CRM Model Manager. Annual Ground Training Requirements COMNAVAIRFORINST A, PARA. 7-D

32 Annual CRM Flight Evaluation Annual Requirement –May be accomplished within 60 days of expiration without rebasing. –Typically done with NATOPS check. CRM-I or CRM-F Required May Be Completed In Simulator 31

33 32 Must be entered into NATOPS Jacket Section II, Part C Utilize CNAFINST encl. 3 NATOPS Check Paperwork Shall State “Conducted CRM flight evaluation per CNAFINST A.”NATOPS Check Paperwork Shall State “Conducted CRM flight evaluation per CNAFINST A.” Training Documentation

34 33 Training Documentation COs may grant extensions for deployed aircrew whose CRM training will expire. Extensions shall not exceed 90 days after return from deployment. Document all extensions in NATOPS jacket. REBASE YOUR DETS! DON’T PLAN ON EXTENSIONS. Extensions

35 34 Training Documentation “Personnel who fail to meet CRM requirements without a written extension shall not serve as aircrew members.”

36 35 CRM Program Purpose of CRM Program Chain of Command Unit-Level Responsibilities Training Policies Qualifications/Evaluation Extensions Summary

37 36 QUESTIONS?

38 37 Seven Critical CRM Skills CRM skills are necessary because errors repeat even with new technology!

39 38 Decision Making Assertiveness Mission Analysis Communication Leadership Adaptability/Flexibility Situational Awareness Seven Critical CRM Skills DAM CLAS

40 How do you define Decision Making? 39 Decision Making Definition: The ability to choose a course of action using logical and sound judgment based on available information. Definition: The ability to choose a course of action using logical and sound judgment based on available information.

41 40 Decision Making Question: How do hazardous attitudes affect decision making? Negative Effect: Peer pressurePeer pressure Mind setMind set “Get home-itis”“Get home-itis” Getting behind the aircraftGetting behind the aircraft

42 41 Decision Making in the C-2A C-2 Capabilities vs. Air Wing Desires Detailed Preflight Planning vs. “Canned Route” Attitude Any member of a Detachment can end up being put in a position where they need to speak for the OIC

43 What is Assertiveness? 42 Assertiveness Definition: The willingness/readiness to actively participate, state and maintain a position until convinced by the facts that other options are better. Definition: The willingness/readiness to actively participate, state and maintain a position until convinced by the facts that other options are better.

44 43 Assertiveness Question: When is it appropriate to be assertive? Speak up when you encounter: Unclear mission objectivesUnclear mission objectives Overly aggressive or passive crewmembersOverly aggressive or passive crewmembers Conflict in the aircraftConflict in the aircraft Issues not addressed in the debriefIssues not addressed in the debrief Whenever your comfort level is exceeded… SPEAK UP !

45 44 Assertiveness in the C-2A 3P vs Aircraft Commander Aircraft Commander vs Aircraft Commander 2P/2P Flights C-2 vs Air Wing/Air Boss/Flight Deck Handler

46 How do you define Mission Analysis? 45 Definition: The ability to develop short-term, long-term and contingency plans and to coordinate, allocate and monitor crew and aircraft resources. Definition: The ability to develop short-term, long-term and contingency plans and to coordinate, allocate and monitor crew and aircraft resources. Mission Analysis

47 46 Mission Analysis Question: What are three components of Mission Analysis? Planning and preparationPlanning and preparation Monitoring inflight mission progressMonitoring inflight mission progress Postflight debriefingPostflight debriefing

48 47 Mission Analysis in the C-2A How good is your Debrief?

49 What is Communication? 48 Communication Definition: The ability to clearly and accurately send and acknowledge information, instructions, or commands, and provide useful feedback. Definition: The ability to clearly and accurately send and acknowledge information, instructions, or commands, and provide useful feedback.

50 49 Communication Question: When can experience in flight be a barrier to communication? Less experience— Less likely to speak upLess experience— Less likely to speak up More experience— May resist change and the need to adaptMore experience— May resist change and the need to adapt

51 50 Communication in the C-2A Detachment personality dynamics Enlisted Aircrew/Pilot relationship Ship to Shore Communication

52 How do you define Leadership? 51 Leadership Definition: The ability to direct/coordinate the activities of other crewmembers or wingmen, and to encourage them to work together as a team. Definition: The ability to direct/coordinate the activities of other crewmembers or wingmen, and to encourage them to work together as a team.

53 52 Leadership Question: What are some leadership traits that inspire peak performance in a crew? DecisiveDecisive CompetentCompetent Keeping crew informedKeeping crew informed Open to suggestionsOpen to suggestions Leading by exampleLeading by example TrustTrust

54 53 Leadership in the C-2A C-2 Pilots have to grow up fast Any member of a Det can be cornered by CAG, Flag, etc Leadership challenges associated with being on perpetual “Port Call”

55 What is Adaptability/ Flexibility? 54 Adaptability/ Flexibility Definition: The ability to alter a course of action based on new information, maintain constructive behavior under pressure and adapt to internal/external environmental changes. Definition: The ability to alter a course of action based on new information, maintain constructive behavior under pressure and adapt to internal/external environmental changes.

56 55 Adaptability/ Flexibility Question: What are some situations that require Adaptability/ Flexibility? Routine becomes an emergencyRoutine becomes an emergency Inclement weatherInclement weather CV environmentCV environment Changing primary missionChanging primary mission

57 56 Adaptability/ Flexibility in the C-2A This is the C-2 skill Legs added to flight Destinations changed CV arrival intentions can vary/change last minute At mercy of DV sched Last minute PAX/Cargo Hazardous Cargo

58 What is Situational Awareness? 57 Situational Awareness Definition: The degree of accuracy by which one’s perception of the current environment mirrors reality. Definition: The degree of accuracy by which one’s perception of the current environment mirrors reality.

59 58 Situational Awareness Question: If good situational awareness means looking around at what’s happening, what else must be recognized? What led to the present situation?What led to the present situation? What will happen in the next 30 seconds, 10 minutes, etc?What will happen in the next 30 seconds, 10 minutes, etc? Crosschecking and communicationCrosschecking and communication

60 59 Situational Awareness in the C-2A 80% of Aircraft is behind you Who is in your plane? What is in your plane? What country clearances do you have? What does having PAX add to divert considerations?

61 INSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES 60

62 Several polls have been conducted during the last decade, asking Americans what they fear the most. The number 1 response, which is above even death--by as much as a 2-1 margin is….. Adults #1 Fear…

63 Stage Fright “The human brain is a wonderful thing. It operates from the moment you’re born until the first time you get up to make a speech.” --Howard Goshorn

64 Principles of Communication Desire to communicate

65 Principles of Communication Desire to communicate Believe in what you say

66 Principles of Communication Desire to communicate Believe in what you say Know your subject

67 Principles of Communication Desire to communicate Believe in what you say Know your subject Know your audience

68 Principles of Communication Desire to communicate Believe in what you say Know your subject Know your audience Deliver with enthusiasm

69 Principles of Communication Desire to communicate Believe in what you say Know your subject Know your audience Deliver with enthusiasm Rehearse, Rehearse, Rehearse

70 Instructing vs. Teaching nInI

71 normally involves a great deal of participation by the instructor and very little by the audience Interactive Process…Relationships…Thinking INSTRUCTING 1 v Many TEACHING 1 v 1

72 3 Basic Questions Audience - Who am I teaching? Material - What do they need to know? Instructor - How am I going to present it?

73 Audience Analysis Motivation Interest Familiarity Capability

74 Know the Material Read Everything Talk to experts – SME’s Write Things Down

75 Remember... "The mind can only absorb what the butt can endure.“ Brief Fatigue

76 Presentation Techniques Complete Memorization Partial Memorization Approximate Memorization

77 Notes Note Cards (3X5) Sheets of Paper –Power Point Notes Pages –Fold-over

78 THERE IS NO SUBSTITUTE FOR PREPARATION AND REHEARSAL Notes Note Cards (3X5) Sheets of Paper –Power Point Notes Pages –Fold-over MAKE IT WORK FOR YOU, NOT AGAINST YOU…

79 Communicating the Message 7% Verbal Content 55%Visual Stimulation 38%Tone of Voice

80 Maximizing Verbal Impact Relate Relevant Ideas Create a Mental Image Be Imaginative In your own words Simplify Complex Concepts and Ideas

81 nini Delivering Presentations

82 Showmanship Public Speaking is a Combination of… - Presentation Content (Material) and - Showmanship Delivering Presentations

83 ENTERTAINING IS EFFECTIVE but…. IT IS NOT REQUIRED

84 NEVER APOLOGIZE ! Your audience will be very distracted and few people can rejuvenate an atmosphere littered with self-proclaimed weakness

85 APPEARANCE AND BODY LANGUAGE

86 Body Language The Hands

87 Body Language The Hands Props

88 Body Language The Hands Props Movement / Eye Contact

89 Body Language The Hands Props Movement / Eye Contact All amount to the audience’s initial assessment of you, and their continued re-assessment of what you're saying

90 Use of the Voice Quality Intelligibility Variety

91 Dealing With A Distracting Audience The Clown The Know-it-all The Distracted

92 Who are these People? …People who show the following signs. –No Eye Contact –Cleaning Fingernails –Looking Out the Window –Reading or Talking –Sleeping / Drooling

93 Close Combat # 1 - Ignore or Dismiss

94 Close Combat # 1 - Ignore or Dismiss # 2 - Subtle Confrontation

95 Close Combat # 1 - Ignore or Dismiss # 2 - Subtle Confrontation Get Physically Close

96 Close Combat # 1 - Ignore or Dismiss # 2 - Subtle Confrontation Get Physically Close Make Eye Contact

97 Close Combat # 1 - Ignore or Dismiss # 2 - Subtle Confrontation Get Physically Close Make Eye Contact SAY "STOP!"

98 Close Combat # 1 - Ignore or Dismiss # 2 - Subtle Confrontation Get Physically Close Make Eye Contact SAY "STOP!" Redirect your attention towards the audience

99 "Never argue with an idiot; people watching may not be able to tell the difference" --Unknown

100 Leave time for Questions Remain alert Repeat the question Answer it to the audience Finish on a good note

101 Tips for the Terminally Nervous

102 Familiarity Spaces Equipment REHEARSE!

103 "Being able to start is more than half the whole." --Aristotle Have Your Opening Nailed

104 Reduced to it's most Basic form... You’re only talking... You do that everyday!!!

105 Annual Training Brief Review Annual Training Brief Brief location? 104

106 Questions???

107 106 THE END Remember… “We train like we fight, and we fight like we train”


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