Presentation on theme: "Growth and Development"— Presentation transcript:
1 Growth and Development Chapter 8Growth and DevelopmentLesson 3Heredity and the Life CycleClick for:>> Main Menu>> Chapter 8 AssessmentTeacher’s notes are available in the notes section of this presentation.Next >>
2 Tiny strands of matter that carry the codes for inherited traits chromosomesgenesfetusprenatal careTiny strands of matter that carry the codes for inherited traitsThe basic units of heredityWhat the developing unborn baby is known as from the eighth week until birthClick to reveal the definitions.Special care to ensure that an expecting mother and the baby remain healthy
3 In this lesson, you will learn to explain how inherited traits are passed along.identify changes to the developing baby.recognize stages in the life-cycle.
4 The Developing Baby Analyzing a Graphic After 3 monthsAfter 6 monthsAfter 9 monthsThe Developing BabyAnalyzing a GraphicUsing this diagram as a guide, describe the stages of development before birth.
5 Hair color and body build are examples of inherited traits. HeredityHeredity is the process by which parents pass certain traits to their children.Hair color and body build are examples of inherited traits.Children may also inherit talents and abilities. The likelihood of developing certain diseases and health problems is also passed along.
6 Traits are passed along by chromosomes. HeredityTraits are passed along by chromosomes.chromosomes Tiny strands of matter that carry the codes for inherited traitsChromosomes are made up of genes.Chromosomes are arranged in pairs in your body’s cells. One chromosome comes from your father, the other from your mother.genes The basic units of heredity
7 Chromosomes and Fertilization Among each sperm’s 23 chromosomes, one alone determines the gender of the fertilized egg cell.An egg caries only an X chromosome. Sperm carry either an X or Y chromosome.If a sperm carries an X chromosome, a female will result. If a sperm carries a Y chromosome, a male will result.Every type of cell in the human body except one contains 46 chromosomes. That one exception is the reproductive cell. The newly fertilized egg has 46 chromosomes.
8 Development Before Birth The newly fertilized egg travels down the fallopian tube to the uterus.The egg attaches itself to the wall of the uterus.The egg begins to be divided millions of times.The tissues, organs, and body systems are eventually formed.
9 The Developing Baby Time Size Features Development fertilization microscopicarms, legs, fingers, toes, eyes, earsheart is beating; nervous system is forming; cannot survive outside uterus6 months after fertilizationabout 14 inches long; weighs about 2 poundshair, eyebrows, fingernails, toenailscan move and kick; sucks thumb; can hear sounds; might survive outside uterus9 months after fertilization18–20 inches long; weighs 7–9 poundssmooth skin, fully developed organseyes open and close; fingers can grasp; body organs and systems can now work on their own; ready for birth
10 The Developing BabyIn the uterus, the fetus receives oxygen and nutrients through a tube called the umbilical cord.fetus What the developing unborn baby is known as from the eighth week until birth
11 Throughout pregnancy, an expectant mother needs prenatal care. The Developing BabyThroughout pregnancy, an expectant mother needs prenatal care.prenatal care Special care to ensure that the expectant mother and the baby remain healthyPregnancy is a joyful event, but is also means added responsibility. New parents often don’t get a lot of sleep and may experience added stress or other emotional changes.The mother-to-be must avoid tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs not prescribed by the doctor.Prenatal care includes eating healthy foods, getting enough rest, and seeing the doctor regularly.
12 The life cycle is divided into six major stages. InfancyChildhoodAdolescenceEarly AdulthoodMiddle AdulthoodLate AdulthoodInfancy – Age 1Physically, babies grow fast. Babies also grow mentally/emotionally.Infants need loving physical car and attention.Childhood – Ages 1 to 11During this time, children are busy absorbing information. Encouragement at this stage builds self-esteem.Adolescence – Ages 12 to 18This is a time of transition.Skills such as decision making, goal setting, and good communication help prepare adolescents for adulthoodEarly Adulthood – Ages 19 to 30Many young adults are busy pursuing and education or training for a career..Some young adults choose to get married and start a family.Middle Adulthood – Ages 30 to 60Many at this stage look at ways to contribute to the community.People at this stage begin planning for the final stageLate Adulthood – 60+People at this stage are thinking about retirement,Those who maintain good health will be able to stay active through this stage.Age 1Ages 1–11Ages 12–18Ages 19–30Ages 30–60Ages 60+
13 What I Learned Vocabulary Define chromosomes. Lesson 3 Review Chromosomes are tiny strands of matter that carry the codes for inherited traits.
14 Lesson 3 ReviewWhat I LearnedRecall How many chromosomes are there in most cells of the human body? What is the one exception?There are 46 chromosomes in all body cells except for the reproductive cells, which have 23.
15 Lesson 3 ReviewWhat I LearnedIdentify Name two developments that may take place during early adulthood.Sample answer: advancing one's education, planning or beginning a career, getting married, starting a family
16 Lesson 3 ReviewThinking CriticallyExplain What determines whether a baby will be male or female?The presence of an X or Y chromosome in the sperm cells determines this. An X chromosome means that a female will result, while a Y chromosome means that a male will result.
17 Lesson 3 ReviewThinking CriticallyApply Yvonne hopes to become a lawyer when she reaches adulthood. What skills can she develop now during her teens to help her achieve her career goals?Sample answers: learning and practicing communication skills, achieving good grades
18 Growth and Development End ofChapter 8Growth and DevelopmentLesson 3Heredity and the Life CycleClick for:>> Main Menu>> Chapter 8 Assessment