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Dose Limits Radiological Safety and Response RPT-243 -2.

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Presentation on theme: "Dose Limits Radiological Safety and Response RPT-243 -2."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dose Limits Radiological Safety and Response RPT

2 Learning Outcomes Upon completion of this lesson, the student will be able to: Discuss the regulatory dose limits from 10CFR20 and 10 CFR835. State the purpose of having plant administrative limits for radiation exposure (such as margin from regulatory limits). Describe when a planned special exposure is allowed and the detailed requirements of the planned special exposure. Describe exposure control techniques that can be used to control worker and technician radiation exposures.

3 Outline Introduction 10CFR20 Limits 10 CFR 835 Limits Administrative Limits Planned Special Exposures Exposure Control Techniques Questions

4 Introduction

5 As discussed in the previous lecture, the nuclear industry is regulated through the use of either the 10CFR20 or 10CFR835 codes depending on whether it is NRC or DOE. In this lecture, we will look at the various dose limits used in the industry established by these regulations. The principle of administrative limits and planned special exposures will also be discussed. Finally, we will further explore exposure control techniques.

6 10CFR20 Dose Limits

7 Basic Terms Whole body means, for purposes of external exposure, head, trunk (including male gonads), arms above the elbow, or legs above the knee. Extremity means hand, elbow, arm below the elbow, foot, knee, or leg below the knee. Dose or radiation dose is a generic term that means absorbed dose, dose equivalent, effective dose equivalent, committed dose equivalent, committed effective dose equivalent, or total effective dose equivalent (exposure is used as an equivalent term here).

8 Subpart C – Occupational Dose Limits - Adults Occupational Dose is defined as: – the dose received by an individual in the course of employment in which the individual's assigned duties involve exposure to radiation or to radioactive material from licensed and unlicensed sources of radiation, whether in the possession of the licensee or other person.

9 Subpart C – Occupational Dose Limits - Adults Occupational Dose : – does not include doses received from: background radiation, any medical administration the individual has received, exposure to individuals administered radioactive material and released under § 35.75, from voluntary participation in medical research programs, or as a member of the public.

10 10CFR Occupational Dose Limits - Adults The licensee SHALL control individual occupational adult doses to the following annual limits: –Total Effective Dose Equivalent (TEDE) of 5 rem/yr OR –Sum of the deep-dose equivalent (DDE) and the committed dose equivalent (CDE) to any individual organ or tissue (except lens of the eye) being equal to 50 rem/yr AND

11 10CFR Occupational Dose Limits - Adults –Lens dose equivalent (LDE) (lens of the eye) - 15 rem/yr AND –Shallow dose equivalent (SDE) (skin of the whole body or any extremity) - 50 rem/yr The most limiting is used to determine compliance.

12 10CFR Occupational Dose Limits - Adults Derived air concentration (DAC) and annual limit on intake (ALI) values are presented in table 1 of appendix B to part 20 and may be used to determine the individual's dose and to demonstrate compliance with the occupational dose limits. In addition to the annual dose limits, the licensee shall limit the soluble uranium intake by an individual to 10 milligrams in a week in consideration of chemical toxicity (see footnote 3 of appendix B to part 20).

13 10CFR Occupational Dose Limits - Adults The licensee shall reduce the dose that an individual may be allowed to receive in the current year by the amount of occupational dose received while employed by any other person

14 10CFR Occupational Dose Limits - Minors Minor means an individual less than 18 years of age. The annual occupational dose limits for minors are 10 percent of the annual dose limits specified for adult workers in §

15 10CFR Occupational Dose Limits Unborn Child Dose equivalent to the embryo/fetus during the entire pregnancy, due to the occupational exposure of a declared pregnant woman, does not exceed 0.5 rem – The dose equivalent to the embryo/fetus is the sum of: (1) The deep-dose equivalent to the declared pregnant woman; and (2) The dose equivalent to the embryo/fetus resulting from radionuclides in the embryo/fetus and radionuclides in the declared pregnant woman.

16 10CFR Occupational Dose Limits Unborn Child Dose equivalent to the embryo/fetus during the entire pregnancy, due to the occupational exposure of a declared pregnant woman, does not exceed 0.5 rem – The dose equivalent to the embryo/fetus is the sum of: (1) The deep-dose equivalent to the declared pregnant woman; and (2) The dose equivalent to the embryo/fetus resulting from radionuclides in the embryo/fetus and radionuclides in the declared pregnant woman.

17 10CFR Occupational Dose Limits Unborn Child If the worker has received 0.5 rem at time of declaration, then the limit becomes less than or equal to 0.05 rem during remainder of pregnancy.

18 Subpart D - Radiation Dose Limits for Individual Members of the Public Public dose means the dose received by a member of the public from exposure to radiation or to radioactive material released by a licensee, or to any other source of radiation under the control of a licensee. Public dose does not include occupational dose or doses received from background radiation, from any medical administration the individual has received, from exposure to individuals administered radioactive material and released under § 35.75, or from voluntary participation in medical research programs.

19 10CFR Limits Members of the Public 0.1 rem in a year - TEDE AND Dose received in unrestricted areas shall be controlled below rem in any one hour

20 10CFR835 Dose Limits Subpart C - Standards for Internal and External Exposure

21 10CFR Occupational Dose Limit for General Employees General employee means an individual who is either: a DOE or DOE contractor employee; an employee of a subcontractor to a DOE contractor; or an individual who performs work for or in conjunction with DOE or utilizes DOE facilities.

22 10CFR Occupational Dose Limit for General Employees Doses shall be controlled such that the following limits are not exceeded in a year: Total Effective Dose of 5 rem Sum of the equivalent dose to the whole body and the committed equivalent dose to any individual organ or tissue (except the skin or lens of the eye) being equal to 50 rem

23 10CFR Occupational Dose Limit for General Employees –An equivalent dose to the lens of the eye of 15 rems – The sum of the equivalent dose to the skin or to any extremity for external exposures and the committed equivalent dose to the skin or to any extremity of 50 rems

24 10CFR Limits for the Unborn Child The equivalent dose limit for the embryo/fetus from the period of conception to birth, as a result of occupational exposure of a declared pregnant worker, is 0.5 rem

25 10CFR Limits for the Unborn Child If the equivalent dose to the embryo/fetus is determined to have already exceeded 0.5 rem by the time a worker declares her pregnancy, the declared pregnant worker shall not be assigned to tasks where additional occupational exposure is likely during the remaining gestation period.

26 10CFR Occupational Dose Limits - Minors Minor means an individual less than 18 years of age. The dose limits for minors occupationally exposed to radiation and/or radioactive materials at a DOE activity are: – 0.1 rem total effective dose in a year and – 10 percent of the occupational dose limits.

27 Member of the public means an individual who is not a general employee. An individual is not a “member of the public” during any period in which the individual receives an occupational dose. Controlled area means any area to which access is managed by or for DOE to protect individuals from exposure to radiation and/or radioactive material. 10CFR Limits Members of the Public Entering A Controlled Area

28 The total effective dose limit for members of the public exposed to radiation and/or radioactive material during access to a controlled area is 0.1 rem in a year.

29 Administrative Dose Limts

30 Administrative Margin The regulatory limits just discussed have been established based on various studies and research. The level at which they have been set ensure the absence of any discernably adverse effects either in the person receiving the dose or in their progeny. Failure to maintain dose received below the limits in any of the categories is a violation of the federal law; therefore, very serious.

31 Administrative Margin Because of that, every organization establishes administrative limts which are significantly less than the federal limit- creating a “margin of safety”. The administrative limits are usually stipulated in administrative and implementing level procedures. Typically, exceeding administrative limits is also viewed very seriously and is investigated through the organization’s incident reporting process.

32 Planned Special Exposure

33 In Both Regulations Defined in 10CFR20 - Planned special exposure (PSE) means an infrequent exposure to radiation, separate from and in addition to the annual dose limits. Addressed in 10CFR Although not specifically defined in 10CFR835, PSE is addressed in 10CFR and is the same principle as in 10CFR20.

34 In Both Regulations Basically, the doses received in a PSE are not counted against the annual limits. However, a PSE follows a stringent process which involves detailed planning and prior authorization from upper management. The PSE dose received is limited to no more than the normal annual limits in each case AND No more than 5 times the annual limits when summed over a lifetime. Not often used and then only with great care and kept ALARA.

35 Exposure Control Techniques

36 Remember The last lecture introduced the main means by which dose is reduced: – Annual Collective and Individual Dose Goals – ALARA Job Planning Group – ALARA Committee Formation and Operation – RWP – “The Big Three” – TDS Here will look in a little more detail at some select areas.

37 In the Field As an RP Technician you are viewed as the “expert” in the field. If there is a question in the field, you will be sought out for assistance. Often, you are placed “in charge” of the radiological aspect of the job. You provide job coverage. Job overage may be classified as: – part time (initial and intermittent) – full coverage (continuous coverage)

38 Job Coverage Part Time Coverage (Initial and Intermittent) – will be for jobs that have a potential for impacting the radiological conditions of the area. – The technician will do an initial radiological assessment (dose rates, air sample possibly, maybe some contamination surveys) – Additional assessments will performed based on the specifics of the task. – Aside for that the technician is not required to be in the area. – Typically not a dose issue.

39 Job Coverage Full Coverage (Continuous Coverage) – is required when the radiological conditions warrant the presence of the “expert” at all times that workers are in the area. – The technician does an initial radiological assessment and informs the workers of the conditions. – The tech provides on-site instructions needed to maintain dose ALARA and to protect the worker. – The tech will often assign local stay times and will keep time on the workers.

40 Job Coverage Full Coverage (cont’d) – – Direct workers away from hot spots or areas of higher dose – Look for shadow shielding to take advantage of – The idea is, the tech serves as an objective monitor of the radiological conditions in the area, of the workers’ accumulating dose, or as a time keeper. – Do not get side-tracked or involved in the task you are covering – Maintain your objectivity

41 What Are Your Questions?


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