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1.  Computer applications today: ◦ Word processing (Word) ◦ Spreadsheets (Excel) ◦ Presentation software (PowerPoint) ◦ Communication (email, Internet)

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Presentation on theme: "1.  Computer applications today: ◦ Word processing (Word) ◦ Spreadsheets (Excel) ◦ Presentation software (PowerPoint) ◦ Communication (email, Internet)"— Presentation transcript:

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2  Computer applications today: ◦ Word processing (Word) ◦ Spreadsheets (Excel) ◦ Presentation software (PowerPoint) ◦ Communication ( , Internet) ◦ Games ◦ Databases ◦... 2

3 3 At the British Museum

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5  Difference Engine (video) Difference Engine  Difference Engine (article) Difference Engine 5

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8  Pictures and Drawings Pictures and Drawings  Court Trial Court Trial  Reconstructing the ABC Computer Reconstructing the ABC Computer  ABC part 1 (video, 10 min) ABC part 1  ABC part 2 (video, 10 min) ABC part 2  ABC part 3 (video, 10 min) ABC part 3 8

9  18,000 vacuum tubes  80 ft long x 3 ft deep by 8 ft tall  $500,000 ($6M in today’s dollars)  30 tons  150 kilowatts  ENIAC (Wikipedia article) ENIAC 9

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12  ABC was the first electronic, digital computer.  ENIAC was the first electronic, digital, general-purpose computer. 12

13  UNIVAC 1, More UNIVAC UNIVAC 1More UNIVAC 13

14  Big  Slow  Hot  Expensive  Unreliable 14

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17  Smaller  Faster  Cooler  Cheaper  More reliable 17

18  IBM

19  IBM 360 IBM

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21  IBM

22  A “mini” computer was about the size of a refrigerator. They could be made this small because of integrated circuits.  PDP 8 PDP 8 22

23  The “micro” computer.  The Apple ][ Plus  Apple II Apple II 23

24  A 4th generation computer uses large- scale integrated circuits (silicon chips) for its circuitry. 24

25  IBM PC  August,

26  iMac 26

27  The trend has continually been: ◦ SMALLER ◦ CHEAPER ◦ FASTER ◦ MORE RELIABLE ◦ MORE POWERFUL ◦ MORE ENERGY EFFICIENT 27

28 28 GenDatesHardware 1Early 50s-Late 50sVacuum tubes 2Late 50s-Mid 60sTransistors 3Mid 60s-Mid 70sIntegrated Circuits 4Mid 70s-Present Large-scale integrated circuits

29  Moore's Law (1965): The number of transistors that can be placed on an integrated circuit is doubling approximately every 2 years. Moore's Law 29

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32 32 CPU Main Memory Secondary Memory (Storage) Secondary Memory (Storage) Input Output

33  Input Device: Hardware used to enter data and instructions 33

34  Most common devices: ◦ Keyboard ◦ Mouse 34

35  Three other common devices: ◦ Microphone ◦ Scanner ◦ Web Cam 35

36  Hardware that conveys information to humans 36

37  Most common: ◦ Monitor ◦ Printer 37

38  Another common output device: ◦ Speakers 38

39  System Unit: Case containing electronic components used to process data 39

40  CPU and memory go on the motherboard: 40

41  Central Processing Unit (CPU): the electronic component that interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate the computer.  It is located inside the system unit on the motherboard. 41

42  Executes instructions (programs/software)  One instruction at a time (per “core”)  Billions of instructions per second  Today: multiple cores (CPUs)  Today: 2-3 GHz clock speed  Located on motherboard 42

43  The Core i7 has four processors inside of it. 43

44  Celeron: Lower cost, lower performance 44

45  Main Memory: Consists of electronic components that store instructions waiting to be executed and data needed by those instructions  It is located in the system unit on the motherboard. 45

46 Main Memory is:  Fast!  But: Volatile... ... Expensive... ... and Limited 46

47  Storage: Holds data and instructions for future use: ◦ Magnetic disk ◦ Flash memory ◦ Optical disk ◦ Magnetic tape 47

48 Secondary Memory is:  Permanent (not volatile)  Cheap (cost per byte)  Unlimited  But: Slow! 48 Main Memory is:  Volatile  Expensive  Limited  Fast!

49 ” 3.5” 2.5” 1.5”

50  Hard disk: Provides greater storage capacity than a floppy disk or USB flash drive  Direct Access  Most are housed inside of the system unit 50

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52  Floppy Disk  Small removable magnetic storage device.  Direct access  Holds about 1.4 MB  Obsolete 52

53  USB Flash Drive: Provides much greater storage capacity than a floppy disk.  Small and lightweight enough to be transported on a keychain or in a pocket  Direct Access 53

54  Magnetic tape  Sequential access  Used primarily for backup 54

55  Old: 7-inch tape  New: cassettes 55

56  Optical Disk: Flat, round, portable metal disc  Direct Access  CD-ROM (.6 GB)  DVD-ROM (4-17 GB)  Blu-ray (25-50 GB) 56

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58  The two most popular personal computers:  PC and compatibles use the Windows operating system  Apple Macintosh usually uses the Macintosh operating system (Mac OS X) 58

59  Notebook/laptop computer:  Portable, small enough to fit on your lap  Usually more expensive than a desktop computer with equal capabilities 59

60  Apple iPad tablet computer  iPad overview iPad overview 60

61  Smart phone: a mobile phone offering advanced capabilities, often with PC-like functionality. 61

62  Portable Media Players  Stores music, videos, photos 62

63  Game Console: a mobile computing device designed for single-player or multiplayer video games. 63

64  Server: A computer that controls access to network resources and provides centralized storage 64

65  Mainframe computer: very powerful, expensive computer that supports thousands of connected users. 65

66  Supercomputer: the fastest, most powerful, most expensive computer. Used for applications requiring complex mathematical calculations. 66

67  World’s fastest computer  1750 teraflops 67

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69  Embedded Computer: a special-purpose computer that functions as a component in a larger product. 69

70 1. Personal Computers (desktop) 2. Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices 3. Game Consoles 4. Servers 5. Mainframes 6. Supercomputers 7. Embedded Computers 70

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