Presentation on theme: "Radiological Safety and Response"— Presentation transcript:
1Radiological Safety and Response 4/14/2017Radiological Safety and ResponseRPTDose LimitsRPT-243-2Dose LimitsACAD : ;DOE: ;Duration: 1.15 hoursMaterial Resources Needed: noneEquipment/Supplies: Overhead display for PowerPointAssessment/Evaluation: The learning outcomes should be reviewed at the beginning of the class and should be reviewed periodically and at the conclusion. Examination number 1 will provide a formal assessment of these learning outcomes.References Used in Development:Basic Radiation Protection Technology, 5th edition, Gollnick; ISBNNuclides and Isotopes/Chart of the Nuclides, 16th edition, Baum, Knox, Miller; ASIN: B000BUNFS8Operational Health Physics Training, Moe; ANL (1988)DOE Health Physics Training, DOE-HDBK & DOE-HDBK10CFR20 & 10CFR835 – current revisions1
24/14/2017Learning Outcomes Upon completion of this lesson, the student will be able to:Discuss the regulatory dose limits from 10CFR20 and 10 CFR835.State the purpose of having plant administrative limits for radiation exposure (such as margin from regulatory limits).Describe when a planned special exposure is allowed and the detailed requirements of the planned special exposure.Describe exposure control techniques that can be used to control worker and technician radiation exposures.
3Outline Introduction 10CFR20 Limits 10 CFR 835 Limits 4/14/2017OutlineIntroduction10CFR20 Limits10 CFR 835 LimitsAdministrative LimitsPlanned Special ExposuresExposure Control TechniquesQuestions
5IntroductionAs discussed in the previous lecture, the nuclear industry is regulated through the use of either the 10CFR20 or 10CFR835 codes depending on whether it is NRC or DOE.In this lecture, we will look at the various dose limits used in the industry established by these regulations.The principle of administrative limits and planned special exposures will also be discussed.Finally, we will further explore exposure control techniques.
74/14/2017Basic TermsWhole body means, for purposes of external exposure, head, trunk (including male gonads), arms above the elbow, or legs above the knee.Extremity means hand, elbow, arm below the elbow, foot, knee, or leg below the knee.Dose or radiation dose is a generic term that means absorbed dose, dose equivalent, effective dose equivalent, committed dose equivalent, committed effective dose equivalent, or total effective dose equivalent (exposure is used as an equivalent term here).
8Subpart C – Occupational Dose Limits - Adults 4/14/2017Subpart C – Occupational Dose Limits - AdultsOccupational Dose is defined as:the dose received by an individual in the course of employment in which the individual's assigned duties involve exposure to radiation or to radioactive material from licensed and unlicensed sources of radiation, whether in the possession of the licensee or other person.
9Subpart C – Occupational Dose Limits - Adults 4/14/2017Subpart C – Occupational Dose Limits - AdultsOccupational Dose :does not include doses received from:background radiation,any medical administration the individual has received,exposure to individuals administered radioactive material and released under § 35.75,from voluntary participation in medical research programs,or as a member of the public.
1010CFR20.1201 Occupational Dose Limits - Adults 4/14/201710CFR Occupational Dose Limits - AdultsThe licensee SHALL control individual occupational adult doses to the following annual limits:Total Effective Dose Equivalent (TEDE) of 5 rem/yrORSum of the deep-dose equivalent (DDE) and the committed dose equivalent (CDE) to any individual organ or tissue (except lens of the eye) being equal to 50 rem/yrAND
1110CFR20.1201 Occupational Dose Limits - Adults 4/14/201710CFR Occupational Dose Limits - AdultsLens dose equivalent (LDE) (lens of the eye) -15 rem/yrANDShallow dose equivalent (SDE) (skin of the whole body or any extremity) - 50 rem/yrThe most limiting is used to determine compliance.
1210CFR20.1201 Occupational Dose Limits - Adults 4/14/201710CFR Occupational Dose Limits - AdultsDerived air concentration (DAC) and annual limit on intake (ALI) values are presented in table 1 of appendix B to part 20 and may be used to determine the individual's dose and to demonstrate compliance with the occupational dose limits.In addition to the annual dose limits, the licensee shall limit the soluble uranium intake by an individual to 10 milligrams in a week in consideration of chemical toxicity (see footnote 3 of appendix B to part 20).
1310CFR20.1201 Occupational Dose Limits - Adults 4/14/201710CFR Occupational Dose Limits - AdultsThe licensee shall reduce the dose that an individual may be allowed to receive in the current year by the amount of occupational dose received while employed by any other person
1410CFR20.1207 Occupational Dose Limits - Minors 4/14/201710CFR Occupational Dose Limits - MinorsMinor means an individual less than 18 years of age.The annual occupational dose limits for minors are 10 percent of the annual dose limits specified for adult workers in §
1510CFR20.1208 Occupational Dose Limits Unborn Child 4/14/201710CFR Occupational Dose Limits Unborn ChildDose equivalent to the embryo/fetus during the entire pregnancy, due to the occupational exposure of a declared pregnant woman, does not exceed 0.5 remThe dose equivalent to the embryo/fetus is the sum of:(1) The deep-dose equivalent to the declared pregnant woman; and(2) The dose equivalent to the embryo/fetus resulting from radionuclides in the embryo/fetus and radionuclides in the declared pregnant woman.
1610CFR20.1208 Occupational Dose Limits Unborn Child 4/14/201710CFR Occupational Dose Limits Unborn ChildDose equivalent to the embryo/fetus during the entire pregnancy, due to the occupational exposure of a declared pregnant woman, does not exceed 0.5 remThe dose equivalent to the embryo/fetus is the sum of:(1) The deep-dose equivalent to the declared pregnant woman; and(2) The dose equivalent to the embryo/fetus resulting from radionuclides in the embryo/fetus and radionuclides in the declared pregnant woman.
1710CFR20.1208 Occupational Dose Limits Unborn Child 4/14/201710CFR Occupational Dose Limits Unborn ChildIf the worker has received 0.5 rem at time of declaration, then the limit becomes less than or equal to 0.05 rem during remainder of pregnancy.
18Subpart D - Radiation Dose Limits for Individual Members of the Public 4/14/2017Subpart D - Radiation Dose Limits for Individual Members of the PublicPublic dose means the dose received by a member of the public from exposure to radiation or to radioactive material released by a licensee, or to any other source of radiation under the control of a licensee.Public dose does not include occupational dose or doses received from background radiation, from any medical administration the individual has received, from exposure to individuals administered radioactive material and released under § 35.75, or from voluntary participation in medical research programs.18
1910CFR20.1301 Limits Members of the Public 4/14/201710CFR Limits Members of the Public0.1 rem in a year - TEDEANDDose received in unrestricted areas shall be controlled below rem in any one hour19
20Subpart C - Standards for Internal and External Exposure 4/14/201710CFR835 Dose LimitsSubpart C - Standards for Internal and External Exposure
2110CFR835.202 Occupational Dose Limit for General Employees 4/14/201710CFR Occupational Dose Limit for General EmployeesGeneral employee means an individual who is either:a DOE or DOE contractor employee;an employee of a subcontractor to a DOE contractor;or an individual who performs work for or in conjunction with DOE or utilizes DOE facilities.
2210CFR835.202 Occupational Dose Limit for General Employees 4/14/201710CFR Occupational Dose Limit for General EmployeesDoses shall be controlled such that the following limits are not exceeded in a year:Total Effective Dose of 5 remSum of the equivalent dose to the whole body and the committed equivalent dose to any individual organ or tissue (except the skin or lens of the eye) being equal to 50 rem
2310CFR835.202 Occupational Dose Limit for General Employees 4/14/201710CFR Occupational Dose Limit for General EmployeesAn equivalent dose to the lens of the eye of remsThe sum of the equivalent dose to the skin or to any extremity for external exposures and the committed equivalent dose to the skin or to any extremity of 50 rems
2410CFR835.207 Limits for the Unborn Child 4/14/201710CFR Limits for the Unborn ChildThe equivalent dose limit for the embryo/fetus from the period of conception to birth, as a result of occupational exposure of a declared pregnant worker, is 0.5 rem
2510CFR835.207 Limits for the Unborn Child 4/14/201710CFR Limits for the Unborn ChildIf the equivalent dose to the embryo/fetus is determined to have already exceeded 0.5 rem by the time a worker declares her pregnancy, the declared pregnant worker shall not be assigned to tasks where additional occupational exposure is likely during the remaining gestation period.
2610CFR835.207 Occupational Dose Limits - Minors 4/14/201710CFR Occupational Dose Limits - MinorsMinor means an individual less than 18 years of age.The dose limits for minors occupationally exposed to radiation and/or radioactive materials at a DOE activity are:0.1 rem total effective dose in a yearand10 percent of the occupational dose limits .
2710CFR835.208 Limits Members of the Public Entering A Controlled Area 4/14/201710CFR Limits Members of the Public Entering A Controlled AreaMember of the public means an individual who is not a general employee. An individual is not a “member of the public” during any period in which the individual receives an occupational dose.Controlled area means any area to which access is managed by or for DOE to protect individuals from exposure to radiation and/or radioactive material.27
2810CFR835.208 Limits Members of the Public Entering A Controlled Area 4/14/201710CFR Limits Members of the Public Entering A Controlled AreaThe total effective dose limit for members of the public exposed to radiation and/or radioactive material during access to a controlled area is 0.1 rem in a year.28
30Administrative Margin The regulatory limits just discussed have been established based on various studies and research.The level at which they have been set ensure the absence of any discernably adverse effects either in the person receiving the dose or in their progeny.Failure to maintain dose received below the limits in any of the categories is a violation of the federal law; therefore, very serious.
31Administrative Margin Because of that, every organization establishes administrative limts which are significantly less than the federal limit- creating a “margin of safety”.The administrative limits are usually stipulated in administrative and implementing level procedures.Typically, exceeding administrative limits is also viewed very seriously and is investigated through the organization’s incident reporting process.
33In Both RegulationsDefined in 10CFR20 - Planned special exposure (PSE) means an infrequent exposure to radiation, separate from and in addition to the annual dose limits. Addressed in 10CFRAlthough not specifically defined in 10CFR835, PSE is addressed in 10CFR and is the same principle as in 10CFR20.
34In Both RegulationsBasically, the doses received in a PSE are not counted against the annual limits.However, a PSE follows a stringent process which involves detailed planning and prior authorization from upper management.The PSE dose received is limited to no more than the normal annual limits in each caseANDNo more than 5 times the annual limits when summed over a lifetime.Not often used and then only with great care and kept ALARA.
36RememberThe last lecture introduced the main means by which dose is reduced:Annual Collective and Individual Dose GoalsALARA Job Planning GroupALARA Committee Formation and OperationRWP“The Big Three” – TDSHere will look in a little more detail at some select areas.
37In the FieldAs an RP Technician you are viewed as the “expert” in the field.If there is a question in the field, you will be sought out for assistance.Often, you are placed “in charge” of the radiological aspect of the job.You provide job coverage.Job overage may be classified as:part time (initial and intermittent)full coverage (continuous coverage)
38Job CoveragePart Time Coverage (Initial and Intermittent) – will be for jobs that have a potential for impacting the radiological conditions of the area.The technician will do an initial radiological assessment (dose rates, air sample possibly, maybe some contamination surveys)Additional assessments will performed based on the specifics of the task.Aside for that the technician is not required to be in the area.Typically not a dose issue.
39Job CoverageFull Coverage (Continuous Coverage) – is required when the radiological conditions warrant the presence of the “expert” at all times that workers are in the area.The technician does an initial radiological assessment and informs the workers of the conditions.The tech provides on-site instructions needed to maintain dose ALARA and to protect the worker.The tech will often assign local stay times and will keep time on the workers.
40Job Coverage Full Coverage (cont’d) – Direct workers away from hot spots or areas of higher doseLook for shadow shielding to take advantage ofThe idea is, the tech serves as an objective monitor of the radiological conditions in the area, of the workers’ accumulating dose, or as a time keeper.Do not get side-tracked or involved in the task you are coveringMaintain your objectivity