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Unit 3: Hardware Components & Software Concepts

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1 Unit 3: Hardware Components & Software Concepts
Computing in the Modern World HARDWARE CONCEPTS

2 GPS Standard BCS-CMW-4: Students will describe the major hardware and software components of a computer and their interactions.

3 What is a computer? Electronic device that accepts, processes, produces results, and stores data Data Collection of unprocessed items Text, numbers, images, audio, and video Information Conveys meaning and is useful Ex. Data is input to create a grade report

4 Information Processing Cycle
Input Process Output Storage

5 Components of a Computer
Hardware Electric, electronic, and mechanical components Input devices Output devices System unit Storage devices Communications devices

6 Input Devices Any hardware component that allows you to enter data and instructions into a computer Keyboard Mouse Microphone Scanner Digital camera Web cam

7 Output Devices Any hardware component that conveys information to one or more people Printer Monitor Speakers Portable media player

8 System Unit A case that contains electronic components of the computer used to process data

9 Motherboard Sometimes called system board
Main circuit board of the system unit Many electronic components are attached to the motherboard Expansion slots Processor chips Memory slots

10 Processor or CPU Interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate a computer

11 Processor Control Unit Types of components it directs
Component of processor that directs and coordinates operations Like a traffic cop: it interprets each instruction issued by a program and then initiates the appropriate action to carry out the instruction Types of components it directs Arithmetic/logic unit Registers and buses

12 Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)
Performs arithmetic operations and comparisons Basic calculations Add, subtract, multiply, division Comparing one data item to another Greater than Equal to Less than

13 Machine Cycle For every instruction, a processor repeats 4 basic operations (machine cycle). 1. Fetching, 2. decoding, 3. executing, and 4. storing

14 System Clock Controls the timing of all operations Clock speed
Pace of clock Gigahertz (GHz): one billion ticks of the system clock per second Faster clock speed=more instructions the processor can execute per second

15 Comparison of Processors
Leading chip manufacturers Intel AMD (Advanced Micro Devices) IBM Motorola Today’s high performance PC’s: Intel Core Less expensive PC’s: Pentium or Celeron

16 Processors Multi-core processor Increases overall performance
Single chip with 2 or more processors Dual-core: 2 separate processors Quad-core: 4 separate processors Increases overall performance Especially noticeable when running multiple programs , antivirus software, spyware remover, IM, media player, CD burning software, and photo editing software

17 Memory Store instructions, data needed by those instructions, and the results of processed data One or more chips on motherboard Stores 3 basic categories Operating system Application programs Data being processed by application programs

18 Byte Character, basic storage unit of memory Each byte has an address
Unique number that identifies the location of the byte in memory

19 Memory Sizes

20 RAM Random access memory Examples:
Main memory Volatile: loses its contents when power is removed Examples: Operating system interface Browser windows Paint program More RAM = faster response from computer Software applications usually have a minimum requirement for RAM for the application to run properly. EX. Vista, Microsoft Office

21 Cache Pronounced cash Temporary storage for faster viewing
Ex. Web pages, images, media

22 ROM Read-only memory Permanent storage
Non-volatile: not lost when power is removed Cannot be modified Ex. ROM chips in printers contain data for fonts Ex. When your system boots up

23 Flash Memory Nonvolatile Fast Examples
Downloading music on iTunes to your iPod Storing phone numbers on your phone Pagers Digital cameras

24 Expansion Slots/Adapter Cards
Motherboard To enhance functions or provide connections to devices

25 Ports Port: a point in which peripheral attaches to or communicates with a system unit. Connectors: joins a cable to a port

26 Connectors


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