2 Land use and land management practices: Concepts, terms and classification principles Rob Lesslie, Bureau of Rural Sciences Land management practices information priorities, classification and mapping – towards an agreed national approach. Kamberra Winery, Canberra 11-12 May 2004
3 1. PENDAHULUAN The purpose of this paper is to: outline key concepts and terms associated with land use and land management practices; outline the principles underpinning the Australian Land Use and Management (ALUM) classification (the nationally agreed land use classification system for land use) that relate to land management practices; and address the relationship between the ALUM classification and land management practices information.
4 2. ISTILAH PENTING The term ‘land management practices’ is one of a number that describe aspects of landscape occupation, use and management. There is often confusion among these terms. For example, ‘land use’ and ‘land cover’ may be applied in the same context, perhaps because of the common use of remotely sensed satellite imagery or photography for mapping. The distinction between ‘land use’ and ‘land management practice’ is also not always well understood. The following definitions are offered:
Land cover TUTUPAN LAHAN This refers to the observed physical surface of the earth, including various combinations of vegetation types, soils, exposed rocks, water bodies.
6 PENGGUNAAN LAHAN This refers to the purpose to which land is committed, including the production of goods (such as crops, timber and manufactures) and services (such as defence, recreation, biodiversity and natural resources protection). Some land uses, such as cropping, have a characteristic land cover pattern. These land uses frequently appear in land cover classifications. Other land uses, such as nature conservation, are not readily discriminated by a characteristic land cover pattern. For example, where the land cover is woodland land use may be timber production or nature conservation.
7 PRAKTEK PENGELOLAAN LAHAN This refers to the means by which the land management objective is achieved - the 'how' of land use (eg cultivation practices such as minimum tillage or direct drilling). Some land management practices, such as stubble disposal, tillage and rotation systems, may be discriminated by characteristic land cover patterns.
KOMODITAS TANAMAN Usually refers to an agricultural or mining product that can be processed. Commodity information may relate to land use and land cover. Tebu harus diolah menjadi gula
9 Land Tenure The form of an interest in land. Some forms of tenure (such as pastoral or mineral leases or nature conservation reserves) relate directly to land use and land management. Land tenurial system lahan sawah ditandai oleh pematang petakan lahan
Land capability and suitability Land capability assesses the limitations to land use imposed by land characteristics and specifies management options. Land suitability (part of the process of land evaluation) is the fitness of a given type of land for a specified kind of land use.
11 3. Classification Classification is the ordering or arrangement of objects into groups or sets on the basis of their relationships (Sokal 1974). It entails ordering in a systematic and logically consistent way, according to clear and precise diagnostic criteria.
12 Ideally, a classification system should incorporate characteristics that make it: Scale independent, meaning that the classes at all levels should be applicable at any scale or level of detail; Source independent, implying that it is independent of the means used to collect information, whether satellite imagery, aerial photography, field survey or some combination of them is used; comprehensive, scientifically sound and practically oriented;
13 capable of meeting the needs of a variety of users (neither single-project oriented nor taking a sectoral approach); users can use just a sub-set of the classification and develop from there according to their own specific needs; facilitate comparisons between classes derived from different classifications; able to describe the complete range of features with clear class boundary definition that are unambiguous and unique;
14 adapted to fully describe variation with the minimal set of classifiers necessary (the less classifiers used in the definition, the less the error expected and the less time and resources necessary for field validation); and based on a clear and systematic description of the class, where diagnostic criteria used to define a class must be clearly defined. (after Gregorio and Jansen 2000)
15 Classification systems are generally either hierarchical or non-hierarchical. Most systems are hierarchically structured because this accommodates different levels of information starting with structured broad-level classes allowing further subdivision into more detailed sub-classes. At each level defined classes are mutually exclusive.
16 Classification can be completed in two ways: An a priori classification is based upon the definition of classes before data collection takes place. This means all possible combinations of diagnostic criteria must be resolved beforehand by the classification. The main advantage is that classes are standardized, independent of the area under investigation and methods employed. However, some identified objects may not be easily assigned to pre-defined classes.
17 A posteriori classification is based upon definition of classes after clustering, based on the similarity or dissimilarity of field samples. The advantage of this type of classification is flexibility, adaptability and minimal generalization. However, because this approach depends on the specific characteristics of area under investigation, it is unable to define standardized classes.
18 4. Land management practices classification As yet, no formal classification system for land management practices has been developed; a difficult objective given the range of phenomena that can be considered land management practice (from mechanical cultivation practices, to farming systems and business management methods).
19 The strong links between land management practices and land use suggest that the Australian Land use and Management (ALUM) Classification may provide a useful framework for the classification of land management practices. The ALUM classification is a nationally agreed system for classifying land use based on a modified version of a land use classification scheme developed by Baxter and Russell (1994) (Barson 1999). This classification scheme is currently in version 5 (Table 1) (Bureau of Rural Sciences, 2002).
20 The ALUM Classification framework is a hierarchical a priori classification based on land use, that provides a structure for attaching attributes describing commodities, land management practices and other land occupation attributes. It has a three-tiered hierarchical structure with primary, secondary and tertiary classes broadly structured in terms of the potential degree of modification and impact on a putative ‘natural state’ (unmodified native land cover).
21 Land management practices information was identified by Baxter and Russell (1994) as a particular need of many users of land use data and was recognized in formulating the principles underpinning the current ALUM classification. The ALUM classification is structured such that Primary and Secondary classes relate to land use, while Tertiary classes presently include commodity groups, commodities, land management practice, and land cover information.
22 Other principles of the ALUM / Baxter-Russell classification support its application to land management practices: Level of intervention – The classification is based on the delineation of levels of intervention in the landscape, rather than outputs. Precedence is also given to the modelling capabilities of data over monitoring capabilities, and monitoring capabilities over descriptive uses.
23 Generality – The classification is designed to provide for users who are interested in both processes (eg land management practices) and outputs (eg commodities)
The ALUM classification also provides a useful framework (both spatially and in terms of classification) for linking the various land information themes. Table 2 shows selected land use and land management practices as related ‘themes’ at the Tertiary level of the classification. (The land management practices shown derive from items that have been included in the ABS Agriculture Census). Other land information ‘ themes’ that could relate to the ALUM classification in the same way include land cover, commodity and tenure.
However, there is no one-to-one relationship between land use and land management practices, so the ALUM framework doesn’t provide an efficient primary classification framework for this theme. For example, fertilizer and soil conditioner application practices can apply across at least three Primary ALUM classes.
26 Among other difficulties associated with the classification of land management practices is that a wide range of practices may apply concurrently at any given point in the landscape – this means that they are not amenable to dichotomous classification and mapping. They may also vary over very short time frames (which may or may not accurately reflect long-term management intent).
27 5. Example One possible approach to ordering land management practices information is provided by the Murray-Darling Basin Commission’s Landmark Project. This project aims to identify, assess and map current land use and current recommended practices for Basin dryland broadacre agriculture against a range of sustainability indicators.
28 Clifton et al. (2004), organizes sets of current recommended practices by broadly grouping them in terms of sustainability outcomes. Again, however, there is no one-to-one relationship between management practices and sustainability outcomes. Sustainability goals are identified as: cultural heritage, financial return, greenhouse and air quality, nature conservation, quality of life, soil health, water quantity and quality.
29 Four main themes of farm management practice are identified: Agricultural production system. Practices relating to the system that produces the relevant commodity, including the management of soils, plants and animals (eg tactical grazing, or opportunity cropping).
30 Environmental management. Practices relating to the management of the natural environment and off- farm environmental issues, including dryland salinity, biodiversity and water quality (eg integrated pest management, retention, rehabilitation or restoration of native vegetation).
31 Business management. Practices that relate to the management of farm business and includes financial management, product marketing, benchmarking and monitoring and management of risk (eg annual budget and investment plans).
32 Personal and community well- being. Practices that relate to the personal well- being of farming families and to their engagement in communities of common interest. (eg maintaining a commitment to family by balancing work, leisure, family time and community involvement).
33 Twenty four classes of management practice (for dryland agriculture) are identified: 1. Agroforestry 2. Animal condition management 3. Breeding program 4. Business and financial planning 5. Chemical contamination avoidance 6. Commitment to family 7. Community and industry participation
34 8. Crop rotation : Pergiliran Tanaman 9. Effective management of labour and resources 10. Environmental monitoring and benchmarking 11. Identification and protective management of cultural heritage
35 12. Incorporation or retention of perennial species in pastures
36 13. Integrated pest management = Pengendalian Hama Terpadu
37 14. Knowledge and skill development 15. Management according to land capability
38 16. Managing for weather and climate variation 17. Nutrient budgeting 18. Occupational health and safety 19. Quality assurance
39 20. Retention and management of native vegetation 21. Soil conservation 22. Tactical grazing 23. Tillage and stubble management 24. Waterway and floodplain management
OBSERVASI 1. ‘Land management practice’ is one of a number of related terms that describe aspects of land occupation, use and management. 2. Classification is the ordering or arrangement of objects into groups or sets in a systematic and logically consistent way, according to clear and precise diagnostic criteria.
Land management practice refers to the means by which the land use objective is achieved – the ‘how’ of land use (eg cultivation practices such as minimum tillage or direct drilling). Some land management practices, such as stubble disposal, tillage and rotation systems, may be discriminated by characteristic land cover patterns.
42 4. There is no formal or agreed system for classifying and reporting land management practices, spatially or otherwise. 5. A wide range of practices may apply concurrently at any given point in the landscape – they are not amenable to a dichotomous classification. They may also vary over very short time frames (which may or may not accurately reflect long-term management intent).
43 6. The ALUM classification framework is a hierarchical a priori classification based on land use. 7. There is no one-to-one relationship between land use and land management practices, so the ALUM land use classification, as currently developed, cannot provide an efficient primary classification framework for land management practices.
8. The Murray-Darling Basin Commission’s Landmark project provides insight into the ordering of land management practices for dryland broadacre agriculture. 9. The ALUM land use classification may provide a useful framework (both spatial and non-spatial) for linking related land occupation, use and management information themes, ie land management practices, land cover, commodity and tenure.
45 Table 1: The Australian Land Use and Management Classification version 5 (November 2001)
55 Table 3: Land management practice themes and classes available through ABS’ Agricultural Census
56 References Barson, M.M. (1999). Workshop on Land Use Management Mapping. Report to the National Land and Water Resources Audit. Bureau of Rural Sciences, Canberra. Baxter, J. T. and Russell, L. D. (1994). Land Use Mapping Requirements for Natural Resource Management in the Murray-Darling Basin. Project M305: Task 6. Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Victoria. Bureau of Rural Sciences (2002) Land use mapping at Catchment Scale: Principles, procedures and definitions. Edition 2. Bureau of Rural Sciences, Canberra. Clifton, C. McGregor, C. Standen, R. and Fritsch S. (2004) Current recommended practice: a directory for dryland broadacre agriculture. MDBC Publication 01/04. Murray-Darling Basin Commission. Gregorio, A. and Jansen, L. (2000). Land cover classification system. FAO Land and Water Development Division. FAO. Sokal R. (1974). Classification: purposes, principles, progress, prospects. Science 185 (4157): pp. 1115-1123.