Presentation on theme: "Academic Vocabulary Today’s Agenda: 1.How do words get learned and stay learned? 2.What kinds of words are there and how do I decide how much attention."— Presentation transcript:
Academic Vocabulary Today’s Agenda: 1.How do words get learned and stay learned? 2.What kinds of words are there and how do I decide how much attention to pay to them? 3. Explicit vocabulary instruction 4.The Academic Word List: Implicit vocabulary instruction 4. Classroom practices that grow vocabulary
Rich Gradual Cumulative Recursive The visuals for today’s presentation are available for your classroom use. Feel free to access them at www.amybenjamin.com Goals: 1.Vocabulary growth in authentic situations 2.Improved ability to derive meaning of unfamiliar words 3. Positive attitude about words and language Aggressive Purposeful Pervasive
Comprehension and Vocabulary: Part I The findings of our study also reveal that there is nothing especially difficult about setting up a mental representation for a new lexical item as presumably children would have to do for unknown words. For example, for localist versions of connectionist viewpoints, it seems probable that one would first have to create a new lexical node before orthographic, phonological, and semantic information could become connected with it. Presumably, if substantiating a mental representation for a new lexical item was particularly difficult, we would expect to see that the development of unknown words was slower than for partial knowledge words because partial knowledge words already have an existing lexical node with corresponding orthographic and phonological features but few semantic features.
The Role of Context in Comprehension A hair-raising century by Australian opener Graeme Wood on Friday set England back on its heels in the third test at the Melbourne Cricket Ground. Unfortunately, living desperately cost the Australians the match. Wood was caught out of his crease on the first over after lunch. Within ten more overs, the Australians were dismissed. Four were dismissed by dangerous running between creases. Two were dismissed when the English bowlers lifted the bails from the batsmen’s wickets. The three remaining batsmen were caught by English fieldsmen. One was caught as he tried for a six. When the innings were complete, the Australians had fallen short of the runs scored by the English.
Dissolve: a. make a solution b. dismiss c. mix d. appear gradually The United States Declaration of Independence: When in the course of human events it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation. Assume: a. infer b. gather c. usurp d. lay claim to Bands: a. straps b. obligations c. parties d. units
apprentice: (n) one bound by legal agreement to work for another for a specified time in return for his training in a trade, an art, or a business scheme: (n, v) a systematic plan of action Definition contains unfamiliar language Definition can be too simplistic and therefore misleading Limited information Usually, no context Not all of the information about a word is captured in a definition
Learning Words Through Repeated, Varied Context Rate the following contexts on a scale of 1-5, with 5 making you absolutely certain of what the word means; 1 giving you no way to make an educated guess. zerilious. zeriliously zerilious 1. And he said, 2. The next morning I hung around the house for a while, and then whistled my way out to the barn. 3. I just got very cool and. 3. She was being very about picking the leaves off a bit of twig broken from the bushes, careful not to look at Jack or me.,”I can waltz.” nonchalant nonchalantly nonchalant
Language Acquisition: 2.Grows through “comprehensible input” 3.Use, and response to feedback Dependent on the learner being relaxed, trusting, unselfconscious 1.Unconscious growth through exposure and need to understand messages 1.Deliberate learning of definitions, examples, forms of specific, targeted words Language Learning: 2. Deliberate practice in newly learned words 3. Assessment on specific words 8 Words a Day (3000 per year) 90% 10%
Learning Words Through Repeated, Varied Context zerilious. zeriliously zerilious 1. And he said, 2. The next morning I hung around the house for a while, and then whistled my way out to the barn. 3. I just got very cool and. 3. She was being very about picking the leaves off a bit of twig broken from the bushes, careful not to look at Jack or me.,”I can waltz.” nonchalant nonchalantly nonchalant
“ Charlotte, are you thirsty? Would you like some juice? What kind of juice do you want? Do you want apple juice? That’s the yellow juice that you liked at Nana’s. No? Do you want the purple juice? The grape juice? OK. Do you want your juice in the sippy cup or the Big Girl juice box? OK, now hold it carefully. Two hands. Don’t squeeze it! It’ll spill all over the place. Very carefully.Sip it through the straw.
What if ad executives taught vocabulary? repetition association with emotion association with an image humor story novelty
Anna Sophie James Emergence: 10-18 months (words heard per hour) 616 1,251 2,153 5 affirmative 11 prohibitive 12 affirmative 7 prohibitive 32 affirmative 5 prohibitive Cumulative, by age 3 (collection of spoken words) 500 700 1,100 School age: Predictive capacity (number of words expected to be learned per year) 750 (2 per day) 3,000 (8 per day) Col. profs Office and Hospital Workers (not mgmt) Public assistance …by age 5: 2,000 5,000 3,000 1500 (4 per day)
More Numbers: 6;30 Number of exposures to a new word during the initial lesson; Number of exposures during the ensuing month 10-15% Your chances of learning a word after a single exposure in context 2-3 20 8-3000 Number of words that schoolchildren need to learn every day (3000 words per year) Number of paragraphs of instructional level text that need to be read to add one word to your vocabulary Realistic number of words learned in a school day through explicit instruction 90-95% Percentage of words that need to be known for the text to be considered “instructional level” for that reader 25-1-1000 A fifth grader who spends 25 minutes a day reading will grow her vocabulary by 1,000 words in a year.
2-3: Explicit Instruction 2-3: Reading 50 paragraphs 2-4 More Words 8 words a day 1 st exposure, one context 2 nd exposure, another context 5 th t exposure, another context 3 rd exposure, another context 4th exposure, another context
Complete sentence of at least ____words: Must contain an action verb and a visual image. Target Word: Visual: Draw or find a picture: My guess: Dictionary Definition: Getting to Know the Words We Meet in Reading: Definition in my own words:
Moby Dick by Herman Melville: Chapter 42 “The Whiteness of the Whale” What the whale was to Ahab, has been hinted; what, at times, he was to me has been so far left unsaid. Aside from those considerations touching Moby Dick, which could not but occasionally waken in any man’s soul some alarm, there was another thought, or rather vague, nameless horror concerning him, which at times, by its intensity completely overpowered all the rest; and yet so mystical and well nigh ineffable was it that I almost despair of putting it in a comprehensible form. It was the whiteness of the whale that above all things appalled me… Though in many natural objects, whiteness refiningly enhances beauty, as if imparting some kind of special virtue of its own, as in marbles, japonicas, and pearls; and though various nations have in some way recognized a certain royal preeminence in this hue; even the barbaric, grand old kinds of Pegu placing the title “Lord of White Elephants” above all their other magniloquent ascriptions of dominion; and the modern kings of Siam unfurling the same snow-white quadraped in the royal standard; and the Hanoverian flag bearing the snow-white charger; and the great Austrian Empire, Caesarian, heir to the overlording Rome, having for the imperial color the same imperial hue; …
Of Limited Value… Lists alone Context alone Definitions alone Dictionaries and Glossaries alone Of Durable Value… Words in clusters Leisure reading Multiple exposures in various contexts Chances to speak, hear, write Manipulation of forms of words Classify and categorize word lists Word games, puzzles
For Discussion: Roberto, Miri, and Li spend a half hour a day reading in school. Roberto is interested in sports, and his teacher allows him to spend his reading time reading only about his main interest, soccer. Li’s teacher believes in variety: She requires the students to read about at least three different topics per week. All other things being equal, which of these students will be more likely to have the greater language gain? Why? (Stephen Krashen)
Consistent, Persistent Little bit of reading time set aside every day, distributed throughout the day (15 minutes) Monday: English Tuesday: Math Wednesday: Social Studies Thursday: Science Friday: Other At first, many students will not read. Later, more will read. Eventually, most will read.
“You ask, what is our policy? I can say: It is to wage war, by sea, land and air, with all our might and with all the strength that God can give us; to wage war against a monstrous tyranny, never surpassed in the dark, lamentable catalogue of human crime. That is our policy.”
“You ask, what is our policy? I can say: It is to wage war, by sea, land and air, with all our might and with all the strength that God can give us; to wage war against a monstrous tyranny, never surpassed in the dark, lamentable catalogue of human crime. That is our policy.” You inquire, what is our policy? I can rejoin: It is to engage in military confrontation, by navigable bodies of water, by terrestrial regions, and in the ethereal environment, with all our fortitude and with all the potency that the ultimate object of religious observance can give us; to militarily oppose the object of our animosity against a very bad bully, the worst on in the obscure, sorry list of human malfeasance. The aforementioned encapsulates our means and mode of operation.
“It is impossible to dissociate language from science or science from language, because every natural science always involves three things: the sequence of phenomena on which the science is based; the abstract concepts that call these phenomena to mind; and the words in which the concepts are expressed. To call forth a concept, a word is needed; to portray a phenomenon, a concept is needed. All three mirror the same reality.” --Antoine Lavoisier (1743-94)
“All I know is what I have words for.” Ludvig Wittgenstein 1896-1951
Is the word on the Academic Word List? Teach implicitly mainly through immersion (repeated exposure in context, with comprehensible input and opportunity for meaningful use; games that foster knowledge of Latin word roots (“Whirly Words”); puzzles that promote consciousness of the words; use the morphology chart to experiment with various forms and to practice spelling Vocabulary Instruction Decisions:: Is the word encountered in literature, but once only, not essential for understanding the literature or likely to be encountered again? (Novelty word) Is the word encountered in literature, essential for understanding, and likely to be encountered again in another circumstance? Teach explicitly but casually and briefly, if at all. Etymology may add interest. Optional: “Understanding the Words We Meet in Reading” organizer. Is the word a Tier III (technical) word that applies only to English Language Arts such as a literary, grammatical, or rhetorical term? ex:irony, iambic pentameter; adverb, verbal; refrain, asyndeton Teach explicitly. Offer several examples. Embed recursive instruction as much as possible as you teach literature, grammar, and rhetoric. Teach explicitly, giving examples, morphology, synonyms, antonyms, illustrations, connotation, etymology, if possible. Check the “Decent Exposure” list and use it to offer multiple rich contexts.. ex: nepenthe, bodkin, aureate, awl, Victrola, succotash, anathematize ex: revel, abhorrent, inure
Tier 3: glossary word: Multisyllabic Specific to a subject area Latin or Greek-based topography, photosynthesis, isoceles triangle, sedimentary, oxygenated, cartographer Tier 2: Words of education, business, government, religion: Components: Prefix, root, suffix Latin-based elevation, formation, protrude, expansive, isolated, remote Tier 1: Basic conversational words: Friends & family 1 or 2 syllables Learned naturally, through exposure hills, grass, rocks, land, sky, clouds, fly, climb, green, high…
Two Types of Tier Two Words: Generic Academic Words: acquire, benefit, clarify, develop, evolve, grant, hierarchy, internal… Literary Words: allude, beneficient, clamorous, deride, effulgent, frugal, guile, happenstance, insipid
Vocabulary List: The Tell-Tale Heart Foresight: Thoughtful regard for the future Dissimulation: Hidden under a false appearance Vexed: Troubled, distressed, caused agitation Sagacity: Sound judgment Hearkening: Giving careful attention Awe: A mixed feeling of reverence, fear, and wonder Distinctness: Unmistakable, clearly defined Over-acuteness: Very keen Concealment: A means of hiding Waned: Grown gradually less Scantlings: Small quantities or amounts
Can you think of at least 4 words for each of these roots? tract pel gress to step port to carry rupt to break duce to lead mit to send struct to build subtract extract attract distract support report export import disrupt erupt rupture interrupt impel repel propel compel remit submit remit emit produce introduce reduce induce progress congress regress aggressive attain maintain contain retain construct structure instruct obstruct to draw or drag to drive tain to hold
Tier I to Tier II Tier I : fancyadorned, decorative, resplendent near adjacent to, proximal shrinkdiminish door portal demure, retiring, reticent luminous, illuminated shy Tier II: newnovel, innovative, untried bright
Tier I to Tier III Tier I : a song sung by one person in an opera aria a style of painting using little dots pointilism having two “houses” within the law-making body bicameral A post-WWII movie style, portraying grim realities film noir algorithm fox-like Tier III: a line of poetry consisting of 10 syllables, with the accent on every 2 nd syllable iambic pentameter a step-by-step procedure or formula for solving a math problem vulpine
These are words I will teach explicitly and thoroughly: These words are interesting, but not particularly useful. I will mention their meanings in passing as they come up in reading. These words are collateral to the words I will teach explicitly: These are words I will consciously use repeatedly in the context of teaching: indignant usurp tremulous deride strident commandeer undulating deride regulate property abundant nevertheless polynomial enzyme hedge fund higgs boson particle defenestrate quixotic zebu yclept
Should I spend time teaching this word explicitly? Three Questions: 1.How useful is this word? Will students be likely to encounter it again soon? Is it necessary for comprehension? 2.Will teaching this word explicitly equip the students with word-learning skills that can be applied to other words? 3. Am I enthusiastic about this word? Can I make it interesting?
Prior Knowledge: How well do I know these words? StrangersAcquaintances Friends
It’s easier to understand parts of speech than you think. Simply use the cues above. Not all words follow the same morphology. It’s interesting to see how words morph into different forms. Morphology Chart NOUNS: The_____. VERBS: I_____; He______ Yesterday he_____ He is___________. ADJECTIVES: The ______truck ADVERBS Do it___________. principle, principles implication, implications analysis, analyses relevance deduction, decductions ----- imply, implies, implying, implied analyze, analyzes analyzing, analyzed deduce, deduces, deducing, deduced ----- implicit analytical relevant deductive ------- implicitly analytically relevantly deductively
It’s easier to understand parts of speech than you think. Simply use the cues above. Not all words follow the same morphology. It’s interesting to see how words morph into different forms. Morphology Chart NOUNS: The_____. VERBS: I_____; He______ Yesterday he_____ He is___________. ADJECTIVES: The ______truck ADVERBS Do it___________.
The Academic Word List (AWL): Background: The Academic Word List consists of 570 word families that are not in the most frequent 2,000 words of English but which occur frequently over a very wide range of academic texts. These 570 word families are grouped into ten subsets that reflect word frequency. A word like analyze falls into Subset 1, which contains the most frequent words, while the word adjacent falls into Subset 10 which includes the least frequent (among this list of high incidence words). The AWL is not restricted to a specific field of study. That means that the words are useful for learners studying in disciplines as varied as literature, science, health, business, and law. This high-utility academic word list does not contain technical words likely to appear in one, specific field of study such as amortization, petroglyph, onomatopoeia, or cartilage. Two-thirds of all academic English derive from Latin or Greek. Understandably, knowledge of the most high-incidence adademic words in English can significantly boost a student’s comprehension level of school-based reading material. Students who are taught these high-utility academic words and routinely placed in contexts requiring their usage are likely to be able to master academic material with more confidence and efficiency, wasting less time and energy in guessing words or consulting dictionaries than those who are only equipped with the most basic 2000-3000 words that characterize ordinary conversation. The following link gives you a two-page version of the list: http://www.doe.in.gov/TitleI/pdf/Word_List_Feldman.pdf Source: Coxhead, Averil. (2000). A new academic word list. TESOL Quarterly, 34, 213-238.
Academic Word List: Subset 1 analyze approach area assess assume authority available benefit concept consist context constitute contract data define derive distribute economy environment establish estimate evident factor finance formula function income indicate individual interpret involve issue labor legal legislate major method percent period principle proceed process policy require research respond role section sector significant similar source specific structure theory vary Academic Word List: Subset 2 achieve acquire administrate affect appropriate aspect assist category chapter commission community complex compute conclude conduct consequent construct consume credit culture design distinct equate element evaluate feature final focus impact injure institute invest item journal maintain normal obtain participate perceive positive potential previous primary purchase range region regulate regulate relevant reside resource restrict secure seek select site strategy survey tradition transfer
1. Does our instruction generate conversation about words? 2. Does our instruction connect the target word to other words?
Vocabulary-Content-Sentence (VCS) Daily Practice: Write a sentence about something we are learning this week, employing one of these words. You may change the form of the words to fit your sentence. Your sentence must be at least 8 words long. assume benefit concept data economy factor indicate method proceed process policy role specific structure
Vocabulary-Content-Sentence (VCS) Daily Practice: analyze approach area assess assume authority available benefit concept consist context constitute contract data define derive distribute economy environment establish estimate evident factor finance formula function income indicate individual interpret involve issue labor legal legislate major method percent period principle proceed process policy require research respond role section sector significant similar source specific structure theory vary Write a sentence about something we are learning this week, employing one of these words. You may change the form of the words to fit your sentence. Your sentence must be at least 8 words long. achieve acquire administrate affect appropriate aspect assist category chapter commission community complex compute conclude conduct consequent construct consume credit culture design distinct equate element evaluate feature final focus impact injure institute invest item journal maintain normal obtain participate perceive positive potential previous primary purchase range region regulate regulate relevant reside resource restrict secure seek select site strategy survey tradition transfer alternative circumstance comment compensate component consent considerable constant constrain contribute convene coordinate core corporate correspond criteria deduce demonstrate document dominate emphasis ensure exclude fund framework illustrate immigrate imply initial instance interact justify layer link locate maximize minor negate outcome philosophy physical proportion publish react register rely remove scheme sequence shift specify sufficient technical technique technology valid volume
“ Elevated language used in class by teachers; students given motive and opportunity to use elevated vocabulary in speech and writing. Students have more opportunities to read for a variety of purposes, including self-selected material. IMPLICIT INSTRUCTION Academic Word List Open Field EXPLICIT INSTRUCTION “Focus 40” words from the Academic Word List selected by grade level teachers: 1 word per week 2-3 words related to or associated with each of the “Focus 40”; each subject area teacher decides on related words Subject-specific words, such as those found in a glossary A Plan for School-wide Vocabulary Instruction
Word Features Matrix for the Academic Word List Words with double letters Words with no E Words ending in E Words with x, y, or z Words that can be made plural Words with 3 of same letter Words with one syllable Compound words
Word Features Matrix for the Academic Word List Words with double letters Words with two e’s Words ending in E Words with x, y, or z Words that can be made plural Words with 3 of same letter Words with one syllable Compound words
Word Meanings Matrix: The Academic Word List Is directly related to time Is directly related to order Is directly related to placement Is directly related to size A-D Begins with: E-J K-P R-Z
Consequence It occurs later. It happens as a result. An event’s effect. Subset 2
Incorporate Bring into the mix— Creating a new oneness— Integrate the parts. Subset 6
Implement Employ and apply Put to immediate use. Get the plan to work. Subset 4