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Outline  History of fluid resuscitation  Clinical trial Animal studies Human studies  Guideline  Controversies  Conclusion.

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Presentation on theme: "Outline  History of fluid resuscitation  Clinical trial Animal studies Human studies  Guideline  Controversies  Conclusion."— Presentation transcript:

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4 Outline  History of fluid resuscitation  Clinical trial Animal studies Human studies  Guideline  Controversies  Conclusion

5 Trauma  Trauma had long been a major cause of preventable deaths worldwide.  One-third of trauma deaths because the victims bleed to death within the first several hours

6 Lethal triad  In the past, high volume resuscitation strategies was used to reverse haemorrhagic shock  However, still a number of patient develop lethal triad and leads to mortality  Acidosis, hypothermia, coagulopathy  Can be due to the injury, or due to resuscitation

7 History of Fluid resuscitation  Controlled hemorrhage animal models in 1950s.  Wiggers insert a IV catheter, allow the animal to bleed and maintain a predetermined level of hypotension Fluid deficit was corrected with crystalloid 3 times the blood loss Lead to traditional fluid replacement regimen of 3:1 crystalloid: blood

8  Wiggers’ model may not be accurate Blood pressure is controlled by investigator by controlling the blood loss through the iv catheter

9 Aggressive fluid resuscitation  Early aggressive fluid resuscitation was used routinely in Vietnam War in 1970s  Coincidentally, ARDS was commonly described

10 1980s  Uncontrolled haemorrhagic models were developed to simulate blunt trauma maximal vasoconstriction thrombus formation  Animal study : Aggressive resuscitation with isotonic crystalloid Increase blood pressure and increase blood loss Did not reduce mortality

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12 Hypotensive Resuscitation  In haemorrhagic shock patient, hypotension and vasoconstriction help to stalilized the clot  Increasing the blood pressure places additional stress on formed clot  Blood pressure greater than 90mmHg associated with higher risk of re-bleeding  Hypotensive resuscitation aim at keeping the blood pressure low enough while maintaining perfusion of end organ.

13 Hypotensive Resuscitation  Walter Cannon proposed it in 1918 “If the pressure is raised before the surgeon is ready to check any bleeding that may take place, blood that is sorely needed may be lost” ○ The preventive treatment of wound shock ○ JAMA 70: George Higginson Professor of Physiology Who invented the word ‘homeostasis’

14 MAP 0 MAP 80 MAP 40 By Aortotomy MAP 40mmHg group had better survival than MAP 80mmHg group Map 40mmHg group also had less blood loss

15  2003  Hypotensive resuscitation improved mortality compared to traditional resuscitation

16 How about Human Studies?

17 Prospective controlled trial Single centre Penetrating torso injury with SBP < 90mmHg ○ Exclude: pregnant, age <16, revised trauma score 0, fatal gunshot to head, not requiring operation Immediate Resuscitation (309) traditional resuscitation with crystalloid Delayed Resuscitation (289) Withhold IV Fluid until arrival to operative theatre VS

18 Delayed resuscitation: Less fluid and packed cell given Delayed resuscitation: pre op Lower SBP Better Hb, plt, clotting profile

19 Delayed resuscitation: Improved survival (62% vs 70%) Shorter length of stay Delayed resuscitation: Trend of less ARDS

20  Randomized controlled trial  Single centre  Trauma patient with SBP <90mmHg Exclude: pregnant, CNS injury/ impaired consciousness, age >55, history of DM/ IHD  Target SBP > 100mmHg (55) VS Target SBP 70mmHg (55) Titrating Crystalloid or blood product Fluid restriction to lower BP Until active bleeding was stopped

21  SBP VS SBP  Similar survival: 92.7%

22 Cochrane Review  Timing and volume of fluid administration for patients with bleeding (2003) We found no evidence from randomized controlled trials for or against early or larger volume of intravenous fluid administration in uncontrolled haemorrhage. While increasing fluids will maintain blood pressure, it may also worsen bleeding by diluting clotting factors.

23 That was 10 years ago Few more studies published recently

24  Retrospective cohort study  Single centre  Including patient with emergent damage control laparotomy  Exclude: age <18, pregnant, die on scene or during OT VS Normotenive group (282)Hypotensive group (108)

25  Hypotensive group: Better: temp, heart rate, plt, INR, fibrinogen, pH, base value, lactate Fluid: Less fluid given (13.9L vs 5L) Less RBC, plasma, platelet transfusion Survival: 24hr survival ( 97% vs 88%) 30day survival ( 86% vs 76%)

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27  Ongoing RCT  Single centre  Trauma patients with SBP <90mmHg need laparotomy or thoracotomy Exclude: age >45, <14, pregnant, history of IHD/CVA, head injury Minimum blood pressure to trigger further resuscitation If spontaneously MAP higher than target, no further action VS Target Intra-op MAP 50mmHg Target Intra-op MAP 65mmHg

28 Survival  MAP 50mmHg had better 24hr survival reduced transfuion requirement Less coagulopathy

29 So Which way is correct  Consequences of aggressive fluid resuscitation and bursting the clot  Consequences of hypotension and decreased organ prefusion

30 Different Parties have different practice

31 ATLS  Everyone gets 2 liters of crystalloid initially Responders Transient responders ○  rebolus or blood for ongoing bleeding Non-responders ○  blood for serious ongoing bleeding

32 NICE guideline  Recommendation on trauma Adults and older children ○ IV fluid should not be administered if radial pulse is present ○ 250ml IV fluid should be given if pulse cannot be felt ○ Burns, Blast injuries, Head injuries exception to permissive hypotension

33 US Army  Stop bleeding  500ml fluid if ○ No radial pulse or ○ Decrease mental status If positive response, stop fluids

34 Something is still missing

35 Unsolved problems  Concept of hypotensive resuscitation is clear  But the definition is not! ○ Different studies use different definition SBP? MAP? Limit crystaloid? Complete withhold or titrate against target BP?

36 Unsolved problems  Application in concomitant head injury patient? ○ Need to maintain CPP

37 Unsolved problems Application in concomitant head injury patient? ○ Lack of human study on this area ○ Animal study: Stern 2000 Swine model on uncontrolled haemorrhage and brain injury -MAP 60 vs 80 -Survival: MAP 60 better and MAP 80 -Similar ICP and cerebral blood flow Draw back: no long term neurological outcome

38 Unsolved problems  Duration of hypotensive resuscitation before irreversible damage Lack of consensus ○ In Dutton’s studies Mean duration is 2.57 hour Similar survival between 2 group

39 Difficult area for research  Heterogeneous definition of hypotensive resuscitation  Heterogeneous group of trauma patients US: both penetrating and blunt trauma UK: most blunt trauma and head injury  Ethical issue, difficult to recruit trauma patient  Limited paper focus on this topic

40 Conclusion  Aggressive fluid resuscitation in trauma case may not be totally beneficial  Multiple animal studies demonstrate benefits of hypotensive resuscitation  Equivocal result from human studies. Yet more recent studies demonstrate beneficial effect of hypotensive resuscitation  Different parties had different practice worldwide  Ongoing RCT may help to provide more evidence in near future

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