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SEMINAR 8 Unit 8: Legitimate Argument and Logical Fallacy.

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1 SEMINAR 8 Unit 8: Legitimate Argument and Logical Fallacy

2 What should you learn in this unit?  The importance of using specific research evidence in specific writing situations  How to avoid flaws in your argument  How to apply the concepts of source use and integration (i.e. directly quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing)  The importance of using specific research evidence in specific writing situations  How to avoid flaws in your argument  How to apply the concepts of source use and integration (i.e. directly quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing)

3 What do you have to do to complete this unit?  Read Avoiding Flawed Thinking  Read Chapter 47e in Rules For Writers  Attend the weekly Seminar  Respond to the Discussion Board  Visit Take A Break!  Video: Commas Explained Quickly  Video: Colons and Semicolons Explained Quickly  Read Avoiding Flawed Thinking  Read Chapter 47e in Rules For Writers  Attend the weekly Seminar  Respond to the Discussion Board  Visit Take A Break!  Video: Commas Explained Quickly  Video: Colons and Semicolons Explained Quickly

4 Reading Read “Avoiding Flawed Thinking: Logical Fallacies” & 47e in Rules For Writers Read “Avoiding Flawed Thinking: Logical Fallacies” & 47e in Rules For Writers

5 Discussion: Supporting Your Thesis  As you prepare to begin revising your essay, it’s important to do additional research to support your thesis and to look at opposing perspectives. -What process do you use to determine if a source is credible and appropriate? -How do you determine the relevance and reliability of a source? Compose a word response and copy and paste the final version into the discussion board. Always respond to at least two (2) of your classmates posts.

6 Evidence and Logical Fallacies - Take A Break!  Web Field Trip: Paraphrase  Visit the Owl at Purdue and learn more about paraphrasing. paraphrasing  Watch the Video Jug clip on how to use commas. Punctuation: How To Use CommasPunctuationHow To Use Commas  Watch the Video Jug clip on how to use colons and semicolons. Punctuation: How To Use Colons And Semi-ColonsPunctuationHow To Use Colons And Semi-Colons  Watch the videos on logical fallacies in Unit 8 Announcement.  Web Field Trip: Paraphrase  Visit the Owl at Purdue and learn more about paraphrasing. paraphrasing  Watch the Video Jug clip on how to use commas. Punctuation: How To Use CommasPunctuationHow To Use Commas  Watch the Video Jug clip on how to use colons and semicolons. Punctuation: How To Use Colons And Semi-ColonsPunctuationHow To Use Colons And Semi-Colons  Watch the videos on logical fallacies in Unit 8 Announcement.

7 Revision  What is revision?  How will I begin this process?  What is revision?  How will I begin this process?

8 What is revision?  “Re-vision,” or literally, “re-seeing” the paper.  Great writers do it! E.B. White, the author of Charlotte’s Web, noted that “The best writing is rewriting” (cited in Van Dam & Tysick, 2008, p. 66).  The acronym “ARMS” can help writers remember important steps in revision.  “Re-vision,” or literally, “re-seeing” the paper.  Great writers do it! E.B. White, the author of Charlotte’s Web, noted that “The best writing is rewriting” (cited in Van Dam & Tysick, 2008, p. 66).  The acronym “ARMS” can help writers remember important steps in revision.

9 ARMS  Do I need to Add anything? -- a word, a phrase, a sentence, a paragraph, a description  Do I need to Remove anything? Did I repeat myself?  Do I need to Move anything? -- a word, a phrase, a sentence, a paragraph  Do I need to Substitute anything? – a word, phrase, a sentence  Do I need to Add anything? -- a word, a phrase, a sentence, a paragraph, a description  Do I need to Remove anything? Did I repeat myself?  Do I need to Move anything? -- a word, a phrase, a sentence, a paragraph  Do I need to Substitute anything? – a word, phrase, a sentence

10 PREFACTS Ask yourself, “Do I have enough so that my audience will accept my claims?” Use the acronym PREFACTS. P = personal observations or experiences placed in third person (he, she, they, a person, etc.) R= reasons E = examples F = facts A = analogies (comparisons) C = concrete sensory images (descriptions) T = testimony S = statistics Ask yourself, “Do I have enough so that my audience will accept my claims?” Use the acronym PREFACTS. P = personal observations or experiences placed in third person (he, she, they, a person, etc.) R= reasons E = examples F = facts A = analogies (comparisons) C = concrete sensory images (descriptions) T = testimony S = statistics

11 Begin with “Macro” revisions  Purpose  Thesis  Audience  Structure  Support  Purpose  Thesis  Audience  Structure  Support

12 Answer the following questions: 1.Discuss the pros and cons of your topic and any possible issues you think might arise for you while researching and writing about the topic. 2. Do your think this will be a strong persuasive research paper topic? 3. Who might be interested in reading this paper? 4. What other controversies have you heard in relation to this topic? 5. How do certain people in your circle of friends, family or co- workers respond to this controversy? 6. What logical fallacies might apply to the argument? 7.What do you fail to say or acknowledge? What impact does this have on the credibility of the argument? 1.Discuss the pros and cons of your topic and any possible issues you think might arise for you while researching and writing about the topic. 2. Do your think this will be a strong persuasive research paper topic? 3. Who might be interested in reading this paper? 4. What other controversies have you heard in relation to this topic? 5. How do certain people in your circle of friends, family or co- workers respond to this controversy? 6. What logical fallacies might apply to the argument? 7.What do you fail to say or acknowledge? What impact does this have on the credibility of the argument?

13 Introduction and Conclusion  Describe the technique, present the potential introduction you created, and then explain why you feel it will make a successful introduction; 2.) Describe the technique, present the potential conclusion you created, and explain why you feel it will help create a strong conclusion.

14 Introduction  The introduction of your paper, usually one paragraph and rarely more than two, introduces your subject, creates interest, and often states your thesis. You can introduce an essay and engage your readers' interest in a number of ways. 1) You can give background information and then move directly to your thesis statement. This approach works well when you know the audience is already interested in your topic and you can come directly to your point. 2)You can introduce an essay with a definition of a relevant term or concept. 3) You can begin your paper with an anecdote or story that leads readers to your thesis.

15 Introduction  4) You can begin with a question. 5) You can begin with a quotation. If it arouses interest, it can encourage your audience to read further. 6) It can begin with a surprising statement. An unexpected statement catches readers' attention and makes them want to read more. 7) You can begin with a contradiction. You can open your essay with an idea that most people believe is true and then get readers' attention by showing that it is inaccurate or ill advised. 8) You can begin with a fact or statistic, etc. No matter which strategy you select, your introduction should be consistent in tone with the rest of your paper.

16 Body Paragraphs  Please follow the structure for your paragraphs:  (1) a topic sentence, (2) evidence to support your topic sentence, (3) opposing viewpoints, (4) your refutation, (5) concluding sentence.  Please follow the structure for your paragraphs:  (1) a topic sentence, (2) evidence to support your topic sentence, (3) opposing viewpoints, (4) your refutation, (5) concluding sentence.

17 Here is self-assessment checklist:  Unity: 1) Does your topic sentence clearly state your position? 2) Is all your information related to your topic sentence?  Development: 1) Have you made enough points to support your topic sentence? 2) Do you need more facts or other evidence to accept any of your points? 3) Have you mentioned the major arguments against your position? 4) Have you refuted these arguments?  Coherence: 1) Would arranging ideas in a different order make your argument more convincing to the readers? Do you need to add transitional words or phrases? Thank you for submitting your assignment.  Unity: 1) Does your topic sentence clearly state your position? 2) Is all your information related to your topic sentence?  Development: 1) Have you made enough points to support your topic sentence? 2) Do you need more facts or other evidence to accept any of your points? 3) Have you mentioned the major arguments against your position? 4) Have you refuted these arguments?  Coherence: 1) Would arranging ideas in a different order make your argument more convincing to the readers? Do you need to add transitional words or phrases? Thank you for submitting your assignment.

18 Reminder about conclusion  Many find writing the conclusion difficult. Since conclusions leave the reader with a final impression, bland conclusions leave the reader feeling empty or with a "so what" feeling.  Merely summarizing what you have already written does just that: It's blah! Since your essays are short, your readers are capable of remembering what you have already written, so repeating what you have already said is boring.  Many find writing the conclusion difficult. Since conclusions leave the reader with a final impression, bland conclusions leave the reader feeling empty or with a "so what" feeling.  Merely summarizing what you have already written does just that: It's blah! Since your essays are short, your readers are capable of remembering what you have already written, so repeating what you have already said is boring.

19 Conclusions  If you were watching a movie and you got to the end and all the end did was summarize what you had already watched, you would be disappointed. The same is true for your essay. Do not disappoint your readers by merely repeating what you have already said.  Put in a twist. Make it  unexpected  challenging  If you were watching a movie and you got to the end and all the end did was summarize what you had already watched, you would be disappointed. The same is true for your essay. Do not disappoint your readers by merely repeating what you have already said.  Put in a twist. Make it  unexpected  challenging

20 Some Conclusion Tips (1) Suggest a change (2) Predict what will happen next (3) Solve a problem (4) Use a quotation (5)Draw a conclusion. Since people usually remember whatever they read, hear, or see last, think of your conclusion as your last chance to emphasize your main idea (1) Suggest a change (2) Predict what will happen next (3) Solve a problem (4) Use a quotation (5)Draw a conclusion. Since people usually remember whatever they read, hear, or see last, think of your conclusion as your last chance to emphasize your main idea

21 The Bluebook: Uniform Citation for Legal Reference  The Bluebook style guide was established in 1926 and is compiled by the editors of the Columbia Law Review, the Harvard Law Review, the University of Pennsylvania Law Review, and The Yale Law Journal (2010).

22 How to cite cases  A general case citation is as follows: Tom Reed Gold Mines Co. v. United E. Mining Co., 39 Ariz. 533 (1932).  Always underline or italicize case names:  Smith Corp. v. Doe Inc.  The “v.” is lowercase, is followed by a period, and is not “vs.”: Paradise v. Parker,  Follow case names by a comma, which is not underlined or italicized: Arizona v. Fulminante,  A general case citation is as follows: Tom Reed Gold Mines Co. v. United E. Mining Co., 39 Ariz. 533 (1932).  Always underline or italicize case names:  Smith Corp. v. Doe Inc.  The “v.” is lowercase, is followed by a period, and is not “vs.”: Paradise v. Parker,  Follow case names by a comma, which is not underlined or italicized: Arizona v. Fulminante,

23 How to Cite Cases?  Do not include parties' first names, unless they are the name of a corporation: Baker v. John Smith Inc.,  If there is more than one plaintiff or defendant, use only the first party on each side.  Do not abbreviate United States in a case name: United States v. Michigan,  Some words may be abbreviated, but do not abbreviate them if they are the first word of a party. Refer to the Bluebook for common abbreviations.  Do not include parties' first names, unless they are the name of a corporation: Baker v. John Smith Inc.,  If there is more than one plaintiff or defendant, use only the first party on each side.  Do not abbreviate United States in a case name: United States v. Michigan,  Some words may be abbreviated, but do not abbreviate them if they are the first word of a party. Refer to the Bluebook for common abbreviations.

24 How to Cite Federal Cases?  U.S. Supreme Court: Cite to U.S. If it is not yet published there, cite to S. Ct., L. Ed., U.S.L.W., or LEXIS, in that order of preference. Do not include parallel cites: Smith & Jones, Inc. v. Couch, 401 U.S. 313 (1985).  U.S. Circuit Courts of Appeal: Cite to F., F.2d, or F.3d. Note no space between the F. and the number. Include the circuit in the cite: Davis v. Everett, 102 F.2d 24 (9th Cir. 1954).  U.S. District Courts: Cite to F. Supp. Note the space between the F. and the Supp. Include the district in the cite: Flanders v. Glissandi, 913 F. Supp. 885 (C.D. Cal. 1996).  U.S. Supreme Court: Cite to U.S. If it is not yet published there, cite to S. Ct., L. Ed., U.S.L.W., or LEXIS, in that order of preference. Do not include parallel cites: Smith & Jones, Inc. v. Couch, 401 U.S. 313 (1985).  U.S. Circuit Courts of Appeal: Cite to F., F.2d, or F.3d. Note no space between the F. and the number. Include the circuit in the cite: Davis v. Everett, 102 F.2d 24 (9th Cir. 1954).  U.S. District Courts: Cite to F. Supp. Note the space between the F. and the Supp. Include the district in the cite: Flanders v. Glissandi, 913 F. Supp. 885 (C.D. Cal. 1996).

25 Basic Federal Citation U.S. Supreme Court Title, ___ U.S. ___, ___ S.Ct. ___, ___ L.Ed. ___ (Year) U.S. Court of Appeals Title, ___ F.2d ___ (# Cir. Year) U.S. District Court Title, ___ F. Supp. ___ (District Year) U.S. Supreme Court Title, ___ U.S. ___, ___ S.Ct. ___, ___ L.Ed. ___ (Year) U.S. Court of Appeals Title, ___ F.2d ___ (# Cir. Year) U.S. District Court Title, ___ F. Supp. ___ (District Year)

26 How to Cite State Cases?  Cite to the regional reporter. Include the court in the citation: Hoyt, Inc. v. Irving-Johnson Corp., 425 P.2d 976 (Cal. App. 1976). Kearney v. Lovejoy, 777 P.2d 1024 (Cal. 1993).  Cite to the regional reporter. Include the court in the citation: Hoyt, Inc. v. Irving-Johnson Corp., 425 P.2d 976 (Cal. App. 1976). Kearney v. Lovejoy, 777 P.2d 1024 (Cal. 1993).

27 How to Cite Cases Available Only in Lexis? Vaughn v. Wilson, No , 1995 U.S. Sup. Ct. LEXIS 3255, at *16 (1995).

28 How to Cite Quotations? Always give the exact page of a quote (i.e. pinpoint citation), even when paraphrasing: "The Fourth Amendment protects people, not places." Katz v. United States, 375 U.S. 76, 82 (1965). Always give the exact page of a quote (i.e. pinpoint citation), even when paraphrasing: "The Fourth Amendment protects people, not places." Katz v. United States, 375 U.S. 76, 82 (1965).

29 How to Cite Statutes? Federal Statutes: Cite to United States Code (U.S.C., the official citation) or U.S.C.A. (the unofficial, annotated version of the United States Code). 12 U.S.C. § 1986 (West 1996). 12 U.S.C.A. § 1986 (1996). State Statutes: The form varies by state. Cal. Pen. Code § 187 (West 1989). Neb. Stat. Ann. § (b) (West 1990). A.R.S. § (2005). Federal Statutes: Cite to United States Code (U.S.C., the official citation) or U.S.C.A. (the unofficial, annotated version of the United States Code). 12 U.S.C. § 1986 (West 1996). 12 U.S.C.A. § 1986 (1996). State Statutes: The form varies by state. Cal. Pen. Code § 187 (West 1989). Neb. Stat. Ann. § (b) (West 1990). A.R.S. § (2005).

30 How to Cite Constitutions and Amendments?  Federal: U.S. Const. amend. XX U.S. Const. art. I, § 2, cl. 3  State: Cal. Const. art. XIV  Federal: U.S. Const. amend. XX U.S. Const. art. I, § 2, cl. 3  State: Cal. Const. art. XIV

31 How to Cite Secondary Sources? Books: John Knight, A Jury of Twelve, 225 (1st. ed. 2001). Periodicals: Mary A. Jones, The Best of Trial Briefs, 28 Neb. L. Rev. 102 (2006). Encyclopedias: 16 C.J.S. Evidence § 12 (1996). Dictionaries: Black's Law Dictionary, 826 (7th ed. 1998). Annotations: Tom McCannon, Annotation, Searches and Warrants, 79 A.L.R.2d 1257 (1995). Books: John Knight, A Jury of Twelve, 225 (1st. ed. 2001). Periodicals: Mary A. Jones, The Best of Trial Briefs, 28 Neb. L. Rev. 102 (2006). Encyclopedias: 16 C.J.S. Evidence § 12 (1996). Dictionaries: Black's Law Dictionary, 826 (7th ed. 1998). Annotations: Tom McCannon, Annotation, Searches and Warrants, 79 A.L.R.2d 1257 (1995).

32 Miscellaneous Tips and Tricks  When a cite is in the middle of a sentence, follow it with a comma. In Yon v. Sambaed, 421 U.S. 119 (1992), the Supreme Court held that …  When a cite is at the end of a sentence, follow it with a period. This decision was overruled in Ankeny v. Burnside, 102 F.2d 65 (3d Cir. 1942).  When you have a string cite (several cases cited in a row) separate the cases with semicolons. Cite federal cases first, then state cases, and cite higher courts before lower ones. Several courts have held that the sun rises in the east. Caruthers v. Druid, 414 U.S. 9 (1992); Major v. Minor, 2 F. Supp (S.D.N.Y. 1912); California v. Parker, 421 P.2d 198 (Cal. App. 1978).  When a cite is in the middle of a sentence, follow it with a comma. In Yon v. Sambaed, 421 U.S. 119 (1992), the Supreme Court held that …  When a cite is at the end of a sentence, follow it with a period. This decision was overruled in Ankeny v. Burnside, 102 F.2d 65 (3d Cir. 1942).  When you have a string cite (several cases cited in a row) separate the cases with semicolons. Cite federal cases first, then state cases, and cite higher courts before lower ones. Several courts have held that the sun rises in the east. Caruthers v. Druid, 414 U.S. 9 (1992); Major v. Minor, 2 F. Supp (S.D.N.Y. 1912); California v. Parker, 421 P.2d 198 (Cal. App. 1978).

33 To delete one or more words within a quote, use ellipses. At the end of a sentence, follow the ellipses by a period. "The time has come … to talk of many things." Lewis Caroll, Alice in Wonderland 56 (1872). Never start a sentence with ellipses. If you start a quote in the middle of a sentence, or if you substitute letters or words in a sentence, use brackets. "[M]y troubles seemed so far away." Paul McCartney, Yesterday 2 (1966). When one authority is quoting from another, indicate it. "Citations stink." Brennan v. Marshall, 102 F. Supp. 1234, 1236 (D. Mass. 1984) (quoting Scalia v. Thomas, 313 U.S. 653, 655 (1976)).

34 Any questions???


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