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Bell Work 9/15/10 After the students finished there assignments they were graded by mr davis and ms jacobs After the students finished there assignments.

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Presentation on theme: "Bell Work 9/15/10 After the students finished there assignments they were graded by mr davis and ms jacobs After the students finished there assignments."— Presentation transcript:

1 Bell Work 9/15/10 After the students finished there assignments they were graded by mr davis and ms jacobs After the students finished there assignments they were graded by mr davis and ms jacobs

2 Latin America of Independence

3 Simon Bolivar He became a strong admirer of the ideals of the French Revolution. He became a strong admirer of the ideals of the French Revolution. He made a Oath never to allow his hands to be idle nor his soul to rest until he had broken the chains that bound them to Spain. He made a Oath never to allow his hands to be idle nor his soul to rest until he had broken the chains that bound them to Spain. Bolivar would fulfill his oath, leading the struggle to liberate northern South America form Spain. Bolivar would fulfill his oath, leading the struggle to liberate northern South America form Spain.

4 Ethnic and social Hierarchy Spanish born peninsulares dominated Latin American political and social life. Only they could hold top jobs in government and the Church. Spanish born peninsulares dominated Latin American political and social life. Only they could hold top jobs in government and the Church. Meanwhile, a growing population of mestizos and mulattoes were angry at being denied the status, wealth, and power that were available to whites. Native Americans suffered economic misery under the Spanish, who had conquered the lands of their ancestors. Meanwhile, a growing population of mestizos and mulattoes were angry at being denied the status, wealth, and power that were available to whites. Native Americans suffered economic misery under the Spanish, who had conquered the lands of their ancestors.

5 Enlightenment Ideas In the 1700s, educated creoles read the works of Enlightenment thinkers such as Voltaire, Rousseau, and Montesquieu. In the 1700s, educated creoles read the works of Enlightenment thinkers such as Voltaire, Rousseau, and Montesquieu. Women actively participated in the exchange of ideas. In some cities, women hosted and attended salons, called tertulias, where independence and revolution were discussed. Women actively participated in the exchange of ideas. In some cities, women hosted and attended salons, called tertulias, where independence and revolution were discussed. Many young creoles were inspired by they Enlightenment ideas. Many young creoles were inspired by they Enlightenment ideas.

6 Napoleon The spark that finally ignited widespread revolt in Latin America was Napoleon’s invasion of Spain in Napoleon ousted the Spanish king and placed his brother Joseph on the Spanish throne. The spark that finally ignited widespread revolt in Latin America was Napoleon’s invasion of Spain in Napoleon ousted the Spanish king and placed his brother Joseph on the Spanish throne. Latin America leaders saw Spain’s weakness as an opportunity to reject foreign domination and demand independence from colonial rule. Latin America leaders saw Spain’s weakness as an opportunity to reject foreign domination and demand independence from colonial rule. President of the Second Republic who proclaimed himself emperor of France President of the Second Republic who proclaimed himself emperor of France

7 Haiti’s Struggle In a French ruled colony on the island of Hispaniola. Haiti, as it is now called, was France’s most valued possession in the 1700s. In a French ruled colony on the island of Hispaniola. Haiti, as it is now called, was France’s most valued possession in the 1700s. French planters owned great sugar plantations worked by nearly a half million enslaved Africans. The sugar trade was hugely profitable, but conditions for enslaved workers were horrendous. Many were cruelly overworked and underfed. French planters owned great sugar plantations worked by nearly a half million enslaved Africans. The sugar trade was hugely profitable, but conditions for enslaved workers were horrendous. Many were cruelly overworked and underfed. Haiti also, had a population of both free and enslaved mulattoes. Free mulattoes, however had few rights and were badly treated by the French. Haiti also, had a population of both free and enslaved mulattoes. Free mulattoes, however had few rights and were badly treated by the French.

8 Haiti’s Struggle In 1791, a slave revolt exploded in northern Haiti. Under the able leadership of Toussaint L’ Ouverture. Haitians would fight for freedom and pave the way for throwing off French rule. In 1791, a slave revolt exploded in northern Haiti. Under the able leadership of Toussaint L’ Ouverture. Haitians would fight for freedom and pave the way for throwing off French rule.

9 TOUSSAINT L’ OUVERTURE Was born into slavery in Haiti. But his father taught him to take pride in his African heritage. Was born into slavery in Haiti. But his father taught him to take pride in his African heritage. He learned to speak both French and the African language of his ancestors. He learned to speak both French and the African language of his ancestors. He learned how to read and pored over stories of slave revolts in ancient Rome and of military heroes like Julius Caesar. He learned how to read and pored over stories of slave revolts in ancient Rome and of military heroes like Julius Caesar. He was determined to be a brave leader and bring his people to liberty. He was determined to be a brave leader and bring his people to liberty.

10 The Uprising Begins. When a slave revolt broke out in 1791, Toussaint was nearly 50 years old. His intelligence and military skills soon earned him the position of leader. When a slave revolt broke out in 1791, Toussaint was nearly 50 years old. His intelligence and military skills soon earned him the position of leader. The struggle was long and complex. His army of former slaves faced many enemies. Mulattois, promised high pay, joined French planter against the rebels. The struggle was long and complex. His army of former slaves faced many enemies. Mulattois, promised high pay, joined French planter against the rebels. France, Spain, and Britain each sent armies to Haiti. The fighting took more lives than any other revolution in the Americas. France, Spain, and Britain each sent armies to Haiti. The fighting took more lives than any other revolution in the Americas.

11 An Inspiring Commander Although untrained, Toussaint was a brilliant general. He was also a inspiring commander. On the eve of one crucial battle, he issued this stirring call to his army. Although untrained, Toussaint was a brilliant general. He was also a inspiring commander. On the eve of one crucial battle, he issued this stirring call to his army. “do not disappoint me. Prove yourselves men who know how to value liberty and how to defend it…. We are fighting so that liberty the most precious of all earthly possessions may not perish. We are fighting to preserve it for ourselves, for our children, for our brothers, and for our fellow citizens.” “do not disappoint me. Prove yourselves men who know how to value liberty and how to defend it…. We are fighting so that liberty the most precious of all earthly possessions may not perish. We are fighting to preserve it for ourselves, for our children, for our brothers, and for our fellow citizens.”

12 Rebuilding By Toussaint set our to improve agriculture, and to expand trade to give Haiti a constitution of their own. He even tried to heal rifts between classes by opening his government to whites and mulattoes as well as Africans. By Toussaint set our to improve agriculture, and to expand trade to give Haiti a constitution of their own. He even tried to heal rifts between classes by opening his government to whites and mulattoes as well as Africans.

13 Renewed Struggle In the meantime Napoleon Bonaparte rose to power. In the meantime Napoleon Bonaparte rose to power. Toussaint again took up arms, this time to fight for full independence. His guerrilla forces were aided by a deadly ally, yellow fever, which took a growing toll on the ivaders. In April 1802, with soldiers dying at the rate of a hundred a day, the French agreed to a truce, or temporary peace. Toussaint again took up arms, this time to fight for full independence. His guerrilla forces were aided by a deadly ally, yellow fever, which took a growing toll on the ivaders. In April 1802, with soldiers dying at the rate of a hundred a day, the French agreed to a truce, or temporary peace.

14 The Tree of Black Liberty Shortly after a trusted French friend lured Toussaint to his house, where he betrayed him. Soldiers seized the haitian leader and hustled him in chains onto a French warship. As the ship sailed, Toussaint told the captain. Shortly after a trusted French friend lured Toussaint to his house, where he betrayed him. Soldiers seized the haitian leader and hustled him in chains onto a French warship. As the ship sailed, Toussaint told the captain. “In overthrowing me, the French have only felled the tree of black liberty in Haiti. It will shoot up again, for it is deeply rooted, and its roots are many.” “In overthrowing me, the French have only felled the tree of black liberty in Haiti. It will shoot up again, for it is deeply rooted, and its roots are many.” Ten months later, in a cold prison in France, Toussaint died. But Haiti’s struggle for freedom continued Haitian leaders declared their freedom. With yellow fever destroying his army, Napoleon abandoned Haiti. Ten months later, in a cold prison in France, Toussaint died. But Haiti’s struggle for freedom continued Haitian leaders declared their freedom. With yellow fever destroying his army, Napoleon abandoned Haiti.

15 Call of Freedom in Mexico creole priest in Mexico Father Miguel Hidalgo raised a cry for freedom that would echo across the land creole priest in Mexico Father Miguel Hidalgo raised a cry for freedom that would echo across the land. El Grito de Dolores Father Hidalgo presided over the poor rural parish of Dolores. On September 16, 1810, he rang the church bells summoning the people to prayer. El Grito de Dolores Father Hidalgo presided over the poor rural parish of Dolores. On September 16, 1810, he rang the church bells summoning the people to prayer. He said “ My children, will you be free? Will you make the effort to recover the lands stolen from your fore fathers by the hated Spaniards 300 year ago?” He said “ My children, will you be free? Will you make the effort to recover the lands stolen from your fore fathers by the hated Spaniards 300 year ago?” Father Hidalgo speech was known as el Grito de dolores the cry of Dolores. This called the people of Mexico to fight for their independence. Father Hidalgo speech was known as el Grito de dolores the cry of Dolores. This called the people of Mexico to fight for their independence.

16 Jose Morelos Another priest he was a mestizo who called for wide ranging reform. He wanted to improve conditions for the majority of Mexicans, and to abolish slavery and give the vote to all men. Another priest he was a mestizo who called for wide ranging reform. He wanted to improve conditions for the majority of Mexicans, and to abolish slavery and give the vote to all men. Independence achieved- In Spain in 1820 liberals forced the king to issue a constitution. This alarmed Agustin de iturbide a conservative creole in Mexico. He feared the Spanish government might impose liberal reforms on the colonies as well. In 1821 he reached out to them and overthrew the Spanish and Mexico was independent at last. Independence achieved- In Spain in 1820 liberals forced the king to issue a constitution. This alarmed Agustin de iturbide a conservative creole in Mexico. He feared the Spanish government might impose liberal reforms on the colonies as well. In 1821 he reached out to them and overthrew the Spanish and Mexico was independent at last.

17 Revolutions in South America Tupac Amaru – A native American Tupac demanded that the government end the brutal system of forced Indian labor by the Spanish. He organized an army but was crushed by the Spanish. The revolt did have an effect. The Spanish would soon abolish forced labor on the Native Americans. Tupac Amaru – A native American Tupac demanded that the government end the brutal system of forced Indian labor by the Spanish. He organized an army but was crushed by the Spanish. The revolt did have an effect. The Spanish would soon abolish forced labor on the Native Americans. San Martin- was a creole. Born in Argentina but went to Europe for military training. In 1816, he helped Argentina win freedom form Spain. San Martin- was a creole. Born in Argentina but went to Europe for military training. In 1816, he helped Argentina win freedom form Spain.


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