Synecdoche Represents a whole by naming one of its parts or elements –I’ve got a great new set of wheels. –It’s all about the Benjamins, baby. Or, represents a “species” by naming its “genus.” –You will feel the sting of my steel. Swords are made of steel. –Grab some pine, rookie. The bench is made of pine. –Hooray for the red, white, and blue! Connect-oche ! “sin-ECK-duh-key”
Metonymy Represents a noun by naming another, inextricably related noun. –“Robin Hood is a traitor to the crown!” Really a traitor to the king, but the crown is related, reminiscent, and representative of him. –The White House gave no comment. –The suits have no clue how to run the team. Suits are related to the executives who wear them, and also help make an implicit argument: –They’re defined by their suits, which set them apart from those who might know how to run the team better (players, managers, fans, etc.) –Much ink has been spilled over the unprecedented success of The Avengers. The spilling of ink is related to writing, which is what really happened in response to The Avengers—a lot of writing about the film’s success.
Asyndeton –…that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth. — Abraham Lincoln –The boy wishes to learn to skate; to coast, to catch a fish in the brook… —Ralph Waldo Emerson –We chose half-timbered houses, houses with columns, houses with sculpted bushes in front.—Tobias Wolff a- = “no” syn- = “together” Omission of conjunctions Emphasizes equality among the items
Polysyndeton –Lions and tigers and bears, oh my! –In life, we ask TiVo or the Web or the Cheesecake Factory to indulge our slightest whims. —James Poniewozik poly- = “many” syn- = “together” Addition of extra conjunctions Emphasizes the multiplicity of items in the list
Anadiplosis –Fear leads to anger. Anger leads to hate. Hate leads to suffering! —Master Yoda Literally: “doubling up” The repetition of a word or phrase from the end of one phrase, clause, or sentence to the beginning of the next –…we even boast of our afflictions, knowing that affliction produces endurance, and endurance, proven character, and proven character, hope, and hope does not disappoint… —Romans 5:4-5 –The wizard also gave each of them CHEEZ-ITs, special CHEEZ-ITs that let them read minds. What else is this?
Chiasmus –I appreciate Junior Mints, but CHEEZ-ITs I adore. –The Batarang was rusty, and rusty, too, were the hands that carried it. –Dark was her silhouette, and her horse beautiful. The repetition of reversed grammatical forms in successive clauses