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Downloaded from AF 202. Downloaded from Objectives  Intro  Decision Making Risk Assessment Hazardous Attitudes Hazard Detection.

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Presentation on theme: "Downloaded from AF 202. Downloaded from Objectives  Intro  Decision Making Risk Assessment Hazardous Attitudes Hazard Detection."— Presentation transcript:

1 Downloaded from AF 202

2 Downloaded from Objectives  Intro  Decision Making Risk Assessment Hazardous Attitudes Hazard Detection DECIDE model

3 Downloaded from ADM  Aeronautical Decision Making A systematic approach to risk assessment and stress management Helps us understand how personal attitudes influence decision making Helps us see how we can modify those attutudes

4 Downloaded from ADM  Progress is being made to improve aircraft equipment and systems along with pilot services.  However the human factor of flight remains the same  80% of all aviation accidents are attributed to the human factor

5 Downloaded from Percentage of Accidents

6 Downloaded from Judgment  The FAA believes that good judgment is something you can be taught not just a by-product of experience  Do you think it is possible to be taught good judgment?  If so, what can prevent someone from being taught good judgment?

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8 Decision Making  How to improve your decision making Identify personal attitudes hazardous to safe flying Learn behavior modification techniques Learning how to recognize and cope with stress Developing risk assessment skills Having the ability to evaluate your ADM skills (self honesty)

9 Downloaded from Risk Assessment  The two defining elements of ADM are hazard and risk  Hazard being the condition, event or circumstance encountered  Risk is the assessment of the seriousness of that hazard

10 Downloaded from Risk Assessment  Pilots can come to different assessments of the same hazard Pilot experience Pilot training Pilot attitude  It is not a guarantee that a, say, less experienced pilot will always under- asses a hazard. The pilot could think it more serious than it really is

11 Downloaded from Hazardous Attitudes  One of the first risks is pilot attitude  The FAA groups 5 hazardous attitudes  Hazardous attitudes are not as easily dealt with by just reading a book. WHY?

12 Downloaded from Hazardous Attitudes  Some of these attitudes may be temporary due to a ‘bad day’  However much of the danger behind hazardous attitudes is because they can be rooted in our mentality, personality, and cultural influence  This makes identification very personal

13 Downloaded from Hazardous Attitude  Anti – Authority Don’t like anyone telling you what to do Thinks the rules are silly or unnecessary You always question authority Subtly can be present simply by the easy lack of respect of persons in authority

14 Downloaded from Hazardous Attitudes  Risk Ignore rules meant for safety or reasons that you may not know about Won’t take seriously the lessons or wisdom taught by those in authority which could help you in the end  In reality, if it doesn’t kill you or get you in trouble, it will probably get you fired

15 Downloaded from Hazardous Attitude  Impulsivity Impulsive shopping may leave you with credit card debt, but impulsive flying could leave you DEAD! Reacting to situations without thinking about them Assessment of the seriousness of the risk is usually wrong

16 Downloaded from Hazardous Attitudes  Risk If you over-react to a non-serious risk you could make a non-serious situation more serious Improper assessment could lead you to the wrong action for the situation You basically are ignoring what you have been taught. All wisdom goes out the window

17 Downloaded from Hazardous Attitudes  Invulnerability False sense of security All that ‘stuff’ happens to other people Could be an over estimation of your ability ○ “It happens to them because they’re idiots”

18 Downloaded from Hazardous Attitudes  Risk Too relaxed on procedures and precautionary actions (i.e. clearing turns, position reporting) Not fully prepared when a situation actually does happen to you A better chance you’ll take more foolish risks

19 Downloaded from Hazardous Attitudes  Macho The pilot disease Prove yourself to others or just to get attention (or impress a girl so you can have a valentines date) Think you need to be better than everyone

20 Downloaded from Hazardous Attitudes  Risk You do stupid stuff!! The desire to be better, to be liked, to impress, to be recognized, to be applauded by other people can be stronger than your reason if left unchecked It can backfire on you quick

21 Downloaded from Hazardous Attitudes  Resignation Give up because “what’s the use? I can’t make a difference.” It’s all based on luck, karma, the alignment of the stars anyway Leave the response to the situation up to others You don’t question others when you should just because you are a ‘nice guy.’

22 Downloaded from Hazardous Attitudes  Risk A fixable situation never gets fixed Other people do things they shouldn’t because you were to ‘nice’ to confront them You are really an ineffective pilot because the majority of training is not so you can stay level, but deal with hazardous situation. ○ After all a computer can stay level so why do we need you?

23 Downloaded from Operational Pitfalls  Honestly, though most issues are not able to be summed up by 5 attitudes and many issues are a combination of them  Operational pitfalls are classic behavioral traps which pilots often fall into (Can you see which hazardous attitudes come into play?)

24 Downloaded from Operational Pitfalls  Peer Pressure An emotional response to what others think about you  Mind Set Inability to recognize or cope with changes that are different from anticipated or planned

25 Downloaded from Operational Pitfalls  Get-There-Itis Fixation on the goal or destination impairs good judgment and disregards any alternative course of action (like not going!)  Duck-Under Syndrome “Sneak a peek” by ducking under minimums on an approach because you assume there is a ‘fudge’ factor for obstacle clearance

26 Downloaded from Operational Pitfalls  Scud Running Pushing pilot and aircraft limits trying to maintain visual contact with terrain while trying to avoid it  Continuing VFR into IFR Just stupid (especially if not Instrument rated)

27 Downloaded from Operational Pitfalls  Getting behind the aircraft Allowing the situation to control you instead of controlling the situation Constantly surprised. moments of blank thought since you don’t know what to do  Lost of situation awareness Like getting behind the aircraft but specifically related to keeping track of where you are

28 Downloaded from Operational Pitfalls  Operating without adequate fuel reserve Simply ignoring the rules so you don’t have to stop for refuel and can stretch it that “extra mile.”  Flying outside the envelope Flying a little overweight or a little out of CG range. After all there is probably ‘fudge factor’ built in.

29 Downloaded from Operational Pitfalls  Neglect flight planning/preflight Is the plane really safe? Do you really know where you’re going Are you really prepared for what could happen? Is the weather really going to cooperate?

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31 PAVE Checklist  P for Pilot Am I ready for this trip? Mentally – Hazardous Attitudes, stress Physically – IMSAFE checklist Experientially – Do I meet proper currency requirements

32 Downloaded from PAVE Checklist  A for Aircraft Am I familiar with this aircraft Is it equipped properly and functioning Do I have the proper runway length It is weighted properly Can it make it high enough to clear all obstacles or terrain? Is the plane properly and sufficiently fueled

33 Downloaded from PAVE Checklist  V for enVironment Current weather here, enroute, and at destination Will a slight change in un-forecasted weather be hazardous Am I comfortable with the weather situations I could encounter Can I handle the terrain I am over Do I know all I can about the airport Do I know all airspace I may encounter

34 Downloaded from PAVE Checklist  E for External Pressures Job pressures (don’t disappoint the passenger) Desire to prove yourself or impress Personal goal Pride to meet a challenge that may be above your experience level

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36 ADM  While making decisions is often an automatic process, knowing whether you have the proper thought process is important  Without knowing your thought process you can easily be led into impulsivity

37 Downloaded from ADM  The DECIDE model with an engine failure during cruise flight  Detect…that something has changed Hey my engine has failed on me, that is different than it was before Most people get this part

38 Downloaded from ADM  Estimate…the severity of the situation and a need to react I think my engine being failed is pretty serious and something should be done about it Again this is usually obvious to people

39 Downloaded from ADM  Choose…a desirable outcome What would be the best outcome to this engine failure? Most students show, by their actions, that the best outcome is to land in a field Wouldn’t the best outcome be that the engine starts again???

40 Downloaded from ADM  Identify…necessary actions to reach the desired outcome previously discussed If you want the engine to start, do the engine restart procedure, not look for a field In all honestly this procedure in a 172 takes 7 seconds (assuming you know the engine restart procedure)

41 Downloaded from ADM  Do…the actions you just identified as necessary So do the engine restart procedure  Evaluate…The effects of the actions Hey the engine started so we’re ok, maybe I should go home though Hey the engine is still dead, go back to Choose

42 Downloaded from ADM  While this may seem silly, it is to prove a point. That point being…THINK!!  What outcome is best and if it is in your power to do something about it, then DO IT!  If that outcome does not happen then what is second best.

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