Presentation on theme: "Trauma in Pregnancy Courtesy of Bonnie U. Gruenberg."— Presentation transcript:
0 International Trauma Life Support, 7e Trauma in Pregnancy19Key Lecture PointsCover the general information included in the lecture slides, including the information associated with the various trimesters.Note should be made that the status of the fetus generally depends on the well-being of the mother. Therefore, if the mother has adequate blood volume, blood pressure, and circulation, then the fetus will do well. Use the quote: “Death of the fetus in the trauma situation is most often associated with the death of the mother.”Mention that the treatment of shock is the same for pregnant patients as for other patients.Emphasize that the physiologic changes of pregnancy may cause delay in the diagnosis of the shock state in the mother.Stress that uterine obstruction of venous blood flow may cause hypotension in the supine patient (“supine hypotension syndrome”), and thus must be prevented by rolling the patient or backboard to the left.Note that there is an increased rate of fetal demise 2 or 3 days following major trauma to the mother.Mention that short backboard-type device may be ineffective as an SMR device in the pregnant patient because of the difficulty with adequately securing the straps. This concern also applies to the very obese patient.
1 Trauma in PregnancyCourtesy of Bonnie U. Gruenberg
2 Overview Dual goals in managing pregnant trauma Physiological changes of pregnancyResponse to hypovolemiaTypes of injuries most commonly associatedInitial assessment and managementTrauma prevention in pregnancy
3 Trauma in Pregnancy Unique challenges Dual roles Vulnerability of pregnant trauma patientPotential injuries to unborn childDual rolesProvide care to motherProvide care to fetusMajor goals in caring for the pregnant trauma are evaluation and stabilization.All prehospital interventions directed toward optimizing both fetal and maternal outcome.Optimal care for fetus is appropriate treatment of mother.
4 Trauma in Pregnancy Leading cause of morbidity and mortality 6–7% of pregnancies experience some trauma1 in 12 injured experience significant traumaMajor causesMotor-vehicle collisionsFallsAbuse and domestic violencePenetrating injuriesBurnsBecause minor injuries rarely present problems for EMS providers, ITLS focuses on more severe traumatic injuries to pregnant patient.Leading cause of morbidity and mortality:6–7% of pregnancies are complicated by accidental trauma. Approximately 8% (1 in 12) of those are significant.MVCs are most common cause (65–70%).
5 Pregnant Patient Increased risk for trauma Fainting spells, hyperventilation, excess fatigue commonly associated with early pregnancyBalance and coordination affected by changes throughout pregnancyThe pregnant patient is often at risk for a higher incidence of accidental trauma.Increase in fainting spells, hyperventilation, and excess fatigue are commonly associated with early pregnancy.Physiological changes that affect balance and coordination.
6 Fetal Development IMAGE: Figure 19-1 Anatomy of pregnancy. Fetus is formed during first 3 months of pregnancy.The uterus does not enlarge enough to rise out of pelvis until 12th week (3 months), but then fully formed fetus and uterus grow rapidly.Fundal height reaches umbilicus by fifth month and epigastrium by seventh month.Fundus is term for top of uterus.Fundal height is term that describes location of top of uterus.
7 Viability Assessment NOTE: Table 19-1 Assessment of a pregnancy. Fetus is considered viable at 24 weeks.Viability increases significantly at 25 weeks' gestation. However, pre-term infants have survived with less gestation. True gestational age cannot be determined on- scene.
8 Physiologic ChangesIMAGE: Table 19-2 Physiologic Changes During Pregnancy.During pregnancy, dramatic physiological changes occur. The changes that are unique to pregnant state affect and alter physiological response by both mother and fetus.More fluid is needed to resuscitate if patient develops shock.Increase in both red blood cells and plasma with increase of plasma greater than red blood cells.Appears to be anemic (physiological anemia of pregnancy).Many women with poor nutrition also have an absolute anemia and are less able to compensate for hemorrhagic shock.Always assume stomach of a pregnant patient is full. Always guard against vomiting and aspiration.
9 Physiologic Changes Respiratory system Diaphragm elevated due to uterine sizeDecreased thoracic volumeRelative alkalosisPredisposed to hyperventilationRespirations are more shallow with less chest expansion.Pregnant patient presents with rapid shallow respiration.
10 Vital Signs in Pregnancy Do not mistake normal vital signs for signs of shock.Normal pulse: 10–15 beats fasterBlood pressure: 10–15 mmHg lower30–35% blood loss before significant blood pressure changeBe alert to all signs of shockFrequent ITLS Ongoing ExamsNormal pregnancy vital signs make early diagnosis of shock more difficult.
11 Response to Hypovolemia Vasoconstriction and tachycardiaReduction of uterine blood flow by 20–30%Fetal heart rate and blood flow decreaseFetus becomes hypoxemicHigh-flow oxygen is essentialMaternal shock has 80% fetal mortality rateFetus is in distress before maternal blood pressure decreases.When mother compensates for early shock with vasoconstriction and tachycardia, impact on fetus begins.Quick review of shock response:Acute blood loss results in decrease in circulating blood volume. Cardiac output decreases as venous return falls. This hypovolemia causes arterial blood pressure to fall, resulting in an inhibition of vagal tone and release of catecholamines. Effect to produce vasoconstriction and tachycardia.Vasoconstriction profoundly affects uterus.Reduction in uterine blood flow by 20–30%.Mother can lose 1,500 cc without detectable blood pressure change.Drop in fetal arterial blood pressure and decrease in fetal heart rate.Reduced fetal circulation results in fetal hypoxemia.Administer 100% oxygen to mother, and administer oxygen to fetus.
12 Trauma in Pregnancy ITLS Primary and Secondary Surveys Optimize maternal and fetal outcomeHigh-flow oxygen rapidly administeredFetal hypoxia occurs before maternal hypoxiaFluid administration must be promptFluid volume needed is greaterFrequent Ongoing ExamsMortality of fetus related to maternal treatmentRemember: Normal physiologic changes of pregnancy make assessment more difficult. Changes in appearance and vital signs can be delayed and more subtle. Therefore, Ongoing Exams need to be performed more frequently.
13 Pregnant Trauma Arrest Treated same as for other victimsDefibrillation settings are sameDrug dosages are sameFluid volume needed increases4 liters normal saline rapid infusion during transportIf mother unsalvageable:Continue CPRNotify hospital of possible cesarean sectionTreatment is same as for other patients, except for fluid resuscitation.Fluid resuscitation during transport (same as other patients).
14 Supine HypotensionVenous return decreases 30% in supine position with 20-week or larger uterusAcute hypotensionSyncopeFetal bradycardiaIMAGE: Figure 19-3 Compression of vena cava.The enlarging uterus can compress inferior vena cava when mother is in supine position, creating a form of mechanical/obstructive shock.Reduces venous return and cardiac output by up to 30%.
15 Supine Hypotension Transport position Tilt or rotate backboard 15–30° to patient's leftElevate right hip 4–6 inches (10–15 cm) with towelManually displace uterus to leftRemember: SMR needs to be in an anatomically neutral position specific for each patient to be neutral for spinal cord and airway. Although texts often recommend age ranges (including ITLS), SMR is principle-driven. Appropriate padding should be used for all age groups and situations (elderly, American football shoulder pads, infants, obesity, etc.).If uterus is up to umbilicus, you should tilt backboard using one of these methods.Carefully secure backboard when tilting so patient does not flip over onto floor of ambulance.Courtesy of Louis B. Mallory, MBA, REMT-P
17 Evaluation of Uterine Size IMAGE: Table 19-3 ITLS Primary Survey Brief Evaluation of Uterine Size.Fetal heart rate is better auscultated with a Doppler, but can be heard with a standard stethoscope at 20 weeks. Using bell side may improve auscultation.
18 Fetal DeathRelatively minor abdominal trauma can cause fetal death. Maternal death is most common cause of fetal death.Have high suspicion with any abdominal trauma.May not seem significant injury to mother, but can be significant to fetus.Management of maternal injuries is best management of fetus.
19 Types of Trauma Motor-vehicle collisions Penetrating injuries Domestic violenceFallsBurns
20 Motor-Vehicle Collisions 65–75% of pregnancy-related trauma<1% injured when minor vehicle damageSeatbelts significantly decrease mortalityHave not shown any increase in uterine injuryHead injury is the most common cause of death in pregnant patients involved in MVCs. This is closely followed by uncontrolled hemorrhage.Courtesy of Louis B. Mallory, MBA, REMT-P
21 Motor-Vehicle Collisions Maternal deathHead injuryMost commonUncontrolled hemorrhageSecond most commonAssess pelvisFetal injuryFetal distressFetal deathPlacental abruptionUterine rupturePreterm laborMaternal pelvic fracture can hold 4 or more liters of blood (uncontrolled hemorrhage) with few clinical signs. Unless there is high-index of suspicion and clear understanding of physiologic changes of pregnancy, seriousness of a pelvic fracture can be overlooked.
22 Abdominal Trauma Physiologic changes Clinical presentation Decreased sensitivityGradual stretchingHormonal changesUterus very vascularClinical presentationGuarding, rigidity, rebound response absentAbdominal trauma requires ED evaluationIMAGE: Figure 19-5 Picture of placental abruption and uterine rupture.Can have significant occult intrauterine or abdominal bleeding.May not have abdominal tenderness early, even with significant bleeding.Emergency Department evaluation and monitoring is recommended for even minor abdominal trauma during pregnancy.
23 Penetrating Injuries Gunshot wounds and stabbings Entry below fundus Uterus absorbs force, protects maternal organsHigh fetal mortality rate: 40–70%Lower maternal mortality rate: 4–10%Entry above fundusBowel injury due to displacementGunshot wounds and stabbings are most common injuries encountered.Definitive care will depend on several factors, involving degree of shock, associated organ injury, and time of gestation.
24 Domestic Violence 10% experience abuse during pregnancy Proximal and midline injuriesFace and neck most commonLow birth weightAbused by spouse or boyfriend: 70–85% (U.S.)Large percentage of pregnant women experience domestic violence.Frequency appears to worsen as pregnancy progresses.Through second and third trimesters, estimated that 1 in 10 pregnant women experience abuse during pregnancy.
25 Falls Injury from falls Increase with progression of pregnancy Center of gravity alteredProportionate to force and body part impactedPelvic injuriesPlacental separationFetal fracturesEmergency Department evaluation and monitoring is recommended for even minor abdominal trauma.
26 Burns Fluid volume needed increases Mortality and morbidity Maternal mortality same as non-pregnantFetal mortality increases with >20% BSAOf 2.2 million patients who suffer burn injuries in United States annually, less than 4% are pregnant.Fluid requirement for pregnant patient is greater than that of nonpregnant.BSA – Burn Surface Area.
27 Trauma Prevention Proper seat-belt use Report domestic violence Counseling for domestic violencePatient educationMultiple changes associated with pregnancyPhysiological, anatomical, emotionalSome patients get very little, if any, prenatal care, and even less prenatal education. If situation is not critical, you should not hesitate to educate your pregnant patients.
28 Summary Trauma in pregnancy Fetal care depends on maternal care Knowledge of physiological changesHypotension and hemorrhage easily overlookedRapid evaluation and interventions to stabilizeAggressive oxygen administrationAggressive fluid resuscitationPrevent supine hypotensionFetal care depends on maternal careDue to difficulty in early diagnosis, you should have a low threshold for load-and-go.Pregnant trauma with serious injuries should be directly transported to facility (trauma center) capable of managing these complex patients.